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There are few detailed studies about peripheral branch resection of the posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate; thus, this study aimed to investigate this.
Patients who underwent submucosal turbinoplasty with or without resection of the peripheral branches of posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate were included.
The resection of the posterior nasal nerves with turbinoplasty significantly reduced detection and recognition thresholds on olfactory testing. The rhinorrhoea severity, detection threshold and recognition threshold were significantly lower after resection of the posterior nasal nerves with turbinoplasty than after turbinoplasty alone, although there were no significant differences between the two groups before surgery.
This is the first study to show that the resection of the peripheral branches of the posterior nasal nerves in the inferior turbinate with turbinoplasty more effectively inhibits allergic symptoms compared with turbinoplasty alone. It also showed that the resection of the peripheral branches of the posterior nasal nerves can inhibit olfactory dysfunction.
The wings of butterflies are relatively heavier than those of other insects, and the inertial force and torque due to the wing mass are likely to have a significant effect on agility and manoeuvrability in the flapping flight of butterflies. In the present study, the effect of wing mass on the free flight of butterflies is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann method. We use a butterfly-like model consisting of two square wings with mass connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate the free flights of the model by changing the ratio of the wing mass to the total mass of the model and also changing the mass distributions of the wings. As a result, we find that the aerodynamic vertical and horizontal forces decrease as the wing-mass ratio increases, since for a large wing-mass ratio the body has large vertical and horizontal oscillations in each stroke and consequently the speeds of the wing tip and the leading edge relatively decrease. In addition, we find that the wing-mass ratio has a dominant effect on the rotational motion of the model, and a large wing-mass ratio reduces aerodynamic force and intensifies the time variation of the pitching angle. From the results of our free flight simulations, we clarify the critical wing-mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight and find that the critical wing-mass ratio is a function of the non-dimensional total mass and almost independent of the wing length. Then, we evaluate the effect of the wing-mass distribution on the critical wing-mass ratio. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the model.
Transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy is increasingly used for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc mucoceles in maxillary sinus. This study aimed to report the outcomes after inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap for recurrent mucoceles.
The records of patients who had undergone transnasal inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap were reviewed.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with or without a mucosal flap was performed in 21 and 49 patients, respectively. No complications were observed. A closing of the antrostomy was found in 9 (18.4 per cent) of the 49 patients who underwent antrostomy without a mucosal flap. No closings were observed in the 21 patients who underwent antrostomy with a mucosal flap. There was a significant difference in the rate of closing for surgery with and without the mucosal flap.
Transnasal endoscopic inferior meatal antrostomy with a mucosal flap is a safe method for the treatment of post-Caldwell–Luc maxillary mucoceles that effectively prevents recurrence.
At GE Research, we are combining “physics” with artificial intelligence and machine learning to advance manufacturing design, processing, and inspection, turning innovative technologies into real products and solutions across our industrial portfolio. This article provides a snapshot of how this physical plus digital transformation is evolving at GE.
This chapter describes the current state of, and normative basis for, the law of reasonable royalties among the leading jurisdictions for patent infringement litigation, as well as the principal arguments for and against various practices relating to the calculation of reasonable royalties; and for each of the major issues discussed, the chapter provides one or more recommendations. The chapter’s principal recommendation is that, when applying a “bottom-up” approach to estimating reasonable royalties, courts should replace the Georgia-Pacific factors (and analogous factors used outside the United States) with a smaller list of considerations, specifically (1) calculating the incremental value of the invention and dividing it appropriately between the parties; (2) assessing market evidence, such as comparable licenses; and (3) where feasible and cost justified, using each of these first two considerations as a “check” on the accuracy of the other
Alloy design is critical to achieving the target performance of industrial components and products. In designing new alloys, there are multiple property requirements, including mechanical, environmental, and physical properties, as well as manufacturability and processability. Computational models and tools to predict properties from alloy compositions and to optimize compositions for multiple objectives are essential in enabling efficient, robust alloy design. Data-driven property models by machine learning (ML) are particularly useful in predicting physical properties with relatively simple dependence on composition, and in predicting complex properties that are too difficult for a physics-based model to achieve with desirable accuracy. In this article, we describe examples of ML applications to model coefficient of thermal expansion, creep and fatigue resistance in designing Ni-based superalloys, and optimization methodologies. We also discuss physics-based microstructure models that have been developed for optimizing heat-treatment conditions to achieve desired microstructures.
To investigate the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in the matrix of human acquired cholesteatoma compared to the deep meatal skin. This topic does not appear to have been fully investigated before.
An immunochemical study was conducted. Cholesteatoma tissues from adult patients were collected during surgery (n = 19). Control specimens were taken from the deep meatal skin (n = 8) and compared.
A highly significant difference in basic fibroblast growth factor expression was identified between cholesteatoma and skin (mean ± standard error = 58.53 ± 3.6 per cent in cholesteatoma vs 40.6 ± 3.5 per cent in skin; p = 0.005). Both basal and parabasal keratinocytes were stained positive with basic fibroblast growth factor. Additionally, there was specific staining in the basal columnar middle-ear epithelium and mast cell membrane.
Basic fibroblast growth factor plays an active role in proliferative activity of cholesteatoma through its overexpression in basal and parabasal layers of cholesteatoma matrix. Moreover, its expression in the mast cell membrane supports its role in bone resorption activity.
This study focused on parotid gland tumours diagnosed as benign by fine-needle aspiration cytology and investigated the necessity of frozen section biopsy.
There were 104 cases of parotid gland tumour where fine-needle aspiration cytology was benign and frozen section biopsy was subsequently performed, between April 2006 and June 2016. In this retrospective study, the results of frozen section biopsy were analysed and compared with the final histological diagnosis.
Among the 104 cases diagnosed as benign by fine-needle aspiration cytology, 102 cases and 2 cases were diagnosed as benign and malignant, respectively, by frozen section biopsy. The final histological diagnoses showed that 98 cases were benign and 6 cases were malignant. The sensitivity and specificity values of frozen section biopsy in detecting malignant tumours were 33 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively.
The necessity of frozen section biopsy in cases with benign fine-needle aspiration cytology may be low in parotid gland surgery.
Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are related to fetal growth, there is a paucity of data regarding how offspring sex affects the relationship between maternal BMI in underweight mothers (pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m2) and size for gestational age at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of offspring sex on the relationships among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and size for gestational age at birth in Japanese underweight mothers. Records of women with full-term pregnancies who underwent perinatal care at Kawasaki Municipal Hospital (Kawasaki, Japan) between January 2013 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The study cohort included underweight (n=566) and normal-weight women (18.5 kg/m2⩽pre-pregnancy BMI<25 kg/m2; n=2671). The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births in the underweight group was significantly higher than that in the normal-weight group (P<0.01). Additionally, SGA incidence in the underweight group was significantly higher than that in the normal-weight group (P<0.01) in female, but not male (P=0.30) neonates. In the women with female neonates, pre-pregnancy underweight was associated with a significantly increased probability of SGA (odds ratio [OR]: 1.80; P<0.01), but inadequate GWG was not (OR: 1.38; P=0.11). In contrast, in women with male neonates, inadequate GWG was associated with a significantly increased probability of SGA (OR: 1.53; P=0.03), but not with pre-pregnancy underweight (OR: 1.30; P=0.10). In conclusion, the present results suggest that pre-pregnancy underweight is associated with SGA in female offspring but not in male offspring.
A 1108.6 m long core was recovered at Site U1457 located on the Indus Fan in the Laxmi Basin of the eastern Arabian Sea during IODP Expedition 355. Shipboard examinations defined five lithologic units (I to V) of the lower Paleocene to Holocene sedimentary sequence. In this study, δ13C values of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) confirm the differentiation of the lithologic units and further divide units III and IV into two subunits (1 and 2). Based on the underlying assumption that the SOM is decided primarily by a mixture of marine and terrestrial origins, δ13CSOM values at Site U1457 provide information on the terrestrial catchment conditions since late Miocene time. Low δ13CSOM values from late Miocene to late Pleistocene times are similar (c. −22.0 ‰) for the most part, reflecting a consistent contribution of terrestrial organic matter from the catchment areas characterized by dominant C3 land plants. Significantly lower δ13CSOM values (c. −24.0 ‰) in Unit III-2 (∼8 to ∼7 Ma) might be due to a greater input of C3 terrestrial organic matter. The increase in δ13CSOM values at ∼7 Ma and the appearance of high δ13CSOM values (c. −18.0 ‰) within Unit III-1 (∼7 to ∼2 Ma) indicate that C4 biomass overwhelmed the terrestrial catchment environment as a result of enhanced terrestrial aridity in the Himalayan foreland. The three-end-member simple mixing model, estimating the relative contributions of SOM from terrestrial C3 and C4 plants and marine phytoplankton, supports our interpretation of the distribution of C3 and C4 land plants in the terrestrial catchment environment.
Carbon-14 (radiocarbon, 14C) is a long-lived radionuclide (5730 yr) of interest regarding the safety for the management of intermediate level wastes (ILW). The present study gives an overview of the release of 14C from irradiated Zircaloy cladding in alkaline media. 14C is found either in the alloy part of Zircaloy cladding due to the neutron activation of 14N impurities by 14N(n,p)14C reaction, or in the oxide layer (ZrO2) formed at the metal surface by the neutron activation of 17O from UO2 or (U-Pu)O2 fuel and water from the primary circuit in the reactor by 17O(n,α)14C reaction. Various irradiated and unirradiated Zircaloys have been studied. The total 14C inventory has been determined both experimentally and by calculations. The results seem to be in good agreement. Leaching experiments were conducted in alkaline media for several time durations. 14C was mainly released as carboxylic acids. Further, corrosion measurements were performed by using both hydrogen measurements and electrochemical measurements. The corrosion rate (CR) ranges from a few nm/yr to 100 nm/yr depending on the surface conditions and the method used for measurement. From a safety assessment point of view, the instant release fraction (IRF) was determined on irradiated Zircaloy-2. The results showed that the 14C inventory in the oxide was significantly below the 20% commonly used in safety case assessments.
The gullet worms, classical Gongylonema pulchrum and newly differentiated Gongylonema nepalensis, are prevalent in various mammals in Japan and Sardinia, Italy, respectively. The former species is cosmopolitan in distribution, dwelling in the mucosa of the upper digestive tract of a variety of domestic and wild mammals, and also humans. At present, the geographical distribution of G. nepalensis is known in Nepal and Sardinia, with the nematode having been recorded from the oesophagus of water buffaloes (Nepal), cattle, sheep, goats and wild mouflon (Sardinia). To clarify their natural transmission cycles among domestic and wild mammals, the present study analysed the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) of worms of various origins: G. pulchrum worms from sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, and feral alien Reeves's muntjacs in Japan, and G. nepalensis worms from a red fox and a wild boar in Sardinia. Although the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA and partial cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum from native wild mammals in Japan were distinct from those of the worms in cattle, the worms from feral alien Reeves's muntjacs showed the cattle-type ITS genotype and cox1 cattle-I and II haplotypes. The rDNA and cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. nepalensis from a red fox in Sardinia were almost identical to those of the worms from domestic and wild ruminants on the island. The ecological interaction between domestic and wild mammals and their susceptibility to different Gongylonema spp. must be considered when trying to elucidate this spirurid's transmission dynamics in nature.
The adsorption and desorption of cesium onto layered minerals, zeolite and geochemical reference samples were studied. 0.5 g of bentonite and mica were able to adsorb 71.2 and 51.5 mg of cesium, respectively, from 50 mL of deionized water containing 200 mg/L of cesium under neutral pH condition. These amounts of cesium adsorption were greater than those reported for vermiculites (8.9 and 5.6 mg, respectively). Additionally, the cesium adsorption on mica and vermiculite remained essentially unchanged under seawater conditions, but it decreased drastically on zeolite. The cesium desorption from the layered minerals was promoted by the addition of ammonium ions, namely trioctylmethylammonium chloride and zephiramine. These ammonium ions desorb cesium from the interlayers of the minerals without destroying the mineral structure. The cesium desorption procedure using quaternary ammonium ions would be extremely useful for decontamination of soil containing the layered minerals with adsorbed radioactive cesium.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
In this work we have conducted a study on the radiative and spectroscopic properties of the radiative precursor and the post-shock region from experiments with radiative shocks in xenon performed at the Orion laser facility. The study is based on post-processing of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the experiment. In particular, we have analyzed the thermodynamic regime of the plasma, the charge state distributions, the monochromatic opacities and emissivities, and the specific intensities for plasma conditions of both regions. The study of the intensities is a useful tool to estimate ranges of electron temperatures present in the xenon plasma in these experiments and the analysis performed of the microscopic properties commented above helps to better understand the intensity spectra. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the possibility of the onset of isobaric thermal instabilities in the post-shock has been made, concluding that the instabilities obtained in the radiative-hydrodynamic simulations could be thermal ones due to strong radiative cooling.
Because of a lack of gold standard diagnostics, a combination of multiple diagnostic tests, or composite diagnostic standard, has been used to measure pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) in pneumococcal vaccine trials. We estimated the accuracy of composite diagnostic standards for PP used in previous randomised controlled trials by simple formulas. A systematic literature review identified five eligible trials and all trials had used different combinations of diagnostic tests for PP. The estimated values of sensitivity and minimum specificity of composite diagnostic standards varied substantially between trials: 48.4% to 98.1% and 71.0% to 97.3%, respectively. Without standardizing the outcome measurements, pneumococcal vaccine efficacy estimates against PP are not comparable between trials and their pooled estimates are biased.
The mid-infrared range contains many spectral features associated with large molecules and dust grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silicates. These are usually very strong compared to fine-structure gas lines, and thus valuable in studying the spectral properties of faint distant galaxies. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of low-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys of galaxies that could be performed by SPICA. The surveys are designed to address the question how star formation and black hole accretion activities evolved over cosmic time through spectral diagnostics of the physical conditions of the interstellar/circumnuclear media in galaxies. On the basis of results obtained with Herschel far-infrared photometric surveys of distant galaxies and Spitzer and AKARI near- to mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of nearby galaxies, we estimate the numbers of the galaxies at redshift z > 0.5, which are expected to be detected in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features or dust continuum by a wide (10 deg2) or deep (1 deg2) blind survey, both for a given observation time of 600 h. As by-products of the wide blind survey, we also expect to detect debris disks, through the mid-infrared excess above the photospheric emission of nearby main-sequence stars, and we estimate their number. We demonstrate that the SPICA mid-infrared surveys will efficiently provide us with unprecedentedly large spectral samples, which can be studied further in the far-infrared with SPICA.