To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We report here the fabrication and characterization of GaAs tunnel diode (TD) and ErAs nanoparticles (Nps) enhanced GaAs TD. Four GaAs TDs with different contact area were fabricated by using MOCVD. We found extremely high peak current density of ∼250A/cm2 for the TD with r=0.25mm contact area. Moreover a hysteresis loop was appeared during sweeping up and sweeping down the external voltage. A ‘vector load line model’ was proposed to explain the origin of the shape of the hysteresis loop and the onset of the bistability occurred at the intersect of the loadline and the current-voltage (I-V) curve of TD. Meanwhile, we have grown ErAs Nps on GaAs(100) surface by using MBE and succeeded in overgrowth of GaAs after ErAs deposition. GaAs(p+)/ErAs(Nps)/GaAs(n+) TDs were fabricated and characterized. We found the GaAs sample containing 70s deposition of ErAs showed the best TD behavior. No TD behavior was observed for the sample without addition of ErAs Nps, clearly indicating the strong tunneling enhancement effect from ErAs Nps.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
Energy storage is a key technology for establishing a stand-alone renewable energy system. Current energy-storage technologies are, however, not suitable for such an energy system. They are cost ineffective and/or are with low energy-conversion efficiency. Hydrogen generation and storage from water by sunlight is one of these technologies. In this study, a simple concept of hydrogen generation from water by using sunlight, “concentrated photovoltaic electrochemical cell (CPEC)” is proposed. It is experimentally shown that the CPEC operates stably and achieves conversion efficiency from light to hydrogen energy of over 12%.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
We present the internal proper motion of 6.7-GHz methanol masers in S269, an Ultra Compact HII region. The maser distribution in S269 consists of several maser groups, and the spatial structure of the main groups A and B are consistent with the past VLBI image. The remarkable result of comparing the two VLBI maps is that 6.7-GHz methanol maser distribution and velocity range within each group have been kept for eight years. Angular separation between the two groups A and B increases by 3.6 mas, which corresponds to a velocity of 11.5 km s−1.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
We have investigated the nanopatterning of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films in room-temperature nanoimprint lithography (RT-NIL), using a diamond nanodot mold. We have proposed the use of polysiloxane as an electron beam (EB) mask and RT-imprint resist materials. The diamond molds of cylinder dot using the RT-NIL process were fabricated with polysiloxane oxide mask in EB lithography technology. The dot in minimum diameter is 500 nm. The pitch between the dots is 2 μm, and dot has a height of about 600 nm. It was found that the optimum imprinting conditions for the RT-NIL : time from spin-coating to imprinting t1 of 1 min , pressure time t2 of 5 min, imprinting pressure P of 0.5 MPa. The imprint depth obtained after the press under their conditions was 500 nm. We carried out the RT-NIL process for the fabrication of diamond nanopit arrays, using the diamond nanodot molds that we developed. The resulting diamond nanopit arrays with 500 nm-diameter and 200 nm-depth after the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion beam etching were fabricated. The diameter of diamond nanopit arrays was in good agreement with that of the diamond nanodot mold.
We focused on detailed evaluations of properties of the ultra-thin pore-seal layer (< 3 nm-thick), such as Cu diffusion barrier property and thermal stability. Cu diffusion into dense thermal silica and porous silica low-k which are covered with the pore seal layer was evaluated using metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors under bias thermal stress (BTS). Triangular voltage sweep (TVS) measurement shows that the ultra-thin layer on dense thermal silica suppresses the drift of Cu ions. The Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB) lifetime of porous silica low-k covered with the ultra-thin pore seal layer results in a drastic increase of the capacitor lifetime with respect to the no-pore-seal control system (stable at 125 °C at least for 10000 s). Thermal decomposition of bulk material of the pore sealant was measured by thermal gravity (TG) test in nitrogen. Bulk material did not decompose through around 350 °C. The amount of ultra-thin pore seal layer fabricated on silicon wafer after thermal cycle stress in vacuum was measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amount of pore sealant did not decrease even after 2 cycles of 20 min, at 250 °C. Those results show that the ultra-thin layer, which we propose here, has a potential as a pore seal layer for porous low-k films.
The shapes of the velocity and temperature profiles near the horizontal conducting plates' centre regions in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection are studied numerically and experimentally over the Rayleigh number range 108 ≲ Ra ≲ 3 × 1011 and the Prandtl number range 0.7 ≲ Pr ≲ 5.4. The results show that both the temperature and velocity profiles agree well with the classical Prandtl–Blasius (PB) laminar boundary-layer profiles, if they are re-sampled in the respective dynamical reference frames that fluctuate with the instantaneous thermal and velocity boundary-layer thicknesses. The study further shows that the PB boundary layer in turbulent thermal convection not only holds in a time-averaged sense, but is most of the time also valid in an instantaneous sense.
Integration of the III–V channel MISFETs on the Si platform is a potential solution to realize performance improvement and power reduction in the sub-22 nm node and beyond. To take advantage of the high electron mobility of III-Vs, the MIS interfaces of high integrity should be developed. This paper reports how the MIS characteristics vary in response to the changes in the interface composition and structures, and discusses the physics and chemistry behind these observations. We fabricated a wide variety of the high-k/III–V interface structures by employing the state-of-the-art technologies of the epitaxial wafers by MOCVD, surface reconstruction control in the MBE environment, wet/dry surface treatments optimized by utilizing XPS/AES analyses, and deposition of quality dielectrics (Al2O3, HfO2) by ALD and EB evaporation. The MIS characteristics were evaluated in the capacitor and FET structures. The talk will include the following topics: the effects of the cation composition (Al, Ga, In) of the III-V bulk on the MIS characteristics , the importance of the anion control (N, S) at the interface to improve the MIS characteristics, and the surface orientation ((100) vs. (111)) as a new parameter in the III-V MIS device design . This work was carried out in the Nanoelectronics Project supported by NEDO/METI.  T. Yasuda et al., as discussed at 39th IEEE SISC (San Diego, Dec. 2008).
Liquid–liquid wetting failure is investigated in a two-dimensional Couette system with two immiscible fluids of arbitrary viscosity. The problem is solved exactly using a sharp interface treatment of hydrodynamics (lubrication theory) as a function of the control parameters – capillary number, viscosity ratio and separation of scale – i.e. the slip length versus the macroscopic size of the system. The transition at a critical capillary number, from a stationary to a non-stationary interface, is studied while changing the control parameters. Comparisons with similar existing analyses for other geometries, such as the Landau–Levich problem, are also carried out. A numerical method of analysis is also presented, based on diffuse interface models obtained from multiphase extensions of the lattice Boltzmann equation. Sharp interface and diffuse interface models are quantitatively compared, indicating the correct limit of applicability of the diffuse interface models.
We propose a parallel resistance model (PRM) in which total resistance (Rtotal) is given by the parallel connection of resistance of a filament (Rfila) and that of a film excluding the filament (Rexcl)—that is, 1/Rtotal = 1/Rfila + 1/Rexcl—to understand direct current (dc) electric properties of resistive random-access memory (ReRAM). To prove the validity of this model, the dependence of the resistance on temperature, R(T), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of RHRS of Pt/NiO/Pt on the area of a top electrode, S, are investigated. It is clarified that both the R(T) and RSD depended on S, and all such dependencies can be explained by the PRM. The fact that Rtotal is decided by the magnitude relation between Rfila and Rexcl makes transport properties S-dependent and hinders the correct understanding of ReRAM. Smaller S is essential to observe the intrinsic transport properties of ReRAM filaments.
Newly developed interferon-gamma release assays have become commercially available to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults. However, little is known about their performance in children. We compared test results between the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold test (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in young children living with pulmonary TB patients in Cambodia. Of 195 children tested with both QFT and TST, the TST-positive rate of 24% was significantly higher than the QFT-positive rate of 17%. The agreement between the test results was considerable (κ-coefficient 0·63). Positive rates increased from 6% to 32% for QFT and from 15% to 43% for TST, according to the sputum smear grades of the index cases. The presence of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars did not significantly affect the results of TST or QFT in a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, QFT can be a substitute for TST in detecting latent TB infection in childhood contacts aged ⩽5 years, especially in those who may have a false-positive TST due to BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.
Initial nucleation and succeeding coalescence in supercritical fluid deposition (SCFD) of Cu was studied in situ by using our devised monitoring technique, i.e. surface reflectivity measurement of visible white light. Fabrication of 10nm-thick smooth and continuous Cu film required by ULSI metallization, was succeeded. Complete filling without any seems and voids into various via patterns of 50 - 200 nm in diameter and 1 μm in depth was also achieved, which was revealed through angled polishing of patterned substrate.