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Perceived loneliness, an increasingly prevalent social issue, is closely associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the neural mechanisms previously implicated in key cognitive and affective processes in loneliness and MDD still remain unclear. Such understanding is critical for delineating the psychobiological basis of the relationship between loneliness and MDD.
We isolated the unique and interactive cognitive and neural substrates of loneliness and MDD among 27 MDD patients (mean age = 51.85 years, 20 females), and 25 matched healthy controls (HCs; mean age = 48.72 years, 19 females). We assessed participants' behavioral performance and neural regional and network functions on a Stroop color-word task, and their resting-state neural connectivity.
Behaviorally, we found greater incongruence-related accuracy cost in MDD patients, but reduced incongruence effect on reaction time in lonelier individuals. When performing the Stroop task, loneliness positively predicted prefrontal-anterior cingulate-parietal connectivity across all participants, whereas MDD patients showed a decrease in connectivity compared to controls. Furthermore, loneliness negatively predicted parietal and cerebellar activities in MDD patients, but positively predicted the same activities in HCs. During resting state, MDD patients showed reduced parietal-anterior cingulate connectivity, which again positively correlated with loneliness in this group.
We speculate the distinct neurocognitive profile of loneliness might indicate increase in both bottom-up attention and top-down executive control functions. However, the upregulated cognitive control processes in lonely individuals may eventually become exhausted, which may in turn predispose to MDD onset.
The co-occurrence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is extremely rare. Here, we present the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of three cases with co-occurring CE and AE in the liver. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and 18FFluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-CT were used for preoperative diagnosis. Specimens were taken intraoperatively and sent for pathological studies to confirm the coexistence of CE and AE by laminated membrane, daughter cysts or germinal layer and infiltration structure. Albendazole was prescribed after operation for 12 months. All patients were completely recovered and showed no recurrence at last follow-up. Therefore, surgical intervention and postoperative application of albendazole are recommended for patients with concurrence of hepatic AE and CE.
van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials show promise in being the foundation for future spintronic technology. The magnetic behavior of Fe2.7GeTe2 (FGT), a vdW itinerant ferromagnet, was investigated before and after proton irradiation. Proton irradiation of the sample was carried out at a fluence of 1×1018 cm-2. The magnetization measurements revealed a small increase of saturation magnetization (Ms) of about 4% upon proton irradiation of the sample, in which, the magnetic field was applied parallel to the c-axis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for pristine and irradiated FGT revealed a general decrease in intensity after irradiation for Ge and Te and an increase in peak intensity of unavoidable surface iron oxide. Furthermore, no noticeable change in the Curie temperature (TC =152 K) is observed in temperature dependent magnetization variation. This work signifies the importance of employing protons in tuning the magnetic properties of vdW materials.
The bulk van der Waals crystal Mn3Si2Te6 (MST) has been irradiated with a proton beam of 2 MeV at a fluence of 1×1018 H+ cm-2. The temperature dependent magnetization measurements show a drastic decrease in the magnetization of 49.2% in the H//c direction observed in ferrimagnetic state. This decrease in magnetization is also reflected in the isothermal magnetization curves. No significant change in the ferrimagnetic transition temperature (75 K) was reflected after irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy shows no magnetically active defects present after irradiation. Here, experimental findings gathered from MST bulk crystals via magnetic measurements, magnetocaloric effect, and heat capacity are discussed.
Investigate short- and long-term effects of Superstorm Sandy on multiple morbidities among the elderly.
We examined emergency department visits; outpatient visits; and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and injury among residents residing in 8 affected counties immediately, 4 months, and 12 months following Superstorm Sandy. Control groups were defined as visits/admissions during the identical time window in the 5 years before (2007-2011) and 1 year after (2013-2014) the storm in affected and nonaffected counties in New York. We performed Poisson regression to test whether there was an association of increased visits/admissions for periods following Superstorm Sandy while controlling for covariates.
We found that the risk for CVD, respiratory disease, and injury visits/admissions was more than twice as high immediately, 4 months, and 12 months after the storm than it was in the control periods. Women were at greater risk at all time periods for CVD (risk ratio [RR], 2.04) and respiratory disease (RRs: 1.89 to 1.92). Whites had higher risk for CVD, respiratory disease, and injury than other racial groups during each period.
We observed increases in CVD, respiratory disease, and injury up to a year following Superstorm Sandy. Findings demonstrate the need to incorporate short- and long-term health effects into public health recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:28-32)
To validate a system to detect ventilator associated events (VAEs) autonomously and in real time.
Retrospective review of ventilated patients using a secure informatics platform to identify VAEs (ie, automated surveillance) compared to surveillance by infection control (IC) staff (ie, manual surveillance), including development and validation cohorts.
The Massachusetts General Hospital, a tertiary-care academic health center, during January–March 2015 (development cohort) and January–March 2016 (validation cohort).
Ventilated patients in 4 intensive care units.
The automated process included (1) analysis of physiologic data to detect increases in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2); (2) querying the electronic health record (EHR) for leukopenia or leukocytosis and antibiotic initiation data; and (3) retrieval and interpretation of microbiology reports. The cohorts were evaluated as follows: (1) manual surveillance by IC staff with independent chart review; (2) automated surveillance detection of ventilator-associated condition (VAC), infection-related ventilator-associated complication (IVAC), and possible VAP (PVAP); (3) senior IC staff adjudicated manual surveillance–automated surveillance discordance. Outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and manual surveillance detection errors. Errors detected during the development cohort resulted in algorithm updates applied to the validation cohort.
In the development cohort, there were 1,325 admissions, 479 ventilated patients, 2,539 ventilator days, and 47 VAEs. In the validation cohort, there were 1,234 admissions, 431 ventilated patients, 2,604 ventilator days, and 56 VAEs. With manual surveillance, in the development cohort, sensitivity was 40%, specificity was 98%, and PPV was 70%. In the validation cohort, sensitivity was 71%, specificity was 98%, and PPV was 87%. With automated surveillance, in the development cohort, sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 100%, and PPV was 100%. In the validation cohort, sensitivity was 85%, specificity was 99%, and PPV was 100%. Manual surveillance detection errors included missed detections, misclassifications, and false detections.
Manual surveillance is vulnerable to human error. Automated surveillance is more accurate and more efficient for VAE surveillance.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The OSI project at JPL is a study of a series of concepts for space based astrometric interferometry. The various concepts are designed for slightly different types of astrometry. The original concept OSI was designed for wide angle/global astrometry by look at stars about 30 degrees apart. A derivative of OSI, called SONATA was designed for narrow angle astrometry (10 arcmin) at sub-microarcsec levels for exo-planet searches. This paper describes optical concepts of theses instruments with regard to metrology and systematic error. In addition to conceptual designs, system error budgets and covariance analysis the OSI project has a technology development program in place to investigate the most difficult problems.
Technology is being persued in three areas. One is laser metrology at the picometer level where sub-picometer accuracy for null metrology has been achieved and < 2 picometer accuracy has been achieved for relative metrology. A second area is the control of vibration on a large space structure. A 5 m truss structure has been built at JPL with an interferometer on the structure to test vibration isolation and control technologies. Tests with this structure will begin in winter of 1994. The key to vibration control for OSI will be the delay lines. The third technology project is a shuttle flight experiment, Stellar Interferometer Technology Experiment (SITE), currently in a phase A study, (part of NASA's INSTEP program). The goal is to fly the experiment on the Shuttle in 1997-1998.
Long baseline optical/infrared interferometers, such as the Mark III Stellar Interferometer1 on Mt. Wilson and the ASEPS-0 Testbed Interferometer2 on Palomar Mountain, California, have good capabilities for narrow-angle and wide-angle astrometry with very high precision. Using the Mark III Interferometer many spectroscopic binaries became “visual” for the first time. The measurement accuracy of angular separation is 0.2 mas, the smallest separation measured between two components is 2 mas, the maximum magnitude difference is 4 mag, and the smallest semimajor axis is 4 mas. Such high angular resolution and dynamic range have been used to determine stellar masses with precision of 2% and differential stellar luminosities to better than 0.05 mag for separations of less than 0.″2. For some binary stars, not only have the systems been resolved, but also the diameter of the primary component has been determined, yielding direct measurements of stellar effective temperature with high accuracy. For parallax determination, the precision is 1 mas or better and is unaffected by interstellar extinction. For wide-angle astrometry with the Mark III interferometer, the observation results yielded average formal 1σ errors for FK5 stars of about 10 mas. Presently a new infrared interferometer, the ASEPS-0 Testbed Interferometer on Palomar Mountain is under construction, and is being optimized to perform high accuracy narrow-angle astrometry using long baseline observations at 2.2 μm, with phase referencing for increased sensitivity. The goal is to demonstrate differential astrometric accuracies of 0.06–0.1 mas3 in order to allow for detection of extra-solar planets in the near future.
Detection of planets by virtue of their gravitational perturbations of nearby visible stars generally requires relative astrometric accuracies of ~ 3 × 10−4 arc sec for Jovian planets and ~ 3 × 10−7 arc sec for terrestrial planets. Two-color optical astrometric interferometers on earth should be capable of ~ 10−4 arc sec rms accuracy for stars brighter than magnitude 7–10, while small one-color space systems should achieve at least ~ 10−5 arc sec. Two-color systems permit correction every few milliseconds for the random wavefront tilt due to atmospheric turbulence; the correction is based on the observed offset between the red and blue fringes, and the known atmospheric dispersion. A 3.4-meter baseline interferometer on Mount Wilson has demonstrated ~ 0.02 arc sec rms fluctuations for 1-second samples.
A 3-meter two telescope stellar interferometer has been used to observe fringes for the past year in order to study the feasibility of using long baseline interferometers for astrometry. We have demonstrated that two color fringe measurements are capable of significantly reducing the astrometric error due to atmospheric turbulence. Currently, we are investigating the thermal and mechanical sources of error in the instrument. The results of our study will be incorporated into the design of the 20 meter astrometric interferometer which will be built in the next 1–2 years. The key to the 20-meter interferometer is the laser system which we expect to monitor all the mechanical and thermal imperfections relevant to astrometry at the 10−3 to 10−4 arc sec level. A slight modification of this system could be used in a space based interferometer for 1 to 10 microarcsecond astrometry of faint objects.
Considerable progress has been made over the last few years in ground based optical interferometery. The Mark III optical interferometer at Mount Wilson which at this time is operating with a 12 meter north south baseline is capable of measuring amplitude and phase. Experience gained from this facility will allow for the development of a large optical array. Preliminary plans are described for a facility that will be capable of milliarcsecond imaging of celestial objects at wavelengths from 0.4 to 10 microns. If funded this array will be in operation by 1993.
At optical wavelengths there are a wide variety of techniques to detect interference fringes. Because detectors in the visible/IR are energy detectors, the fringe amplitude and phase must be encoded in some manner. Two fundamentally different methods are temporal and spatial encoding. This paper briefly describes the various techniques that have been used in operational interferometers along with their advantages and disadvantages. Several fringe detectors for next-generation interferometers will also be described. These fringe detectors often combine multiple functions, such as spectroscopy and multi-beam combination.
Eclipsing binary stars are of great importance in astronomy. Now, high angular resolution measurements of eclipsing stars with the Mark III Stellar Interferometer (Shao 1988) can determine not only all of the orbital parameters, but also the luminosities and color indices of the two components, and can yield precise information for the study of the stellar evolution models. Particularly, the combination of interferometric and photometric results provide a direct measurement of stellar effective temperature. In the case where the primary component can be resolved, the results from the optical interferometer then provide a reliable determination of the absolute system parameters. In addition, eclipsing binary stars are good candidates for comparison of different techniques, i.e., interferometric, photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic, and for checking whether systematic uncertainties exist with certain techniques.
Individual rings from 1899–1990 were pooled from four radii of four cross-sections obtained from trees at a managed forest site near Huangling, north of Xian in north central China. Splits of wood ground to 20-mesh were analyzed independently at both the Xian and Arizona laboratories, using their respective methods for cellulose isolation, combustion and mass-spectrometric analysis. The δ13C results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.66) and absolute values typically within 0.2–0.3‰. Inter-tree variability was estimated as 1–1.5‰. The Huangling δ13C curve shows an overall downward trend with year-to-year fluctuations of up to 1.5‰ superimposed. A subset of δ13C maxima corresponded with below-normal precipitation and above-normal temperature in May and June, and minima were associated with above-normal precipitation and below-normal temperature in May and June, perhaps signaling early arrival of the East Asian Summer Monsoon. The generally poor climate correlations with all δ13C values, however, could be a consequence of the fairly mesic environment or of human disturbance. Chronologies of isotopic discrimination (δ) and Ci/Ca had flat slopes, suggesting the δ13C trend was driven by global rather than local effects.
Long–baseline optical interferometry has revolutionised binary star astronomy. This paper reviews some recent binary star work done using the Mark III Stellar Interferometer. For the first time, many spectroscopic binaries, eclipsing binaries, triple systems, and binaries with X-ray sources have had their visual orbit, diameter of the primary component, and color index determined. Also, accurate stellar masses, distances, radii, and effective temperatures have been derived. A preliminary distance to the Hyades cluster has also been determined. In addition, preliminary observations provide evidence of a third body in the binary star system ζ Her, which may resolve an 85-year old discrepancy in astronomy.
The present study investigated the effects of different levels of urea nitrogen (N) fertilizer on nutrient accumulation, in vitro rumen gas production and fermentation characteristics of forage oat straw (FOS) from oats (Avena sativa L. ‘Qinghai 444’) grown in the Tibet region of China. Fertilizer, applied at seeding (day 1), stem elongation (days 52–54) and heading (days 63–67), increased plant height and prolonged the maturity stage of the plant by 4–11 days compared with the non-fertilized control. Oat plants were harvested at maturity at the node 3–4 cm above ground, and then separated into grains and FOS. Both FOS and grain yields increased quadratically with increasing N fertilization, and their theoretical maximums occurred at the N fertilizing rates of 439 and 385 kg/ha, respectively. Increases in N fertilization did not affect the hemicellulose content of FOS, but substantially promoted the accumulation of crude protein, cellulose and lignin, resulting in a decrease in the energy content available for metabolism. A 72-h incubation of FOS with rumen fluids from lactating cows showed that increasing N resulted in FOS that showed a slower fermentation rate, decreased in vitro dry matter disappearance and lower cumulative gas production, but unchanged fermentation gas composition. Nitrogen fertilization increased the final pH in culture fluids and decreased the microbial volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. The molar proportions of acetate and propionate were not affected, but molar propionate proportion decreased linearly with increasing urea fertilization, and consequently, the ratio of lipogenic (e.g., acetate and butyrate)-to-glucogenic acids (propionate) tended to increase. In brief, increasing urea N fertilization promoted the growth of forage oats and increased the biomass yield as well as the crude protein and cellulose content of FOS. Considering the negative effect of increased lignin content on nutrient digestibility and total VFA production, the suggested range of urea N fertilization is 156–363 kg N/ha for forage oats planted in Tibet to retain the nutritive value of FOS in the rumen.
Legionnaires’ disease (LD) is a globally distributed systemic infectious disease. The burden of LD in many regions is still unclear, especially in Asian countries including China. A survey of Legionella infection using real-time PCR and nested sequence-based typing (SBT) was performed in two hospitals in Shanghai, China. A total of 265 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens were collected from hospital A between January 2012 and December 2013, and 359 sputum specimens were collected from hospital B throughout 2012. A total of 71 specimens were positive for Legionella according to real-time PCR focusing on the 5S rRNA gene. Seventy of these specimens were identified as Legionella pneumophila as a result of real-time PCR amplification of the dotA gene. Results of nested SBT revealed high genetic polymorphism in these L. pneumophila and ST1 was the predominant sequence type. These data revealed that the burden of LD in China is much greater than that recognized previously, and real-time PCR may be a suitable monitoring technology for LD in large sample surveys in regions lacking the economic and technical resources to perform other methods, such as urinary antigen tests and culture methods.