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Documenting past changes in the East Antarctic surface mass balance is important to improve ice core chronologies and to constrain the ice-sheet contribution to global mean sea-level change. Here we reconstruct past changes in the ratio of surface mass balance (SMB ratio) between the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and Dome Fuji (DF) East Antarctica ice core sites, based on a precise volcanic synchronization of the two ice cores and on corrections for the vertical thinning of layers. During the past 216 000 a, this SMB ratio, denoted SMBEDC/SMBDF, varied between 0.7 and 1.1, being small during cold periods and large during warm periods. Our results therefore reveal larger amplitudes of changes in SMB at EDC compared with DF, consistent with previous results showing larger amplitudes of changes in water stable isotopes and estimated surface temperature at EDC compared with DF. Within the last glacial inception (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS-5c and MIS-5d), the SMB ratio deviates by up to 0.2 from what is expected based on differences in water stable isotope records. Moreover, the SMB ratio is constant throughout the late parts of the current and last interglacial periods, despite contrasting isotopic trends.
Seventy-five individuals with Salmonella infection were identified in the Portsmouth area during August and September 2009, predominantly Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 8. Five patients were admitted to hospital. A case-case comparison study showed that a local restaurant was the most likely source of the infection with a risk of illness among its customers 25-fold higher than that of those who did not attend the restaurant. A case-control study conducted to investigate specific risk factors for infection at the restaurant showed that eating salad was associated with a threefold increase in probability of illness. Changing from using ready washed lettuces to lettuces requiring washing and not adhering strictly to the 48 hours exclusion policy for food handlers with diarrhoea were likely to have contributed to the initiation and propagation of this outbreak. Possibilities for cross-contamination and environmental contamination were identified in the restaurant.
Making use of SPER (Solid Phase Epitaxial Regrowth) As and B deep source/drain junctions with high activation can be obtained at temperatures below 700°C. However, higher thermal budget is required to regrow and activate the dopants in the poly gates. Low junction leakage and low contact resistance can be obtained for Ni-silicided As and B SPER junctions making use of deep As and B implants. Because of the low thermal budget source/drain junctions obtained by SPER are an attractive alternative to conventional spike annealed junctions for technologies making use of metal gates.
The creation of ultra-shallow junction for CMOS devices at the sub-100 nm node is driving significant efforts in developing thermal processing to give rise to high dopant activation in combination with limited diffusion. Flash-assist Rapid Thermal Annealing™ (fRTP™) is a promising new annealing technique, which involves the heating of the bulk of the wafer to an intermediate temperature using rather conventional spike RTP, followed by a short and intense pulse of light localized on the implanted wafer surface.
In this work, we have systematically investigated the junction formation of different implants under fRTP anneals in terms of profile and devices. Co-implanted Ge and F species provide more box-like profiles with improved activation. Although leakage currents are higher for fRTP-annealed junctions than for spike-annealed junctions, appropriate fRTP process parameters and correct process conditions provide a critical tool to control and reduce the leakage current of co-implanted fRTP junctions to acceptable levels. Proper implant and anneal are requested for minimizing pattern effect and improving device performance.
The feasibility of the SPER junction process as a reasonable alternative to the spike anneal junction is proved in this work. Good control of the SCE and performance competitive results as compared to the spike junction are obtained. An analysis of the interaction between the halo dopant and the SPER junctions has been carried out; it is shown that the performance degrades with increasing halo dose as a consequence of an overlap resistance problem.
Within this paper we have demonstrated the unique capability of scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) in order to evaluate and optimize the recent approaches towards the formation of advanced p-MOS devices. As shown in this paper, such an optimization requires a detailed 2D-analysis on completely processed devices as two-dimensional interactions may cause (unexpected) lateral diffusion and (de) activation of underlying profiles. Emphasis will be on junction formation using Ge- pre-amorphization and carbon based cocktail implantation coupled with activation based on solid phase epitaxial regrowth and/or millisecond laser anneal. In the case of a Ge-pre-amorphization implant followed by solid phase epitaxial regrowth, SSRM shows an obvious relationship between the presence of defects in the end of range region and halo implant de-activation. Based on the quantified 2D-profiles we can extract the lateral and vertical junction depths as well as the lateral and vertical abruptness of the extension region. A drastic reduction of the lateral diffusion for the cocktail implant versus the standard reference devices with classical spike annealing is eminent. At the same an important reduction of the lateral diffusion of the source/drain implants (HDD) under the spacer can be seen. The SSRM results also highlight the impact of different activation mechanisms on the channel implants (in particular on the shape of the halo pockets).
The advantages of fluorine co-implantation on reducing the deep P junction profile is investigated and commented as a possible valuable solution for further scaling of the NMOS transistors spacer length. On PMOS transistors, Ge+C+B cocktail junctions lead to improved short channel effects control, S/D resistance and performance over the conventional approaches. Additional laser annealing induces a partial dissolution of the doping clusters in the junction and lower the S/D transistors resistance. A performance improvement is demonstrated both for NMOS and PMOS with cocktail junctions activated by spike RTA and additional laser annealing.
As extensions have been up till now always used in N-MOS transistors with an activation anneal. Here, we show that also alternative doping by P can result in junction extensions that are extremely abrupt and shallow thus suitable for upcoming transistor technologies. P extensions are manufactured by amorphization, carbon co-implantation and conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The impact of Si interstitials (Sii) flux suppression on the formation of P junction extensions during RTA is demonstrated. We have concluded that optimization of implants followed by RTA spike offers excellent extensions with depth Xj = 20 nm (taken at 5 × 1018 at./cm3), abruptness 3 nm/dec. and Rs = 326 Ω. Successful implementation of these junctions is straightforward for N-MOS devices with 30 nm gate length and results in an improved short channel effects with respect to the As reference.
We present B junction extensions that are extremely abrupt and shallow manufactured by amorphization, C co-implantation and conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Resulting junctions have abruptnesses of 2 nm/dec better than as-implanted profiles. The most shallow B junction that has been manufactured is 15 nm deep and Rs = 626 Ω/sq. Successful implementation of these junctions is straightforward for P-MOS 30 nm gate length devices.
Several aspects of the integration of diffusion-less junctions in a NMOS and PMOS conventional flows are evaluated. Processes as Solid Phase Epitaxial Regrowth (SPER) or advanced annealing techniques, as flash or laser, demonstrates benefits not only on the 1D junction profiles but also on the transistor characteristics. An optimization of the implants and of the annealing conditions lead to improved or equivalent transistors performance and short channel effects control compared to the conventional spike RTA process. A significant gain in the overlap capacitance could allow for reduced CV/I. Furthermore the junction leakage can be lowered down to the values reached with the conventional spike RTA process.
Total body water (TBW) was measured by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution and predicted from bioelectrical impedance (Z) in nineteen anorexic and twenty-seven control women. The equation of Kushner et al. (1992) based on the impedance index (ZI = height2/Z) gave biases of 0.9 (sd 2.5) and 0.8 (sd 2.5) litres in controls and patients respectively (NS, ANOVA). The ZI-based equation of Deurenberg et al. (1993) gave biases of 1.5 (sd 2.4) litres (NS) and 3.0 (sd 2.1) litres (P <0.001) in controls and patients respectively. Despite the fact that weight was the most powerful predictor of TBW on the study sample (n 46, r2 0.90, P < 0.0001, se of the estimate 1.6 litres, CV 5.7%), the formulas of Segal et al. (1991) and Kushner et al. (1992) based on the association of weight and ZI gave an inaccurate prediction of TBW in both control and anorexic subjects, with a bias ranging from -3.2 (sd 2.4) to 2.9 (sd 2.1) litres (P ≤0.001). Population-specific formulas based on ZI (n 46) gave a more accurate prediction of TBW by bioelectrical impedance analysis on the study subjects, with biases of -0.1 (sd 1.8) and 0.5 (sd 1.7) litres in controls and patients respectively (NS). However, the individual bias was sometimes high. It is concluded that bioelectrical impedance analysis can be used to predict TBW in anorexic women at a population level, but the predictions are less good than those based on body weight alone.
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