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Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) in infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study examined associations between SSB intakes at ages 18 months and 5 years with adiposity measures at age 6 years. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at ages 18 months (n=555) and 5 years (n=767). The median (interquartile range) for SSB intakes is 28(5.5-98) ml at age 18 months and 111 (57-198) ml at age 5 years. Associations between SSB intakes (100 ml/day increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (s.d. unit), sum of skinfolds (SSFs)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intakes at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intakes when modelled as 100ml/day increments were associated with higher BMI by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) s.d. unit, higher SSF thickness by 0.68 (0.06, 1.44) mm, and increased risk for overweight/obesity by 1.2 times (1.07, 1.23) at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intakes modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and risk for overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programs targeted at young children.
Rice is widely grown in rainfed lowlands during the wet season in the Mekong region. Limited nutrient availability is a common constraint on crop yield, and the optimal rate of fertilizer application depends on the soil type. The objective of our study was to evaluate rice productivity and the economic feasibility of various nutrient management regimes in Cambodia. We conducted field experiments on three soil types (Prey Khmer, Prateah Lang, and Toul Samroung, equivalent to Psamments, Plinthustalfs, and Endoaqualfs, respectively) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 wet seasons to compare nine (2016) and seven (2017) N–P–K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 0.9 to 4.8 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.0 to 5.2 t ha−1 in 2017, depending on soil type and nutrient management. The Prey Khmer soil contained around 80% sand, and rice yield responded most weakly to nutrient management. The moderate fertilizer input in the current soil-specific recommendation was effective on this soil type. However, on more fertile soils with a higher clay content and a higher cation-exchange capacity (Toul Samroung and Prateah Lang), an additional 20 kg N ha−1 combined with adding 15 kg ha−1 of P2O5 or 20 kg ha−1 of K2O significantly increased yield and economic return. Although P and K use during Cambodia’s wet season is uncommon, our results demonstrate the importance of these nutrients in improving the country’s rice production.
Evidence on long-term influences of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency or concentrations on infant cognition is limited. We examined associations between maternal plasma vitamin B12 and cognitive development in 24-month-old infants. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were measured at 26–28 weeks’ gestation; infant cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III at 24 months, for 443 mother–infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort. Linear regressions adjusted for key confounders examined associations of maternal vitamin B12 with cognitive, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor subscales. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamin B12 with folate or vitamin B6 insufficiencies on child’s cognition was explored. Average maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations was 220·5 ± 80·5 pmol/l; 15 % and 41 % of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (<148 pmol/l) and insufficient (148–220·9 pmol/l), respectively. Infants of mothers with vitamin B12 deficiency had 0·42 (95 % CI −0·70, −0·14) sd lower cognitive scores, compared with infants of mothers with sufficient vitamin B12. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamins B12 and B6 insufficiencies was associated with 0·37 (95 % CI −0·69, −0·06) sd lower cognitive scores in infants compared with infants of mothers sufficient in both vitamins. No significant associations were observed with other subscales. Study findings suggest the possible need to ensure adequate vitamin B12 during pregnancy. The impact of co-occurrence of maternal B-vitamins insufficiencies on early cognitive development warrants further investigation.
Dietary intake of toddlers has been of growing interest due to its long-term consequences on health. However, previous works have focused largely on Caucasian populations and less is known about Asian toddlers. We aimed to validate a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to assess dietary intakes of 18-month-old toddlers in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort.
An FFQ of ninety-four food items, identified based on food records of 12-month-old GUSTO children, the Southampton Women’s Survey 12 Month Infancy Questionnaire and inputs from paediatric dietitians, was filled out two weeks before the 18th-month clinic visit. As the reference method, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls (24HR) were administered during and two weeks after the clinic visit. FFQ nutrient intakes were validated against averaged 24HR nutrient intakes, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman’s rank-order correlation, cross-classification and the Bland–Altman method.
Data from the Singapore Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother–offspring birth cohort.
Toddlers (n 188) aged 18 months.
Absolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ were significantly higher than from the 24HR, except for vitamin A. After energy adjustments, r range was 0·56–0·78 (macronutrients) and 0·40–0·54 (micronutrients). De-attenuation increased r to 0·58–0·96 and 0·45–0·65 for macro- and micronutrients, respectively. Of participants, ≥82·4 % (macronutrients) and ≥77·7 % (micronutrients) were classified in the same and adjacent quartiles. No clear systematic increase in intake differences with increasing mean intake was observed in Bland–Altman plots.
This FFQ can provide a satisfactory assessment of toddlers’ energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, as well as accurately rank them in a group.
With the increase in long-term survival of post-transplant children, there is a paradigm shift in the emphasis of post-transplant care. We describe de novo cardiovascular abnormalities, which occurred in otherwise asymptomatic paediatric liver transplant recipients, who received liver allografts between 1991 and 2014 at the National University Hospital, Singapore, detected during routine post-transplant monitoring. A total of 96 paediatric liver transplants were performed in 90 children. After transplant, 7/90 (7.8%) recipients were identified with new-onset aortopathy. Glycogen storage disease type I (42.9% versus 2.4%; p<0.001) and recipient Epstein-Barr virus seropositivity (85.7 versus 31.0%, p=0.004) were significant risk factors for aortopathy on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only glycogen storage disease type I remained as the significant risk factor (odds ratio 51.3 [95% confidence intervals: 1.1–2498.1, p=0.047]). Liver transplant is a double-edged sword that reverses certain cardiopulmonary complications of end-stage liver disease but may induce de novo structural cardiac injury in the form of aortic dilation.
Early life nutrition and feeding practices are important modifiable determinants of subsequent obesity, yet little is known about the circadian feeding pattern of 12-month-old infants. We aimed to describe the 24-h feeding patterns of 12-month-old infants and examine their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Mothers from a prospective birth cohort study (n 431) reported dietary intakes of their 12-month-old infants and respective feeding times using 24-h dietary recall. Based on their feeding times, infants were classified into post-midnight (00.00–05.59 hours) and pre-midnight (06.00–23.59 hours) feeders. Mean daily energy intake was 3234 (sd 950) kJ (773 (sd 227) kcal), comprising 51·8 (sd 7·8) % carbohydrate, 33·9 (sd 7·2) % fat and 14·4 (sd 3·2) % protein. Mean hourly energy intake and proportion of infants fed were lower during post-midnight than pre-midnight hours. There were 251 (58·2 %) pre-midnight and 180 (41·8 %) post-midnight feeders. Post-midnight feeders consumed higher daily energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes than pre-midnight feeders (all P<0·001). The difference in energy intake originated from energy content consumed during the post-midnight period. Majority (n 173) of post-midnight feeders consumed formula milk during the post-midnight period. Using multivariate logistic regression with confounder adjustment, exclusively breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life was negatively associated with post-midnight feeding at 12 months (adjusted OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·82). This study provides new insights into the circadian pattern of energy intake during infancy. Our findings indicated that the timing of feeding at 12 months was associated with daily energy and macronutrient intakes, and feeding mode during early infancy.
Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children’s eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children’s BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.
Weedy rice is one of the most dominant and competitive weed species found throughout rice planting areas worldwide. In Malaysia, a combination of agricultural practices such as direct seeding and shared use of machinery has contributed to the rapid proliferation of weedy rice across paddy fields in recent decades. Here, we report on the morphological characterization of weedy rice populations and inferred origin(s) of different morphotypes present in Peninsular Malaysia. Eight weedy rice morphotypes were distinguished based on a combination of traits such as awn presence/absence and hull color, from 193 accessions collected in 17 locations. Results showed a high proportion of awnless accessions (strawhull-, intermediate strawhull-, and brownhull-colored morphotypes, together composing 65% of sampled accessions), with awned accessions represented by strawhull, brownhull, and blackhull forms. Clustering and PCA analyses revealed four major clusters: (1) O. rufipogon and the majority of awned, blackhull, and brownhull—suggestive of a type of weedy rice originating from wild Oryza populations; (2) elite indica cultivar rice and the majority of strawhull weeds—supporting a previous proposal that weedy rice from Malaysia mainly evolved from indirect selection on cultivars for easy-shattering feral forms; (3) the majority of brownhull; and (4) a mixture of other weedy morphotypes—potentially reflecting multiple origins and subsequent admixture. The combination of key morphological descriptors will be useful for advising farmers appropriately in strategies for controlling the spread of weedy rice, including periodic manual weeding to reduce buildup of the seed bank in the fields.
Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother–offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Of a total of 910 mothers, 13·2 % were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l) and 26·5 % were insufficient (50–75 nmol/l). After adjustment for potential confounders and multiple testing, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin D status and any of the birth outcomes – small for gestational age (OR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·79) and pre-term birth (OR 1·16; 95 % CI 0·64, 2·11) – growth outcomes – weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, circumferences of the head, abdomen and mid-arm at birth or postnatally – and adiposity outcomes – BMI, and skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps and subscapular) at birth or postnatally. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy did not influence infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes in this cohort, perhaps due to the low prevalence (1·6 % of the cohort) of severe maternal vitamin D deficiency (defined as of <30·0 nmol/l) in our population.
This study investigated the incidence and risk to staff groups for sustaining needlestick injuries (NSIs) in the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. A retrospective cohort review of incident NSI cases was undertaken to determine the injury rate, causation, and epidemiological profile of such injuries. Analysis of the risk of sustaining recurrent NSI by occupation and location was done using the Cox proportional hazards model. There were 244 NSI cases in 5957 employees in NUH in 2014, giving an incidence rate of 4·1/100 healthcare workers (HCWs) per year. The incidence rate was highest for doctors at 21·3, and 2·7 for nurses; 40·6% of injuries occurred in wards, and 32·8% in operating theatres. There were 27 cases of repeated NSI cases. The estimated cost due to NSIs in NUH ranged from US$ 109 800 to US$ 563 152 in 2014. We conclude that creating a workplace environment where top priority is given to prevention of NSIs in HCWs, is essential to address the high incidence of reported NSIs. The data collected will be of value to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce further the risk of NSIs in HCWs.
Little is known about the influences of maternal and infant correlates on maternal feeding beliefs and practices in the first 2 years of life, despite its important role in early obesogenic eating behaviours and weight gain.
Cross-sectional study using demographic data of mothers and infants obtained at 26–28 weeks of gestation, and postnatally from birth to 15 months, respectively. The Infant Feeding Questionnaire was administered at 15 months postpartum. The associations between maternal and infant characteristics with seven maternal feeding beliefs and practices subscales were evaluated using multivariate linear regression analysis.
Data obtained from the Singapore GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) mother–offspring birth cohort.
Mothers and infants (n 1237).
Among other maternal correlates such as age, education, BMI, income and milk feeding practices, ethnicity was a consistent factor associated with six subscales, including concern about infant overeating/undereating and weight status, concern and awareness about infants’ hunger and satiety cues, social interaction during feeding and feeding an infant on schedule. Similarly, among infant correlates such as gender and birth order, infant body size gain (reflected by BMI Z-score change from 0 to 15 months) was significantly associated with all subscales except feeding an infant on schedule. Overall, maternal correlates had greater influence on all subscales compared with infant correlates except for the maternal concern about infant undereating or becoming underweight subscale.
The present study highlights that maternal feeding beliefs and practices can be influenced by both maternal correlates and infant correlates at 15 months of age.
Little is known about the influence of meal timing and energy consumption patterns throughout the day on glucose regulation during pregnancy. We examined the association of maternal feeding patterns with glycaemic levels among lean and overweight pregnant women. In a prospective cohort study in Singapore, maternal 24-h dietary recalls, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured at 26–28 weeks of gestation. Women (n 985) were classified into lean (BMI<23 kg/m2) or overweight (BMI≥23 kg/m2) groups. They were further categorised as predominantly daytime (pDT) or predominantly night-time (pNT) feeders according to consumption of greater proportion of energy content from 07.00 to 18.59 hours or from 19.00 to 06.59 hours, respectively. On stratification by weight status, lean pNT feeders were found to have higher FG than lean pDT feeders (4·36 (sd 0·38) v. 4·22 (sd 0·35) mmol/l; P=0·002); however, such differences were not observed between overweight pDT and pNT feeders (4·49 (sd 0·60) v. 4·46 (sd 0·45) mmol/l; P=0·717). Using multiple linear regression with confounder adjustment, pNT feeding was associated with higher FG in the lean group (β=0·16 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·05, 0·26; P=0·003) but not in the overweight group (β=0·02 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·17, 0·20; P=0·879). No significant association was found between maternal feeding pattern and 2HPPG in both the lean and the overweight groups. In conclusion, pNT feeding was associated with higher FG concentration in lean but not in overweight pregnant women, suggesting that there may be an adiposity-dependent effect of maternal feeding patterns on glucose tolerance during pregnancy.
The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in an independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at two weeks of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable, and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations was assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland–Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week two but not at birth. Compared with the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0·01 kg with 2 sd limits of agreement (LOA) (0·18, −0·20). Prediction explained 88·9 % of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to the Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared with simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population- and age-appropriate FFM prediction equations.
Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother–offspring cohort were assayed at 26–28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.
Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.
To examine changes in food consumption during pregnancy and the postpartum period in women of major Asian ethnic groups.
Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed changes in food consumption during pregnancy (26–28 weeks’ gestation) and the postpartum period (3 weeks after delivery) as compared with the usual pre-pregnancy diet.
Pregnant women (n 1027) of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity (mean age 30·4 (sd 5·2) years) who participated in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study.
During pregnancy, participants tended to increase their consumption of milk, fruit and vegetables and decrease their consumption of tea, coffee, soft drinks and seafood (all P < 0·001). Most participants reported adherence to traditional restrictions (‘confinement’) during the early postpartum period (Chinese: 94·8 %, Malay: 91·6 %, Indian: 79·6 %). During the postpartum period, participants tended to increase their consumption of fish and milk-based drinks and decrease their consumption of noodles, seafood, and chocolates and sweets (all P < 0·001). Ethnic differences in food consumption were pronounced during the postpartum period. For example, most Chinese participants (87·2 %) increased their ginger consumption during the postpartum period as compared with smaller percentages of Malays (31·8 %) and Indians (40·8 %; P for ethnic difference <0·001). Similar ethnic differences were observed for cooking wine/alcohol, herbs and spices, and herbal tea consumption.
Marked changes in food consumption that reflect both modern dietary recommendations and the persistence of traditional beliefs were observed in Singaporean women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Traditional beliefs should be considered in interventions to improve dietary intakes during these periods.
Hairy polyps are rare congenital growths of the head and neck, mainly found in the nasopharynx and oropharynx. They are made up of two germ cell layers: the ectoderm and mesoderm.
This paper reports a four-month-old who presented with breathing and feeding difficulties. Clinical examination was unremarkable, but a video taken by the patient's mother on her smartphone showed a mass protruding from the infant's mouth. Laryngoscopy performed in the operating theatre showed that the mass emanated from the left posterior tonsillar pillar.
The mass was removed transorally with no complications. Pathological examination showed a skin-covered pedunculated structure characteristic of a hairy polyp. The patient's follow up was unremarkable.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the second English-language case report of a patient with a hairy polyp emanating from a posterior tonsillar pillar. This paper also highlights the growing usage of smartphones by patients to help physicians with their diagnosis and management.
The problem of acoustic noise is becoming increasingly serious with the growing use of industrial and medical equipment, appliances, and consumer electronics. Active noise control (ANC), based on the principle of superposition, was developed in the early 20th century to help reduce noise. However, ANC is still not widely used owing to the effectiveness of control algorithms, and to the physical and economical constraints of practical applications. In this paper, we briefly introduce some fundamental ANC algorithms and theoretical analyses, and focus on recent advances on signal processing algorithms, implementation techniques, challenges for innovative applications, and open issues for further research and development of ANC systems.
A series of highly near-infrared (NIR) transparent In2O3 thin films has been grown by ion-assisted deposition (IAD) at room temperature, and their optical and electrical properties characterized. The NIR transparency and the plasma edge can be engineered through control of the film deposition conditions. The as-deposited In2O3 thin films were employed as transparent electrodes for direct electro-optic (EO) characterization measurements via the Teng-Man technique. Using LiNbO3 as the standard, the relationship between the degree of electrode NIR transparency and Teng-Man EO measurement accuracy was evaluated. It is found that In2O3 electrodes can be tailored to be highly NIR transparent, thus providing more accurate Teng-Man EO coefficient quantification than ITO (tin-doped indium oxide). In addition, the EO coefficients of stilbazolium-based self-assembled superlattice (SAS) thin films were directly determined for the first time by the Teng-Man technique using an optimized In2O3 electrode. EO coefficients r33 of 42.2, 13.1, and 6.4 pm/V are obtained at 633, 1064, and 1310 nm, respectively.
Recently a collaboration of LLNL and LBNL has constructed a second generation Compton coincidence instrument to study the non-proportionality of scintillators . This device, known as SLYNCI (Scintillator Light-Yield Non-proportionality Characterization Instrument), has an over 30 time higher data collection rate than previous devices enabling complete characterization of a sample with less 24 hours of running time. Thus, SLYNCI enables a number of systematic studies of scintillators as many samples can be processed in a reasonable length of time. The studies include difference in non-proportionality between different types of scintillators, different members of the same family of scintillators, and impact of different doping levels. The results of such recent studies are presented here, including a study on of various alkali halides, and the impact of europium doping level in strontium iodide. Directions of future work will also be discussed.