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Depression is a global public health problem with highest rates in women in low income countries including Pakistan. Paediatricians may be a resource to help with maternal depression. Little is known in low income countries about the prevalence of depression and its social correlates in mothers of children attending paediatric clinics.
Using cross-sectional design consecutive women attending the paediatric clinic were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (n=185). Women scoring 12 or more (n=70) and a random sample of low scorers (n=16) were interviewed using the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) to confirm the diagnosis of depression, the Oslo scale was used to measure social stress and EQ-5D for health related quality of life.
The prevalence of maternal depression was 51%. The mean age of the sample was 26 years. Depressed mothers were more likely to be living in a joint family household, they were less educated and they and their husbands were less likely to be employed. The depressed mothers had more financial difficulties and they were more likely to sleep hungry during the last month due to financial problems. The depressed mothers had less social support and poorer quality of life compared to non depressed mothers.
Maternal depression in this health care setting is high and it is associated with social stress and poor social support. Paediatric appointments may be an opportunity for care and care delivery for maternal depression.
To investigate the effect of perinatal depression on birth weight, head circumference, length and infant behaviour in a group of Pakistani women living in the Greater Manchester area of the United Kingdom.
Using a prospective cohort design British Pakistani women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (n=714), the Life events and Difficulty Schedule was used to measure social stress and the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview to confirm the diagnosis of depression. Details of birth weight and height were taken from hospital records. Physical and cognitive development of the infants using the Bayleys Scale of Infant Development (BSID-111) was assessed at 6 months postnatal.
There was no significant difference in birth weight (p=0.0948) and head circumference (p=0.75) at baseline or at 6 months between the two groups. The length of the infants of depressed mothers at 6 months was significantly less (p=0.02) than the infants of non depressed mothers. There was also a significant difference between the two groups in adaptive behaviour in leisure (p=0.043) and health & safety (p=0.049).
Infants of depressed British Pakistani mothers are not more likely to weigh less at birth or 6 months when compared to infants of non depressed mothers. However they are more likely to be shorter at 6 months and score lower on the BSID on leisure and health & safety areas of adaptive behaviour.
The 2008 economic recession was associated with an increase in suicide internationally. Studies have focused on the impact in the general population with little consideration of the effect on people with a mental illness.
To investigate suicide trends related to the recession in mental health patients in England.
Using regression models, we studied suicide trends in mental health patients in England before, during and after the recession and examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. We used data from the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health, a national data-set of all suicide deaths in the UK that includes detailed clinical information on those seen by services in the last 12 months before death.
Between 2000 and 2016, there were 21 224 suicide deaths by patients aged 16 or over. For male patients, following a steady fall of 0.5% per quarter before the recession (quarterly percent change (QPC) 2000–2009 –0.46%, 95% CI –0.66 to –0.27), suicide rates showed an upward trend during the recession (QPC 2009–2011 2.37%, 95% CI –0.22 to 5.04). Recession-related rises in suicide were found in men aged 45–54 years, those who were unemployed or had a diagnosis of substance dependence/misuse. Between 2012 and 2016 there was a decrease in suicide in male patients despite an increasing number of patients treated. No significant recession-related trends were found in women.
Recession-associated increases in suicide were seen in male mental health patients as well as the male general population, with those in mid-life at particular risk. Support and targeted interventions for patients with financial difficulties may help reduce the risk at times of economic hardship. Factors such as drug and alcohol misuse also need to be considered. Recent decreases in suicide may be related to an improved economic context or better mental healthcare.
Declaration of interest
N.K. is supported by Greater Manchester Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust. L.A. chairs the National Suicide Prevention Strategy Advisory Group at the Department of Health (of which N.K. is also a member) and is a non-executive Director for the Care Quality Commission. N.K. chairs the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) depression in adults guideline and was a topic expert member for the NICE suicide prevention guideline.
We evaluated the performance of three serological tests – an immunoglobulin G indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), a Rose Bengal test and a slow agglutination test (SAT) – for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Bangladesh. Cattle sera (n = 1360) sourced from Mymensingh district (MD) and a Government owned dairy farm (GF) were tested in parallel. We used a Bayesian latent class model that adjusted for the conditional dependence among the three tests and assumed constant diagnostic accuracy of the three tests in both populations. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests varied from 84.6% to 93.7%, respectively. The true prevalences of bovine brucellosis in MD and the GF were 0.6% and 20.4%, respectively. Parallel interpretation of iELISA and SAT yielded the highest negative predictive values: 99.9% in MD and 99.6% in the GF; whereas serial interpretation of both iELISA and SAT produced the highest positive predictive value (PPV): 99.9% in the GF and also high PPV (98.9%) in MD. We recommend the use of both iELISA and SAT together and serial interpretation for culling and parallel interpretation for import decisions. Removal of brucellosis positive cattle will contribute to the control of brucellosis as a public health risk in Bangladesh.
The Eastern Gangetic Plain is among the world's most intensively farmed regions, where rainfed and irrigated agriculture coexist. While the region and especially Bangladesh is a major producer of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), there is potential to further develop sustainable rice production systems. Specifically, there is scope to include a replacement crop for the short fallow between rice crops in the dominant cropping pattern of rainfed monsoon rice harvest followed by irrigated spring rice. The aim of the current research was to identify a suitable cool-season legume crop – pea (Pisum sativum L.) or lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. ssp. culinaris) – that could be grown in the brief period between rice crops. The study comprised four crop sequence experiments comparing legume cultivars differing in maturity grown in between both long and short duration rice cultivars. These experiments were done at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute regional station at Rajshahi over three cropping cycles. This was followed by an evaluation of pea vs. fallow between rice crops on three farmers’ fields in one cropping cycle. Here it is demonstrated that green pod vegetable pea is one of the best options to intensify the rainfed monsoon rice–fallow–spring irrigated rice cropping system, notwithstanding other remunerative rabi cropping options that could displace boro rice. The inclusion of an extra crop, pea as green pod vegetable, increased farm productivity by 1·4-fold over the dominant cropping sequence (rice–fallow–rice) and farm net income by fourfold. The study highlighted the advantages in total system productivity and monetary return of crop intensification with the inclusion of a pea crop between successive rice crops instead of a fallow period.
The aim of this feasibility trial was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the locally adapted Group Problem Management Plus (PM+) intervention for women in the conflict affected settings in Swat, Pakistan.
This mixed-methods study incorporated a quantitative component consisting of a two arm cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial, and qualitative evaluation of the acceptability of the Group PM+ to a range of stakeholder groups. For the quantitative component, on average from each of the 20 Lady Health Workers (LHWs) catchment area (20 clusters), six women were screened and recruited for the trial with score of >2 on the General Health Questionnaire and score of >16 on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. These LHW clusters were randomised on a 1 : 1 allocation ratio using a computer-based software through a simple randomisation method to the Group PM+ intervention or Enhanced Usual Care. The Group PM+ intervention consisted of five weekly sessions of 2 h duration delivered by local non-specialist females under supervision. The primary outcome was individual psychological distress, measured by levels of anxiety and depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 7th week after baseline. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general psychological profile, levels of functioning and generalised psychological distress. Intervention acceptability was explored through in-depth interviews.
The results show that lay-helpers with no prior mental health experience can be trained to achieve the desired competency to successfully deliver the intervention in community settings under supervision. There was a good intervention uptake, with Group PM+ considered useful by participants, their families and lay-helpers. The outcome evaluation, which was not based on a large enough study to identify statistically significant results, indicated statistically significant improvements in depression, anxiety, general psychological profile and functioning. The PTSD symptoms and depressive disorder scores showed a trend in favour of the intervention.
This trial showed robust acceptance in the local settings with delivery by non-specialists under supervision by local trained females. The trial paves the way for further adaptation and exploration of the outcomes through larger-scale implementation and definitive randomised controlled trials in the local settings.
We are a group of researchers and clinicians with collective experience in child survival, nutrition, cognitive and social development, and treatment of common mental conditions. We join together to welcome an expanded definition of child development to guide global approaches to child health and overall social development. We call for resolve to integrate maternal and child mental health with child health, nutrition, and development services and policies, and see this as fundamental to the health and sustainable development of societies. We suggest specific steps toward achieving this objective, with associated global organizational and resource commitments. In particular, we call for a Global Planning Summit to establish a much needed Global Alliance for Child Development and Mental Health in all Policies.
Bangladesh is a country with a high burden of micronutrient malnutrition. Stunting affects 41 % of children aged under 5 years. Zn is one of the key micronutrients that is associated with stunting. The present study, as part of the national micronutrient survey 2011–2012, revealed for the first time the nationally representative prevalence of Zn deficiency and determined the associations of the condition. A cross-sectional ‘nationwide’ survey was conducted in pre-school-age children (6–59 months; PSAC) and non-pregnant non-lactating women (15–49 years; NPNLW). Multistage random sampling was done in 150 clusters; fifty in each of the rural, urban and slum strata. Data were analysed on 662 PSAC and 1073 NPNLW. Serum Zn was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zn deficiency was defined as serum Zn of <9·9 and <10·1 µmol/l in PSAC and NPNLW, respectively. The national prevalence of Zn deficiency was 44·6 and 57·3 % in PSAC and NPNLW, respectively. In PSAC, it was 29·5, 48·6 and 51·7 %, respectively, in urban, rural and slum strata. Household expenses (β = 0·13; P = 0·007), Hb (β = 0·10; P = 0·005), intake of animal-source Zn (β = 0·096; P = 0·02) and asset score (β = 0·11; P = 0·03) were positively associated with serum Zn in NPNLW. Residence in an urban area (β = 0·33; P = 0·03) and intake of plant-origin Zn (β = −0·13; P = 0·038) determined higher and lower status of Zn in PSAC, respectively. Zn deficiency was highly prevalent in Bangladesh, and it was principally related to inadequate quality of diet. To improve Zn nutrition, Bangladesh needs to strengthen research and programmes related to Zn biofortification, fortification and phytate-reducing technologies in the food system in the short and medium term. In addition, promotion of animal-source Zn for all is important in the long run.
Introduction: Syncope can be caused by serious life-threatening conditions not obvious during the initial ED assessment leading to wide variations in management. We aimed to identify the reasons for consultations and hospitalizations, outcomes, and the potential cost savings if an outpatient cardiac monitoring strategy were developed. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult syncope patients at 5 academic EDs over 41 months. We collected baseline characteristics, reasons for consultation and hospitalization, hospital length of stay and average total inpatient cost. Adjudicated 30-day serious adverse events (SAEs) included death, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, significant hemorrhage and procedural intervention. We used descriptive statistics with 95% CI. Results: Of the 4,064 patients enrolled (mean age 53.1 years, 55.9% female), 3,255 (80.1%) were discharged from the ED, 209 (5.2%) had a SAE identified in the ED, 600 (14.8%) with no SAE were referred for consultation in the ED and 299 (7.4%) were hospitalized: 55.5% of referrals and 55.2% of hospitalizations were for suspected cardiac syncope (46.5% admitted for cardiac monitoring of whom 71.2% had no cause identified). SAE among groups were 9.7% in total; 2.5% discharged by ED physician; 3.4% discharged by consultant from ED; 21.7% as inpatient and 4.8% following discharge from hospital. The mean hospital length of stay for cardiac syncope was 6.7 (95%CI 5.8, 7.7) days with total estimated costs of $7,925 per patient (95% CI: 7434, 8417). Conclusion: Suspected cardiac syncope, particularly arrhythmia, was the major reason for ED referral and hospitalization. The majority of patients hospitalized for cardiac monitoring had no identified cause. An important number of patients suffered SAE, particularly arrhythmias outside the hospital. These findings highlight the need to develop a robust syncope prediction tool and a remote cardiac monitoring strategy to improve patient safety while saving substantial health care resources.
Conservation agriculture (CA) is inadequately developed for rice-based cropping systems widely practiced in Bangladesh. The current drawback is the implementation of CA for all crops including rice (Oryza sativa L., ecotype ‘transplanted aman’ [T. aman]) to increase rice–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation productivity. It is important to identify the best combination of tillage types and cropping systems to achieve a high yield of component crops and improve soil health. Three tillage practices, assigned to main experimental plots [namely, zero tillage (ZT), conventional tillage using a rotary tiller (CT) and deep tillage using a chisel plough (DT)] and three different cropping systems, assigned to sub-plots [namely, WFT: wheat–fallow–T. aman, WMT: wheat–mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)–T. aman and WDT: wheat–dhaincha (Sesbania rostrata)–T. aman], were tested. After 4 years, ZT under WDT and WMT significantly increased soil organic matter (SOM) at 0–150 mm depth, and these replicates also held the highest levels of total organic carbon. Soil organic carbon (C) increased at a rate of 1.17 and 1.14 t/ha/y in ZT under WDT and WMT, respectively, while CT and DT under WFT were almost unchanged. After 4 years, SOM build-up by the three-crop system (WDT and WMT) under ZT helped conserve soil moisture and improve other soil properties, such as reduction in soil strength and bulk density and increase plant available water content, thus maintaining an optimum soil water infiltration rate. Zero tillage under WMT and WDT showed significant improvements in root mass density of rice and wheat at increased soil depth. The WDT and WMT plots under DT consistently gave the highest yield followed by WDT and WMT under CT, in contrast with ZT under WMT or WDT, which showed the highest improvement in crop yields over the years. In summary, minimum soil disturbance together with incorporation of a legume/green manure crop into the rice–wheat system as well as the retention of their residues increased soil C status, improved soil properties and maximized grain yields.
Zinc (Zn) is an important nutrient in poultry and its deficiency has been linked with various disorders, in addition to depressed growth and performance. It is now recognised that Zn has a major role in antioxidation, growth and development, production, immunity and stress related issues. Supplementation of Zn can improve growth, augment immunity, enhance antioxidant capacity, increase endocrine secretion and interact with other minerals in the gut. In this review, some of the basic information regarding the importance and activity of Zn within the body and the addition of Zn in poultry diets is discussed.
Sexual minorities experience excess psychological ill health globally, yet the UK data exploring reasons for poor mental health among sexual minorities is lacking. This study compares the prevalence of a measure of well-being, symptoms of common mental disorder (CMD), lifetime suicidal ideation, harmful alcohol and drug use among inner city non-heterosexual and heterosexual individuals. It is the first UK study which aims to quantify how much major, everyday and anticipated discrimination; lifetime and childhood trauma; and coping strategies for dealing with unfair treatment, predict excess mental ill health among non-heterosexuals. Further, inner city and national outcomes are compared.
Self-report survey data came from the South East London Community Health study (N = 1052) and the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N = 7403).
Adjustments for greater exposure to measured experiences of discrimination and lifetime and childhood trauma had a small to moderate impact on effect sizes for adverse health outcomes though in fully adjusted models, non-heterosexual orientation remained strongly associated with CMD, lifetime suicidal ideation, harmful alcohol and drug use. There was limited support for the hypothesis that measured coping strategies might mediate some of these associations. The inner city sample had poorer mental health overall compared with the national sample and the discrepancy was larger for non-heterosexuals than heterosexuals.
Childhood and adult adversity substantially influence but do not account for sexual orientation-related mental health disparities. Longitudinal work taking a life course approach with more specific measures of discrimination and coping is required to further understand these associations. Sexual minorities should be considered as a priority in the design and delivery of health and social services.
Drinking raw date palm sap is the primary route of Nipah virus (NiV) transmission from bats to people in Bangladesh; subsequent person-to-person transmission is common. During December 2010 to March 2011, we investigated NiV epidemiology by interviewing cases using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and group discussions to collect clinical and exposure histories. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for transmission. We identified 43 cases; 23 were laboratory-confirmed and 20 probable. Thirty-eight (88%) cases died. Drinking raw date palm sap and contact with an infected person were major risk factors; one healthcare worker was infected and for another case transmission apparently occurred through contact with a corpse. In absence of these risk factors, apparent routes of transmission included drinking fermented date palm sap. For the first time, a case was detected in eastern Bangladesh. Identification of new epidemiological characteristics emphasizes the importance of continued NiV surveillance and case investigation.
There is limited information on percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea especially in rural Bangladesh. A total of 4205 children aged <5 years with acute diarrhoea were studied. Percent expenditure was calculated as total expenditure for the diarrhoeal episode divided by monthly family income, multiplied by 100. Overall median percent expenditure was 3·04 (range 0·01–94·35). For Vibrio cholerae it was 6·42 (range 0·52–82·85), for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 3·10 (range 0·22–91·87), for Shigella 3·17 (range 0·06–77·80), and for rotavirus 3·08 (range 0·06–48·00). In a multinomial logistic regression model, for the upper tertile of percent expenditure, significant higher odds were found for male sex, travelling a longer distance to reach hospital (⩾median of 4 miles), seeking care elsewhere before attending hospital, vomiting, higher frequency of purging (⩾10 times/day), some or severe dehydration and stunting. V. cholerae was the highest and rotavirus was the least responsible pathogen for percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea.