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Introduction: Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for an emergency department (ED) visit. Most cases are functional and no therapy has proven effective. Our objective was to determine if hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) (BuscopanTM) is effective for children who present to the ED with functional abdominal pain. Methods: We conducted a randomized, blinded, superiority trial comparing HBB 10 mg plus acetaminophen placebo to oral acetaminophen 15 mg/kg (max 975 mg) plus HBB placebo using a double-dummy approach. We included children 8-17 years presenting to the ED at London Health Sciences Centre with colicky abdominal pain rated >40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was VAS pain score at 80 minutes post-administration. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects; caregiver satisfaction with pain management using a five-item Likert scale; recidivism and missed surgical diagnoses within 24-hours of discharge. Analysis was based on intention to treat. Results: We analyzed 225 participants (112 acetaminophen; 113 HBB). The mean (SD) age was 12.4 (3.0) years and 148/225 (65.8%) were females. Prior to enrollment, the median (IQR) duration of pain prior was 2 (4.5) hours and analgesia was provided to 101/225 (44.9%) of participants. The mean (SD) pre-intervention pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 62.7 (15.9) mm and 60.3 (17.3) mm, respectively. At 80 minutes, the mean (SD) pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 30.1 (28.8) mm and 29.4 (26.4) mm, respectively and there were no significant differences adjusting for pre-intervention scores (p = 0.96). The median (IQR) caregiver satisfaction was high in the acetaminophen [5 (2)] and HBB [5 (1)] groups (p = 0.79). The median (IQR) length of stay between acetaminophen [235 (101)] and HBB [234 (103)] was not significantly different (p = 0.53). The proportion of participants with a return visit for abdominal pain was 4/112 (3.5%) in the acetaminophen group and 6/113 (5.3%) in the HBB group. The most common adverse effect was nausea (9% in each group) and there were no significant differences in adverse effects between acetaminophen (26/112, 23.2%) and HBB (31/113, 27.4%) (p = 0.52). There were no missed surgical diagnoses. Conclusion: For children with presumed functional abdominal pain who present to the ED, both acetaminophen and HBB produce a clinically important (VAS < 30 mm) reduction in pain and should be routinely considered in this clinical setting.
In this paper we have studied space weather conditions near 53 potentially habitable exoplanets reported in literature using available information on the chromoshperic activity of their host stars and nature of dynamical interactions possible in the respective star-planetary systems.
In this paper, we present a model characterizing the interaction of a radiative shock (RS) with a solid material, as described in a recent paper (Koenig et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 082707 (2017)), the new model is then related to recent experiments performed on the GEKKO XII laser facility. The RS generated in a xenon gas cell propagates towards a solid obstacle that is ablated by radiation coming from the shock front and the radiative precursor, mimicking processes occurring in astrophysical phenomena. The model presented here calculates the dynamics of the obstacle expansion, which depends on several parameters, notably the geometry and the temperature of the shock. All parameters required for the model have been obtained from experiments. Good agreement between experimental data and the model is found when spherical geometry is taken into account. As a consequence, this model is a useful and easy tool to infer parameters from experimental data (such as the shock temperature), and also to design future experiments.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.
To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18–60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity.
Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975–79 to 2011–12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure.
Ten NNMB states of India.
Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18–60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India.
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975–79 to 34 % during 2011–12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (P<0·01) higher among women aged 40–60 years, those belonging to Christian religion and other backward communities, women living in pucca houses, literate women, women engaged in service and business, and those having higher per capita income.
Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined significantly; however, overweight/obesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.
We present multiwavelength study of a sample of radio loud early-type galaxies chosen from the B2 sample. We performed surface photometry in BVR broad band filters and Hα narrow band filter on CCD images of sample galaxies using IGO 2m telescope, Pune (INDIA), to get radial profiles of various photometric and geometrical parameters that describe elliptical isophotes fitted to the 2D light distribution of the galaxies. The analysis of radial profiles of quantities such as the (local) surface brightness, the ellipticity, and the deviations from elliptical isophotes parametrized by the Fourier coefficients are main focus of our study. We generated color maps, residual maps, and dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps of the galaxies to study the morphology of the dust and ionized gas content present in the galaxies. We carried out detailed analysis of the properties of the dust present in our sample galaxies. Additionaly, we investigated properties of the dust in the central ~10 arcsec region of our sample galaxies using optical images available from the HST (WFPC2) data archive. We estimated mass and temperature of the dust, molecular gas mass, in the sample galaxies using FIR fluxes of the galaxies obtained from IRAS.
We used spectroscopic data available from the SDSS (DR7) to get an estimate of the mass of the central super massive black-hole for B2 1257+28 (NGC 4874). We plotted rotation curve for coma cluster (Abell 1656), which indicates the presence of dark matter halo around the galaxy B2 1257+28.
Memecylon wayanadense Ratheesh, Sivu & Pradeep, a new species of Melastomataceae from the Wayanad forests of Kerala, India, is described and illustrated. The new species is allied to Memecylon angustifolium, M. rivulare and M. sivadasanii but differs in habit, leaf shape, sclereid type, inflorescence type and position, and the shape and size of the sepals and petals. An UPGMA analysis of 20 RAPD primers resulted in two major clusters with Memecylon sivadasanii in one cluster and M. rivulare, M. angustifolium and M. wayanadense in the second cluster. Memecylon wayanadense forms a subgroup within the second cluster.
We have examined the compression response of a ternary Fe2Nb Laves phase by deforming micropillars with a diameter of ~2 μm produced by focused ion beam milling from a two-phase Fe-15Nb-40Ni (at.%) ternary alloy consisting of the Laves phase and γ-Fe. The Laves phase micropillars exhibit high strength of about 6 GPa (of the order of the theoretical shear strength of the material), followed by a burst of plastic strain and shear failure on the basal plane. If dislocation sources are introduced on a non-basal plane in the micropillars by nanoindentation prior to compression, yielding occurs at a significantly lower stress level of about 3 GPa and plastic deformation by slip proceeds on a pyramidal plane close to (-1-122). Furthermore, if regenerative dislocation sources for basal slip are present in the micropillar, the Laves phase can be continuously plastically deformed in a stable manner to at least 5% strain at a significantly lower stress of 800 MPa. We thus demonstrate the plastic deformation of this ternary Laves phase at the micron-scale at room temperature when sufficient dislocation sources are present.
In this study different powder metallurgical processing routes, commonly used for refractory metal based materials, were evaluated on their impact on mechanical properties of a multi-component Nb-20Si-23Ti-6Al-3Cr-4Hf (at.%) alloy. Powder was produced by gas-atomization or high energy mechanical alloying of elemental powders and then consolidated either by HIPing or powder injection molding (PIM). The PIM process requires fine particles. In this investigation powder batches of gas-atomized powder (< 25 μm) and mechanically alloyed powder (< 25 μm) were compacted via PIM. Fine (< 25 μm) and coarser (106-225 μm) particle fractions of gas-atomized powder were compacted via HIPing for comparison. Quantitative analysis of the resulting microstructures regarding porosity, phase formation, phase distribution, and grain size was carried out in order to correlate them with the ensuing mechanical properties such as compressive strength at various temperatures.
Nonpolar a-plane InN/GaN heterostructures were grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of nonpolar a- plane InN / GaN heterostructures were confirmed by high resolution x-ray diffraction study. Reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns show the reasonably smooth surface of a-plane GaN and island-like growth for nonpolar a-plane InN film, which is further confirmed by scanning electron micrographs. An absorption edge in the optical spectra has the energy of 0.74 eV, showing blueshifts from the fundamental band gap of 0.7 eV. The rectifying behavior of the I-V curve indicates the existence of Schottky barrier at the InN and GaN interface. The Schottky barrier height (φb) and the ideality factor (η) for the InN/GaN heterostructures found to be 0.58 eV and 2.05 respectively.
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) ratoon crops comprise more than 0·50 of India's sugarcane acreage and reduce the cost of cultivation by 25–30%. However, ratooning is seldom practised beyond 1–2 ratoons because the yield declines in successive ratoons due to compacted soils with decreased fertility restricting root development and plant growth. Therefore, a field experiment on sugarcane was conducted from 1998 to 2003 at the Sugarcane Research Institute, Muzzaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh), India to evaluate the effects of combinations of trash management with key cultural practices (stubble shaving, ridge dismantling, sub-soiling along stubble rows, trash mulching and earthing-up) on growth and yield of sugarcane up to the third ratoon. Two treatment combinations (ridge dismantling+stubble shaving+sub-soiling along stubble rows+trash mulching at 8 t/ha (T5) and all these plus earthing-up in June (T6)) showed similar growth, yield and economics of ratoon crops. Both these treatments produced significantly higher shoot populations, leaf area index (LAI), dry matter (DM) accumulation, net assimilation rate (NAR), number of millable canes, ratoon cane yield and sugar, soil organic carbon (SOC) content at harvest and higher net returns besides lowering weed density, weed dry weight and bulk density of soil compared with other treatments. T6 produced the highest cane yield of 77, 72 and 65 tonnes (t)/ha, which was 23, 27 and 29% more than trash burning alone (T1) in first, second and third ratoon crops, respectively. Although T6 had the same yield as T5, it led to significantly lower soil bulk density at 0–150 mm depth, higher SOC contents and greater benefit: cost ratios in the first, second and third ratoon crops, respectively compared with trash burning only. Adoption of the crop management components, separately or in combination, improved on trash burning only (the control treatment). Trash mulching sustained the improved yield and economic returns of sugarcane ratoon crops.
The effects of Al, Cr and Sn on segregation, microstructure, phase stability and hardness of Nb-24Ti-18Si-5X (X = Al, Cr, Sn, at%) alloys were studied. The microstructure of the as cast alloys with Cr, Al and Sn respectively contained (Nb,Ti)ss, Nb3Si, αNb5Si3 and C14-NbCr2 Laves, (Nb,Ti)ss and βNb5Si3 and (Nb,Ti)ss, Nb3Sn and Nb5Si3. The microstructures of the heat treated alloys with Al and Cr (1500 oC/100 h) contained (Nb,Ti)ss and αNb5Si3 and the alloy with Sn (1200 oC/100 h) contained (Nb,Ti)ss, Nb3Sn and αNb5Si3. Compared with Al and Cr, alloying with Sn enhanced the stability of the as cast microstructure, caused strong macrosegregation of Si and Ti, suppressed the segregation of Ti in the (Nb,Ti)ss that was promoted by Al and Cr, had the strongest effect on the macrohardness of the cast and heat treated alloys and on the vol% of the Nbss. All three alloying additions promoted the transformation of βNb5Si3 to αNb5Si3 during heat treatment and decreased the hardness of Nb5Si3 in the as cast alloys with Sn having the strongest effect and Al the weakest. After the heat treatment the hardness of Nb5Si3 increased in the alloys containing Cr and Sn and decreased in the Al containing alloy with Cr having the strongest effect.
The association of carbon isotope discrimination of grain (Δ13C) with yield performance under rain-fed and well-watered conditions was analysed using a doubled-haploid (DH) winter wheat population, derived from the cross between cvars Beaver×Soissons, within field experiments at two site-seasons. The aim of this work was to quantify associations between Δ13C and yield responses to drought and to test effects of major genes (the semi-dwarf genes, Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b, an awn suppressor gene, B1 and the 1BL.1RS wheat–rye chromosome translocation) segregating in the population for associations with Δ13C and drought performance. Carbon isotope discrimination, through its negative relationship with transpiration efficiency, may be used as a surrogate for this trait. Grain Δ13C was positively associated with grain yield under both irrigated and unirrigated conditions in each site-season and, overall, explained 0·34 of the phenotypic variation in grain yield amongst DH lines under drought and 0·14 under well-watered conditions. There was a positive association between specific leaf lamina N content (SLN) at anthesis and Δ13C under drought amongst DH lines in one site-season, suggesting higher SLN may confer increased stomatal conductance via higher photosynthetic capacity, hence increased grain Δ13C. Overall the Rht-D1b (semi-dwarf) lines had slightly higher Δ13C of grain (20·0‰) than the Rht-B1a/Rht-D1a (tall) group of lines (19·8‰). There were no significant differences between the Rht-B1b (semi-dwarf) or the Rht-B1b/Rht-D1b (dwarf) lines and the tall lines. Comparing their performance under irrigated and unirrigated conditions, the Rht groups of lines (Rht-B1b semi-dwarf, Rht-D1b semidwarf and dwarf and tall groups) responded no differently to drought for Δ13C. The Rht-D1b semi-dwarf lines had higher grain yield (9·50 t/ha) than the tall lines (8·76 t/ha), while the yield of the Rht-B1b semi-dwarf and dwarf lines did not differ significantly from the tall lines. In each site-season, the presence of the 1BL.1RS chromosome increased grain Δ13C (P<0·001), with an overall increase from 19·7‰ in the 1B lines to 20·0‰ in the 1BL.1RS lines (P<0·001). However, the 1BL.1RS and 1B lines responded similarly to drought. The effect of the presence/absence of awns on grain Δ13C was not statistically significant in either site-season. Overall, the present results show that Rht-D1b confers higher Δ13C and grain yield, and the 1BL.1RS translocation confers higher Δ13C. This implies that modern UK wheat cultivars may have lower water-use efficiency during the grain filling period than their predecessors, and therefore may require more water to fulfil their yield potential.
In this work, TOPO(tri-octyl phosphine oxide)/TOP(tri-octyl phosphine)-capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QD's) of varied sizes (5–9 nm) prepared at different input Cd:Se precursor ratio's (1:1–2:1) using chemical route were dispersed in conducting polymer matrices viz poly[2-methoxy,5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) respectively. The properties of polymer:CdSe nanocomposites are evaluated by means of photoluminescence (PL), UV-VIS absorption, Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques respectively. The emission and structural properties of polymer-CdSe nanocomposites are found to be dependent on their morphology. The better quality of smallest sized CdSe QD's (size ~5 nm) in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer, leads to higher photostability of P3HT:CdSe QD's nanocomposites as compared to that for corresponding MEH-PPV:CdSe nanocomposites, thus making it as an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells application.