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Major questions remain regarding the dysfunctional neural circuitry underlying the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) in both youths and adults. In both age groups, studies implicate abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity among prefrontal, limbic and striatal areas.
We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from youths and adults (ages 10–50 years) with BD (n = 39) and healthy volunteers (HV; n = 78). We identified brain regions with aberrant intrinsic functional connectivity in BD by first comparing voxel-wise mean global connectivity and then conducting correlation analyses. We used k-means clustering and multidimensional scaling to organize all detected regions into networks.
Across the brain, we detected areas of dysconnectivity in both youths and adults with BD relative to HV. There were no significant age-group × diagnosis interactions. When organized by interregional connectivity, the areas of dysconnectivity in patients with BD comprised two networks: one of temporal and parietal areas involved in late stages of visual processing, and one of corticostriatal areas involved in attention, cognitive control and response generation.
These data suggest that two networks show abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity in BD. Regions in these networks have been implicated previously in BD. We observed similar dysconnectivity in youths and adults with BD. These findings provide guidance for refining models of network-based dysfunction in BD.
The degree of transport and retention of 14CH4 in soil is being investigated in a series of laboratory experiments in preparation for field scale trials at the University of Nottingham. The experimental programme focusses on the behaviour and fate of 14CH4 injected into subsoil and its subsequent incorporation into vegetation under field conditions. Due to restrictions on the use of radioactive tracers in the field, 13CH4 is being used as a surrogate gas which can be handled conveniently in the laboratory and field and which can be measured with high precision using gas chromatography with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The laboratory data indicate significant differences between the diffusion and oxidation rates of 13CH4 in re-packed and undisturbed soil columns, with both rates appearing to be significantly lower in undisturbed soils. Data from both laboratory and field experiments will be used to inform the development of a model of 14CH4 migration and its fate in the biosphere above a geological disposal facility.
Two Enteritidis PT4 isolates which differed in inherent tolerance to heat, acid, H2O2 and the ability to survive on surfaces were used to infect mice, day-old chicks or laying hens. The acid-, heat-, H2O2- and surface-tolerant isolate was more virulent in mice and more invasive in laying hens, particularly in reproductive tissue. However, no significant differences were observed in behaviour in chicks. Both PT4 isolates were able to infect chicks housed in the same room as infected birds, although the heat-tolerant isolate survived significantly better than the heat-sensitive one in aerosols.
Aerosol infection (AI) of Porton outbreak mice with Listeria species, exhibiting varying degrees of virulence, was compared with gastric intubation (GI) on the basis of numbers of deaths. 50% lethal dose (LD50) and pattern of listerial infection. The AI route appeared to be more sensitive, efficient and consistent than GI in that it required 105 fewer micro-organisms to obtain infection and death then ensued within 4 days, with GI deaths usually occurring on day 7. All the virulent strains tested caused 100% mortality by AI, while virulent and avirulent strains were indistinguishable by GI. Bacterial counts in the livers and spleens of infected mice were consistent with the relative virulence of the infectious agent using AI but not in GI mice. There were higher numbers of micro-organisms and more widespread lesions in the organs of AI mice than in GI. Results indicate that AI is an accurate in vivo indicator of virulence in listeria and using AI, bacterial counts in the liver and spleen could replace LD50 tests, thereby reducing the number of animals required for in vivo virulence testing.
The potential profile of InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) was shown to be easily modified with annealing. We also demonstrate the use of spin-on-glass to create interdiffusion in QDs but the degree of interdiffusion was strongly dependent on the properties of the oxide. By using TiO2 significant suppression of thermal diffusion of the quantum dots could be achieved. On the other hand, very large additional blue shifts (in excess of 120 meV) could be obtained with both H and As implantation. The different nature of defects created by both ions and how they affect the interdiffusion of quantum dots were illustrated. In the dose and annealing temperature range studied, the degree of interdiffusion ultimately depends on the availability of free point defects or point defects liberated from clusters/extended defects to diffuse across the quantum dots.
The determination of fluorescence lifetime requires only relative measurements of intensity and so is especially useful for biomedical samples in which the heterogeneous nature of tissue and autofluorescence cause significant problems. Since fluorescence lifetime is dependent upon both radiative and non-radiative decay rates, it may be used to distinguish between different fluorophore molecules (with different radiative decay rates) and to monitor local environmental perturbations that affect the non-radiative decay rate. Fluorescence lifetime probes have been demonstrated for many biologically significant analytes including [O2], [Ca2+] and pH. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can be applied to almost any optical imaging modality, including microscopy and potentially to non-invasive optical biopsy. Fluorescence lifetime data may be acquired in the frequency or time domain. The recent development of user-friendly and relatively portable ultrafast laser technology and the availability of ultrafast gated optical image intensifiers (GOI’s) enable the development of potentially inexpensive time domain FLIM instruments that may be deployed outside specialist laser laboratories.
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