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A study of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) can provide data of interest about cortical alterations in psychotic illnesses. Although a decreased NAA level in the cerebral cortex is a replicated finding in chronic schizophrenia, the data are less consistent for bipolar disease. On the other hand, it is likely that NAA values in schizophrenia may differ in men and women.
We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to examine NAA levels in the prefrontal cortex in two groups of male patients, one with schizophrenia (n = 11) and the other with bipolar disorder (n = 13) of similar duration, and compared them to a sample of healthy control males (n = 10). Additionally, we compared the degree of structural deviations from normal volumes of gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Compared to controls, schizophrenia and bipolar patients presented decreased NAA to creatine ratios, while only the schizophrenia group showed an increase in CSF in the dorsolateral prefrontal region. There were no differences in choline to creatine ratios among the groups.
These data suggest that the decrease in NAA in the prefrontal region may be similar in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, at least in the chronic state. However, cortical CSF may be markedly increased in schizophrenia patients.
Hyperthyroidism may lead to high anxiety status, emotional lability, irritability, overactivity, exaggerated sensitivity to noise, and fluctuating mood, insomnia and hyporexia. in extreme cases, they may appear delusions and hallucinations as psychiatric symptoms.
we report the case of a 53-year-old female who was diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder. The patient went to emergency department because of high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, trembling, shortness of breath and nausea. She was presenting auditory hallucinations and delusions as psychiatric symptoms. an urgent thyroid profile was made and it was observed the next results: TSH < 0.005; T4:4; T3:21. Due to a severe thyroid malfunction, the patient was admitted and treated with antithyroid agent, improving the psychiatric and somatic symptoms.
in this case, a patient diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder presented very severe psychiatric symptoms, with hallucinations and delusions. These symptoms may be produced by primary psychiatric disorders, but is very important to look for thyroid alterations, because if they are the cause, the acute treatment of thyroid malfunction is the correct management of the patient.
Hyperthyroidism is very common in general population, being infradiagnosed most of times. in patient with anxiety or other psychiatric symptoms, it is very important to make a thyroid function tests before the diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. in extreme cases, hyperthyroidism status may lead to severe psychiatric and somatic complications.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1–4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme.
In this work we review the aggregation of variables method for discrete dynamical
systems. These methods consist of describing the asymptotic behaviour of a complex system
involving many coupled variables through the asymptotic behaviour of a reduced system
formulated in terms of a few global variables. We consider population dynamics models
including two processes acting at different time scales. Each process has associated a map
describing its effect along its specific time unit. The discrete system encompassing both
processes is expressed in the slow time scale composing the map associated to the slow one
and the k-th iterate of the map associated to the fast one. In the linear case a result is
stated showing the relationship between the corresponding asymptotic elements of both
systems, initial and reduced. In the nonlinear case, the reduction result establishes the
existence, stability and basins of attraction of steady states and periodic solutions of
the original system with the help of the same elements of the corresponding reduced
system. Several models looking over the main applications of the method to populations
dynamics are collected to illustrate the general results.
Exposure to cisplatin leads to cochlear cell death by apoptosis; these changes are most marked on the seventh day after exposure. Heat shock proteins are induced in inner ear cells in response to a variety of stimuli. This study examined the role of heat shock protein 70 in cisplatin-induced cochlear cell death.
Fifty-six Sprague–Dawley rats were involved. Some were injected with cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight), some with cisplatin plus the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OME)-fluoromethylketone (5 mg/kg body weight) and others were left as controls (being injected only with saline). Seven days later, we examined the expression of heat shock protein 70 and several other apoptosis-related proteins within the rat cochlear cells; we also assessed total superoxide dismutase activity, auditory brainstem response and auditory steady state response.
Seven days after cisplatin injection, significantly increased expression of heat shock protein 70 was found within the rat cochleae. This correlated with increased executioner caspase levels, total superoxide dismutase activity and auditory brainstem response thresholds, and a significant elevation in auditory steady state response thresholds. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity significantly reduced cochlear heat shock protein 70 expression and total superoxide dismutase activity, and improved auditory brainstem response and auditory steady state response thresholds.
Seven days after cisplatin exposure, we found disturbances of the cochlear cellular machinery involving heat shock protein 70, other apoptotic proteins and total superoxide dismutase.
Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films (NAAF) have been used for growing a lot of nanostructure functional materials. Of particular interest is the NAAF conversion into membranes (NAAM) with different highly controlled pore diameter and distribution to be used as templates and masks to grow a wide variety of nanomaterials. This work constitutes an approach to a review of our latest results regarding the use of NAAF and NAAM as templates in which II-VI semiconductor, functional oxides, hard materials and magnetic nanowires have been grown. The growth techniques and methods used include Isothermal Close Space Sublimation (ICSS), Magnetron Sputtering, electroplating and sol-gel. Ion Beam Irradiation (IBI) combined with different NAAM as masks has been also used for Titania substrates functionalization.
In this article, we study the influence of solid-to-fluid density ratio m on the type of vortex-induced oscillation of a square section prism placed inside a two-dimensional channel. We assume that the solid body has neither structural damping nor spring restoring force. Accordingly, the prism equation of motion contains only inertia and aerodynamics forces. The problem is considered in the range of Reynolds numbers Re ∈ [50 200] (based on the prism cross-section height h) and channel widths H = H′/h ∈ [2.5 10]. We found that, for each Re and H, there is a critical mass ratio mc that separates two different oscillation regimes. For m > mc, the prism oscillation is periodical and contains a single harmonic. For m < mc, the prism oscillation changes completely and assumes an irregular pattern that is characterized by multiple harmonics that appear to belong to a uniform spectrum. The change from one regime to the other is abrupt and we were not able to observe a transitional regime in which the number of response harmonics grew by finite steps. The value of the critical mass ratio grows along with the Reynolds number and the channel width.
We are concerned with the behaviour of a two-dimensional jet that issues from a planar orifice, with a ‘top-hat’ profile. At the orifice the steady flow is modulated by a time-harmonic fluctuation. A suitably defined Reynolds number is assumed to be large throughout. At large streamwise distances from the orifice, the time-averaged flow yields the classical, Bickley, jet with a suitable virtual origin. This decays algebraically whilst, by contrast, the unsteady component decays exponentially with streamwise distance. An asymptotic theory confirms the exponential decay and provides a good agreement with the numerical solution.
El estudio de la concentración de N-acetil-aspartato (NAA) proporciona datos interesantes sobre las alteraciones corticales en las enfermedades psicóticas. Aunque la reducción de la concentración de NAA en la corteza cerebral es un resultado habitual en la esquizofrenia crónica, es menos constante en la enfermedad bipolar. Por otra parte, es probable que los valores de NAA puedan ser diferente en hombres y mujeres con esquizofrenia.
Mediante con espectroscopia por resonancia magnética protónica ('H MRS) calculamos las concentraciones de NAA en la corteza prefrontal de dos grupos de hombres, uno con esquizofrenia (n = 11) y otro con trastorno bipolar (n = 13) de similar duración y los comparamos con una muestra de hombres sanos que usamos como grupo control (n = 10). Además, comparamos el grado de desviaciones estructurales de los volúmenes normales de sustancia gris (SG) y líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) en la corteza prefrontal dorsolateral.
Comparados con los controles, los pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno bipolar tuvieron un cociente NAA/creatina más bajo, y sólo el grupo de pacientes con esquizofrenia mostró un aumento de LCR en la región prefrontal dorsolateral. No hubo ninguna diferencia entre los grupos en el cociente colina/creatina.
Estos datos sugieren que la disminución de NAA en la región prefrontal pueda ser similar en la esquizofrenia y en el trastorno bipolar, al menos, en estados crónicos. Sin embargo, el LCR cortical puede aumentar significativamente en pacientes con esquizofrenia.
This paper addresses the slender laminar flow resulting from the discharge of a low-Mach-number hot gas jet of radius $a$ and moderately large Reynolds number $R_j$ into a cold atmosphere of the same gas. We give the boundary-layer solution for plane and round jets with very small values of the ambient-to-jet temperature ratio $\varepsilon$ accounting for the temperature dependence of the viscosity and conductivity typical of real gases. It is seen that the leading-order description of the jet in the limit $\varepsilon \rightarrow 0$ exhibits a front-like structure, including a precisely defined separating boundary at which heat conduction and viscous shear stresses vanish in the first approximation, so that the temperature and axial velocity remain unperturbed outside the jet. Separate analyses are given for the jet discharging into a stagnant atmosphere, when the jet boundary is a conductive front, and for the jet discharging into a coflowing stream, when the jet boundary appears as a contact surface. We provide in particular the numerical description of the jet development region corresponding to axial distances of order $R_j a$ for buoyant and non-buoyant jets, as well as the self-similar solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. In all cases considered, comparisons with numerical integrations of the boundary-layer problem for moderately small values of $\varepsilon$ indicate that these front descriptions give excellent predictions for the temperature and velocity fields in the near-axis region.
High quality AlN layers with full widths at half maximum values of 10 arcmin and average surface roughness (rms) of 48Å were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. A systematic study and optimization of the growth conditions was performed in order to use these AlN layers as buffers in the growth of GaN films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to determine the surface and structural quality of the layers. Best AlN films were obtained at high substrate temperatures (Tsubs>900°C) and III/V ratios close to stoichiometry. Growth conditions with III/V ratios beyond stoichiometry (Al-rich) did not further improve the crystal quality. In these cases a higher substrate temperature is needed to prevent condensation of Al on the surface. GaN films with full width at half maximum of 10 arcmin and improved optical properties were grown on top of optimized AlN buffer layers.
In this work we apply high-resolution X-ray diffractometry to the study of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures on (001) and(lll)B GaAs substrates. The samples consisted of p-i-n diodes with a multiple quantum well embedded in the i-region and were simultaneously grown on (001) and (111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. For the characterization we have used symmetric and asymmetric reflections at different azimuthal positions. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been possible thanks to our recently developed simulation model, which allows the calculation of any reflection regardless of the substrate orientation. X-ray results about composition and thickness are very similar in the samples simultaneously grown on both orientations as expected from our specific growth conditions. The information obtained from X-ray characterization is consistent with the results of photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements within the experimental uncertainty of the techniques. In (lll)B samples, X-ray diffractometry provides structural information which cannot be easily obtained from optical characterization techniques.
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