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Comparison of bacterial counts (BCs) among common bedding types used for dairy cows, including straw, is needed. There is concern that the microbial content of organic bedding is elevated and presents risks for dairy cow udder health and milk quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) % DM and BCs (Streptococcus spp., all gram-negatives and specifically Klebsiella spp.) in different types of bedding sampled, and to investigate housing and farm management factors associated with % DM and BCs; (2) if bedding type was associated with hygiene of cow body parts (lower-legs, udder, upper-legs and flank) and housing and management factors associated with hygiene and (3) bedding types associated with higher BCs in cow milk at the farm level and bulk tank milk and management factors that were associated with highest BCs. Seventy farms (44 free-stall and 26 tie-stall) in Ontario, Canada were visited 3 times, 7 days apart from October 2014 to February 2015. At each visit, composite samples of unused and used bedding were collected for % DM determination and bacterial culture. Used bedding samples were collected from the back third of selected stalls. Data were analyzed using multivariable linear mixed models. Bedding classification for each farm were: new sand (n = 12), straw and other dry forage (n = 33), wood products (shavings, sawdust; n = 17) and recycled manure solids (RMSs)-compost, digestate (n = 8). In used bedding, across all bedding samples, sand was driest, compared to straw and wood, and RMS; higher % DM was associated with lower Streptococcus spp. count. Streptococcus spp. and all Gram-negative bacteria counts increased with increasing days since additional bedding was added. Gram-negative bacteria counts in used bedding varied with type: RMS = 16.3 ln colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, straw = 13.8 ln cfu/mL, new sand = 13.5 ln cfu/mL, and wood = 10.3 ln cfu/mL. Klebsiella spp. counts in used bedding were lower for wood products (5.9 ln cfu/mL) compared to all other bedding types. Mean cow SCC tended to be higher on farms with narrower stalls. Farms with mattress-based stalls had a higher prevalence of cows with dirty udders compared to those using a deep bedding system (often inorganic sand). Wider stalls were associated with lower bulk milk bacteria count. Lower % DM of used bedding was associated with higher bulk milk bacteria count. In conclusion, bedding management may have a profound impact on milk quality, bacterial concentrations in the bedding substrates, and cow hygiene.
Weaning is known to induce important nutritional and energetic stress in piglets. Low-birthweight (LBW) piglets, now frequently observed in swine production, are more likely to be affected. The weaning period is also associated with dysfunctional immune responses, uncontrolled inflammation and oxidative stress conditions that are recognized risk factors for infections and diseases. Mounting evidence indicates that mitochondria, the main cellular sources of energy in the form of adenosine 5′ triphosphate (ATP) and primary sites of reactive oxygen species production, are related to immunity, inflammation and bacterial pathogenesis. However, no information is currently available regarding the link between mitochondrial energy production and oxidative stress in weaned piglets. The objective of this study was to characterize markers of cellular and mitochondrial energy metabolism and oxidative status in both normal-birthweight (NBW) and LBW piglets throughout the peri-weaning period. To conduct the study, 30 multiparous sows were inseminated and litters were standardized to 12 piglets. All the piglets were weighted at day 1 and 120 piglets were selected and assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: NBW (n = 60, mean weight of 1.73 ± 0.01 kg) and LBW piglets weighing less than 1.2 kg (n = 60, 1.01 ± 0.01 kg). Then, 10 piglets from each group were selected at 14, 21 (weaning), 23, 25, 29 and 35 days of age to collect plasma and organ (liver, intestine and kidney) samples. Analysis revealed that ATP concentrations were lower in liver of piglets after weaning than during lactation (P < 0.05) thus suggesting a significant impact of weaning stress on mitochondrial energy production. Oxidative damage to DNA (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) and proteins (carbonyls) measured in plasma increased after weaning and this coincides with a rise in enzymatic antioxidant activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05). Mitochondrial activities of both GPx and SOD are also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in kidney of piglets after weaning. Additionally, oxidative damage to macromolecules is more important in LBW piglets as measured concentrations of 8-OHdG and protein carbonyls are significantly higher (P < 0.05) in plasma and liver samples, respectively, than for NBW piglets. These results provide novel information about the nature, intensity and duration of weaning stress by revealing that weaning induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular oxidative stress conditions which last for at least 2 weeks and more severely impact smaller piglets.
The syntheses of five propargylated dendrimer scaffolds ranging from 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 surface groups are described together with a 2-azidoethyl α-D-mannopyranoside. The former is appended to the core structure using highly efficient copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (“click reaction”) to provide glycodendrimers in an accelerated approach. Two of the core structures are based on cyclotrisphosphazene, thus expanding the scope of the “onion-peel” strategy to build dendritic architectures with a large number of surface groups at the G1 generation only.
Investigation of personality traits and pathology in large, generalizable clinical cohorts has been hindered by inconsistent assessment and failure to consider a range of personality disorders (PDs) simultaneously.
We applied natural language processing (NLP) of electronic health record notes to characterize a psychiatric inpatient cohort. A set of terms reflecting personality trait domains were derived, expanded, and then refined based on expert consensus. Latent Dirichlet allocation was used to score notes to estimate the extent to which any given note reflected PD topics. Regression models were used to examine the relationship of these estimates with sociodemographic features and length of stay.
Among 3623 patients with 4702 admissions, being male, non-white, having a low burden of medical comorbidity, being admitted through the emergency department, and having public insurance were independently associated with greater levels of disinhibition, detachment, and psychoticism. Being female, white, and having private insurance were independently associated with greater levels of negative affectivity. The presence of disinhibition, psychoticism, and negative affectivity were each significantly associated with a longer stay, while detachment was associated with a shorter stay.
Personality features can be systematically and scalably measured using NLP in the inpatient setting, and some of these features associate with length of stay. Developing treatment strategies for patients scoring high in certain personality dimensions may facilitate more efficient, targeted interventions, and may help reduce the impact of personality features on mental health service utilization.
The effect of an electric field on the coalescence of two water droplets suspended in an insulating oil (castor oil) in the non-coalescence regime is investigated. Unlike the immediate breakup of the bridge, as reported in earlier studies, e.g. Ristenpart et al. (Nature, vol. 461 (7262), 2009, pp. 377–380), the non-coalescence observed in our experiments indicate that at strong fields the droplets exhibit a tendency to coalesce, the intervening bridge thickens whereafter the bridge dramatically begins to thin, initiating non-coalescence. Numerical simulations using the boundary integral method are able to explain the physical mechanism of thickening of this bridge followed by thinning and non-coalescence. The underlying reason is the competing meridional and azimuthal curvatures which affect the pressure inside the bridge to become either positive or negative under the effect of electric field induced Maxwell stresses. Velocity and pressure profiles confirm this hypothesis and we are able to predict this behaviour of transitory coalescence followed by non-coalescence.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
When the American electorate opted for withdrawal from Vietnam in 1968, the United States crossed an international policy watershed whose dimensions have not yet been fully assessed. The outlines of this policy have since been given the rubric of the Nixon Doctrine. In 1968, however, a substantial number of American citizens (including many vociferous critics of our presence in Vietnam) failed to grasp the significance of the change in Administration thinking as they energetically and often from the purest of motives sought American intervention through humanitarian actions in the Nigerian civil war. To point out to these Americans the contradictions in their behavior only served to irritate them. Other important segments of the public had long held a distorted image of American actions abroad. They continued to view America as the conscience of the world, exercising a kind of police power where such power might be safely exercised.
A Warren-Averbach1-4 X-ray line profile analysis was applied to broadened X-ray diffraction peaks from copper deformed in fatigue. The copper specimens were fatigued by four-point bending at peak-strain amplitudes between 0.00105 and 0.00442 in./in., and measurements were made at various fractions of the total fatigue life. The analysis results in an estimation of (a) an average coherently diffracting domain size normal to the diffracting planes and (b) an rms strain distribution function where the strain normal to the diffracting planes is averaged over a given distance at all points in the diffracting crystals and expressed as a function of averaging distance.
Prior to fatigue cycling, the annealed copper exhibited extinction, which reduced the integrated intensity from the low-angle reflections. After fatigue cycling, the integrated intensity increased with increasing strain amplitude of fatigue. The integrated intensities and the rms strains were established during the first few percent of the fatigue life and were found to increase with fatigue strain amplitude. The measured strains were larger in the <100> direction than in the <111> direction, but the absolute values were small. On the basis of transmission electron microscopy of thin foils, these results may be explained by assuming the strains are due to the presence of numerous dislocation dipoles.
The recovery and recrystallization of cold rolled copper during reverse bending fatigue at room temperature has been studied with x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Recovery of x-ray line breadth was recorded as a function of number of cycles at all strain amplitudes investigated. Recrystallization was observed to take place only at small strain amplitudes (life of 106 to 107 cycles). The rate of nucleation of the recrystallized grains increases with increasing strain amplitude and is a linear function of the number of cycles. The formation and growth of the grains was confined to regions near the surface of the specimen. Since comparable thermal recovery occurs at approximately 435°F it is concluded that the dynamic generation and migration of numerous point defects during fatigue is responsible for the room temperature recrystallization.
As a glance at his bibliography shows, Dr. Sipkov, as well as a law librarian, was a publicist in the original sense of the term — a scholar of public, in particular public international, law. It is therefore fitting that our comment deals with a basic issue that arises at the intersection of international law and librarianship. We would like to evoke the problem of defining and then finding the “material sources” of customary international law. That means understanding, then locating, the concrete, usually documentary, materials that must be used to confirm the existence of a state practice. The consistent, generalized, though not necessarily universal, practice of states forms the objective element of a customary rule. This basic problem of international legal research is not new, but as we approach the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations International Law Commission, it makes sense to examine it again. Developments over the last half century should help in understanding how we try currently to solve the difficulties and will do so in the future.
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, Resolution XXX, Ninth International Conference of American States, Bogotá, Colombia, 1948, reprinted in Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System, OEA/Ser. L/V.II.82, doc. 6, rev. 1 at 17 (1992).
Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
The effect of an electric field on the coalescence of two water drops suspended in an insulating oil is investigated. We report four new results. (i) The cone angle for the non-coalescence of drops can be significantly smaller (as small as
) than the value of
reported by Bird et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 103 (16), 2009, 164502). (ii) A surprising observation of the dependence of the mode of coalescence/non-coalescence on the type of insulating oil is seen. A cone–cone mode for silicone oil is observed as against cone–dimple mode for castor oil. (iii) The critical capillary number for non-coalescence decreases with increase in the conductivity of the droplet phase. (iv) Systematic experiments prove that the apparent bridge during non-coalescence is indeed transitory and not permanent, as reported elsewhere. Theoretical calculations using analytical theory and the boundary integral method explain the formation of the cone–dimple mode as well as the transitory bridge length. The numerical calculation and thereby the physical mechanism to explain the occurrence of very small non-coalescence angles as well as the dependence of the phenomenon on the conductivity of the insulating oil and the water droplets remain unexplained.