To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Eating-disorder severity indicators should theoretically index symptom intensity, impairment, and level of needed treatment. Two severity indicators for binge-eating disorder (BED) have been proposed (categories of binge-eating frequency and shape/weight overvaluation) but have mixed empirical support including modest clinical utility. This project uses structural equation model (SEM) trees – a form of exploratory data mining – to empirically determine the precise levels of binge-eating frequency and/or shape/weight overvaluation that most significantly differentiate BED severities.
Participants were 788 adults with BED enrolled in BED treatment studies. Participants completed interviews and self-report measures assessing eating-disorder and comorbid symptoms. SEM Tree analyses were performed by specifying an outcome model of BED severity and then recursively partitioning the outcome model into subgroups. Subgroups were split based on empirically determined values of binge-eating frequency and/or shape/weight overvaluation. SEM Forests also quantified which variable contributed more improvement in model fit.
SEM Tree analyses yielded five subgroups, presented in ascending order of severity: overvaluation <1.25, overvaluation = 1.25–2.74, overvaluation = 2.75–4.24, overvaluation ⩾4.25 with weekly binge-eating frequency <4.875, and overvaluation ⩾4.25 with weekly binge-eating frequency ⩾4.875. SEM Forest analyses revealed that splits that occurred on shape/weight overvaluation resulted in much more improvement in model fit than splits that occurred on binge-eating frequency.
Shape/weight overvaluation differentiated BED severity more strongly than binge-eating frequency. Findings indicate a nuanced potential BED severity indicator scheme, based on a combination of cognitive and behavioral eating-disorder symptoms. These results inform BED classification and may allow for the provision of more specific and need-matched treatment formulations.
While negative affect reliably predicts binge eating, it is unknown how this association may decrease or ‘de-couple’ during treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), whether such change is greater in treatments targeting emotion regulation, or how such change predicts outcome. This study utilized multi-wave ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess changes in the momentary association between negative affect and subsequent binge-eating symptoms during Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help (CBTgsh). It was predicted that there would be stronger de-coupling effects in ICAT-BED compared to CBTgsh given the focus on emotion regulation skills in ICAT-BED and that greater de-coupling would predict outcomes.
Adults with BED were randomized to ICAT-BED or CBTgsh and completed 1-week EMA protocols and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at pre-treatment, end-of-treatment, and 6-month follow-up (final N = 78). De-coupling was operationalized as a change in momentary associations between negative affect and binge-eating symptoms from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment.
There was a significant de-coupling effect at follow-up but not end-of-treatment, and de-coupling did not differ between ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Less de-coupling was associated with higher end-of-treatment EDE global scores at end-of-treatment and higher binge frequency at follow-up.
Both ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with de-coupling of momentary negative affect and binge-eating symptoms, which in turn relate to cognitive and behavioral treatment outcomes. Future research is warranted to identify differential mechanisms of change across ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Results also highlight the importance of developing momentary interventions to more effectively de-couple negative affect and binge eating.
To understand how dietary intake data collected via a brief ecological momentary assessment (EMA) measure compares to that of data collected via interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recalls, and explore differences in level of concordance between these two assessment types by individual- and meal-level characteristics.
Parents completed three 24-h dietary recalls and 8 d of brief EMA surveys on behalf of their child; in total, there were 185 d where dietary intake data from both EMA and 24-h recall were available. The EMA measure asked parents to indicate whether (yes/no) their child had consumed any of the nine total food items (e.g. fruit, vegetable, etc.) at eating occasions where both the child and parent were present.
Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were completed in person in the study participant’s home; participants completed EMA surveys using a study provided in iPad or their personal cell phone.
A diverse, population-based sample of parent–child dyads (n 150).
Among meals reported in both the EMA and dietary recalls, concordance of reporting of specific types of food ranged from moderate agreement for meat (kappa = 0·55); fair agreement for sweets (kappa = 0·38), beans/nuts (kappa = 0·37), dairy (kappa = 0·31), fruit (kappa = 0·31) and vegetables (kappa = 0·27); and little to no agreement for refined grains, whole grains and sweetened beverages (73 % overall agreement; kappa = 0·14). Concordance of reporting was highest for breakfast and snacks, as compared with other eating occasions. Higher concordance was observed between the two measures if the meal occurred at home.
Data suggest that among meals reported in both the EMA and dietary recalls, concordance in reporting was reasonably good for some types of food but only fair or poor for others.
We consider a friendship model in which each member of a community has a latent value such that the probability that any two individuals are friends is a function of their latent values. We consider such questions as does information that i and j are both friends with k make it more likely that i and j are themselves friends. Among other things, we show that for fixed sets S and T, the more friends that i has in S, then the stochastically more friends i has in T. We consider how a variation of the friendship paradox applies to our model. We also study the distribution of the number of friendless individuals in the community and derive a bound on the total variation distance between it and a Poisson with the same mean.
Basal units – visibly distinct englacial structures near the ice-bed interface – warrant investigation for a number of reasons. Many are of unknown composition and origin, characteristics that could provide substantial insight into subglacial processes and ice-sheet history. Their significance, moreover, is not limited to near-bed depths; these units appear to dramatically influence the flow of surrounding ice. In order to enable improved characterization of these features, we develop and apply an algorithm that allows for the automatic detection of basal units. We use a tunable layer-optimized SAR processor to distinguish these structures from the bed, isochronous englacial layers and the ice-sheet surface, presenting a conceptual framework for the use of radio-echo character in the identification of ice-sheet features. We also outline a method by which our processor could be used to place observational constraints on basal units’ configuration, composition and provenance.
Background: Since January 1, 2016 2358 people have died from opioid poisoning in Alberta. Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is the recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) and this treatment can be initiated in emergency departments and urgent care centres (EDs). Aim Statement: This project aims to spread a quality improvement intervention to all 107 adult EDs in Alberta by March 31, 2020. The intervention supports clinicians to initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals and provide rapid referrals to OUD treatment clinics. Measures & Design: Local ED teams were identified (administrators, clinical nurse educators, physicians and, where available, pharmacists and social workers). Local teams were supported by a provincial project team (project manager, consultant, and five physician leads) through a multi-faceted implementation process using provincial order sets, clinician education products, and patient-facing information. We used administrative ED and pharmacy data to track the number of visits where bup/nal was given in ED, and whether discharged patients continued to fill any opioid agonist treatment (OAT) prescription 30 days after their index ED visit. OUD clinics reported the number of referrals received from EDs and the number attending their first appointment. Patient safety event reports were tracked to identify any unintended negative impacts. Evaluation/Results: We report data from May 15, 2018 (program start) to September 31, 2019. Forty-nine EDs (46% of 107) implemented the program and 22 (45% of 49) reported evaluation data. There were 5385 opioid-related visits to reporting ED sites after program adoption. Bup/nal was given during 832 ED visits (663 unique patients): 7 visits in the 1st quarter the program operated, 55 in the 2nd, 74 in the 3rd, 143 in the 4th, 294 in the 5th, and 255 in the 6th. Among 505 unique discharged patients with 30 day follow up data available 319 (63%) continued to fill any OAT prescription after receiving bup/nal in ED. 16 (70%) of 23 community clinics provided data. EDs referred patients to these clinics 440 times, and 236 referrals (54%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Available data may under-report program impact. 5 patient safety events have been reported, with no harm or minimal harm to the patient. Discussion/Impact: Results demonstrate effective spread and uptake of a standardized provincial ED based early medical intervention program for patients who live with OUD.
Introduction: Determining fluid status prior to resuscitation provides a more accurate guide for appropriate fluid administration in the setting of undifferentiated hypotension. Emergency Department (ED) point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has been proposed as a potential non-invasive, rapid, repeatable investigation to ascertain inferior vena cava (IVC) characteristics. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using PoCUS to measure IVC size and collapsibility. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicentre international study investigating PoCUS in ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension. We prospectively collected data on IVC size and collapsibility using a standard data collection form in 6 centres. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a clinically useful (determinate) scan defined as a clearly visible intrahepatic IVC, measurable for size and collapse. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: A total of 138 scans were attempted on 138 patients; 45.7% were women and the median age was 58 years old. Overall, one hundred twenty-nine scans (93.5%; 95% CI 87.9 to 96.7%) were determinate. 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for IVC size, and 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for collapsibility. Conclusion: In this analysis of 138 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension, the vast majority of PoCUS scans to investigate IVC characteristics were determinate. Future work should include analysis of the value of IVC size and collapsibility in determining fluid status in this group.
Major depression is a significant problem for people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its treatment remains difficult. A promising approach to treat depression is Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), a relatively new therapeutic approach rooted in mindfulness based stress-reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of MBCT in reducing depression symptoms among people who have a TBI.
Twenty individuals diagnosed with major depression were recruited from a rehabilitation clinic and completed the 8-week MBCT intervention. Instruments used to measure depression symptoms included: BDI-II, PHQ-9, HADS, SF-36 (Mental Health subscale), and SCL-90 (Depression subscale). They were completed at baseline and post-intervention.
All instruments indicated a statistically significant reduction in depression symptoms post-intervention (p < .05). For example, the total mean score on the BDI-II decreased from 25.2 (9.8) at baseline to 18.2 (11.7) post-intervention (p=.001). Using a PHQ threshold of 10, the proportion of participants with a diagnosis of major depression was reduced by 59% at follow-up (p=.012).
Most participants reported reductions in depression symptoms after the intervention such that many would not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of major depression. This intervention may provide an opportunity to address a debilitating aspect of TBI and could be implemented concurrently with more traditional forms of treatment, possibly enhancing their success. The next step will involve the execution of multi-site, randomized controlled trials to fully demonstrate the value of the intervention.
A clearer understanding of the ebb and flow of depression and suicidal thinking in the early phase of psychosis, and how this relates to other symptom dimensions, is essential for developing interventions to reduce risk. The studies presented here investigate whether depression and suicidal thinking are predictable, how they relate to the early course of psychotic symptoms and develop over time.
92 patients with first episode psychosis recruited from the Birmingham Early Intervention Service completed measures of depression, including an prodromal depression, psotove and negative symptoms, self-harm, duration of untreated psychosis, insight and illness appraisals. Follow up took place over 12 months.
Depression occurred in 80% of patients at one or more phase of illness; a combination of depression and suicidal thinking was present in 63%. Depression in the prodromal phase was the most significant predictor of future depression and acts of selfharm. Post psychotic depression unheralded by previous depressive episodes was rare. Depression and suicidal thinking in the acute and post psychotic phases is associated with higher levels of loss and shame, and subordination to persecutors and malevolent voices.
Depression early in the emergence of a psychosis is fundamental to the development of future depression and suicidal thinking, and related to the personal significance and impact of positive symptom dimensions. Efforts to predict and reduce depression and self-harm in psychosis may need to target this early phase to reduce later risk.
High-security hospital patients are often complex in presentation characterised by treatment resistance, medication non-concordance and history of violence. Paliperidone is licensed as both an oral and depot antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. Whilst there is data for the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP), there are no studies involving patients in forensic settings or those with comorbid personality disorder.
To determine the effects of PP on violence, aggression and personality pathology.
To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of PP.
This was a retrospective service evaluation involving 11 patients. Medical records and interviews with the treating psychiatrist were used to formulate clinical global impression (CGI) and to identify incidents of violence. The effect on personality symptom domains; cognitive-perceptual, impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol and affective dysregulation was ascertained, as well as engagement with occupational and psychological therapies.
Six patients were being prescribed PP. All 6 showed improvement in the CGI score with benefits in the symptom domains. Two patients demonstrated a reduction in violence risk and 2 remained incident-free. There was improvement in engagement with therapies. Benefits were also seen in aspects of personality for those who had discontinued PP.
This pragmatic study of a small but complex patient group demonstrated that PP was effective in reducing symptoms of schizophrenia. Additionally and for the first time, it was shown that PP was also effective in reducing violence as well as improving personality pathology dimensions in a comorbid patient. This could have significant implications for management of high-security patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Previous research indicates that prisoners have severe psychological distress. To assess their distress level and potential need for treatment, the present study compared the subjective psychological distress of long- and short-term prisoners with that of psychiatric and forensic patients.
Long- (n = 98) and short-term prisoners (n = 94) and forensic (n = 102) and psychiatric (n = 199) patients completed the German versions of the Symptom Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI).
In general, long-term prisoners showed the same level of mental distress as psychiatric patients and more than that reported by forensic patients. Short-term prisoners reported the least level of distress. Long- but not short-term prisoners showed clinically significant results on the scales for depression, paranoid ideation, and psychosis.
The improvements in psychiatric treatment for inmates demanded by many stakeholders need to differentiate between long- and short-term prisoners. Because depression seems to cause the most psychological distress among inmates, suicide prevention seems to be an important issue in prisons.
The DSM-5 introduced purging disorder (PD) as an other specified feeding or eating disorder characterized by recurrent purging in the absence of binge eating. The current study sought to describe the long-term outcome of PD and to examine predictors of outcome.
Women (N = 84) who met research criteria for PD completed a comprehensive battery of baseline interview and questionnaire assessments. At an average of 10.24 (3.81) years follow-up, available records indicated all women were living, and over 95% were successfully located (n = 80) while over two-thirds (n = 58) completed follow-up assessments. Eating disorder status, full recovery status, and level of eating pathology were examined as outcomes. Severity and comorbidity indicators were tested as predictors of outcome.
Although women experienced a clinically significant reduction in global eating pathology, 58% continued to meet criteria for a DSM-5 eating disorder at follow-up. Only 30% met established criteria for a full recovery. Women reported significant decreases in purging frequency, weight and shape concerns, and cognitive restraint, but did not report significant decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Quality of life was impaired in the physical, psychological, and social domains. More severe weight and shape concerns at baseline predicted meeting criteria for an eating disorder at follow-up. Other baseline severity indicators and comorbidity did not predict the outcome.
Results highlight the severity and chronicity of PD as a clinically significant eating disorder. Future work should examine maintenance factors to better adapt treatments for PD.
Novel tools for early diagnosis and monitoring of schistosomiasis are urgently needed. This study aimed to validate parasite-derived miRNAs as potential novel biomarkers for the detection of human Schistosoma japonicum infection. A total of 21 miRNAs were initially validated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using serum samples of S. japonicum-infected BALB/c mice. Of these, 6 miRNAs were further validated with a human cohort of individuals from a schistosomiasis-endemic area of the Philippines. RT-PCR analysis showed that two parasite-derived miRNAs (sja-miR-2b-5p and sja-miR-2c-5p) could detect infected individuals with low infection intensity with moderate sensitivity/specificity values of 66%/68% and 55%/80%, respectively. Analysis of the combined data for the two parasite miRNAs revealed a specificity of 77.4% and a sensitivity of 60.0% with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.6906 (P = 0.0069); however, a duplex RT-PCR targeting both sja-miR-2b-5p and sja-miR-2c-5p did not result in an increased diagnostic performance compared with the singleplex assays. Furthermore, the serum level of sja-miR-2c-5p correlated significantly with faecal egg counts, whereas the other five miRNAs did not. Targeting S. japonicum-derived miRNAs in serum resulted in a moderate diagnostic performance when applied to a low schistosome infection intensity setting.
In vitro production (IVP) of embryos and associated technologies in cattle have shown significant progress in recent years, in part driven by a better understanding of the full potential of these tools by end users. The combination of IVP with sexed semen (SS) and genomic selection (GS) is being successfully and widely used in North America, South America and Europe. The main advantages offered by these technologies include a higher number of embryos and pregnancies per unit of time, and a wider range of potential female donors from which to retrieve oocytes (including open cyclic females and ones up to 3 months pregnant), including high index genomic calves, a reduced number of sperm required to produce embryos and increased chances of obtaining the desired sex of offspring. However, there are still unresolved aspects of IVP of embryos that limit a wider implementation of the technology, including potentially reduced fertility from the use of SS, reduced oocyte quality after in vitro oocyte maturation and lower embryo cryotolerance, resulting in reduced pregnancy rates compared to in vivo–produced embryos. Nevertheless, promising research results have been reported, and work is in progress to address current deficiencies. The combination of GS, IVP and SS has proven successful in the commercial field in several countries assisting practitioners and cattle producers to improve reproductive performance, efficiency and genetic gain.
Quaternary processes and environmental changes are often difficult to assess in remote subantarctic islands due to high surface erosion rates and overprinting of sedimentary products in locations that can be a challenge to access. We present a set of high-resolution, multichannel seismic lines and complementary multibeam bathymetry collected off the eastern (leeward) side of the subantarctic Auckland Islands, about 465 km south of New Zealand's South Island. These data constrain the erosive and depositional history of the island group, and they reveal an extensive system of sediment-filled valleys that extend offshore to depths that exceed glacial low-stand sea level. Although shallow, marine, U-shaped valleys and moraines are imaged, the rugged offshore geomorphology of the paleovalley floors and the stratigraphy of infill sediments suggests that the valley floors were shaped by submarine fluvial erosion, and subsequently filled by lacustrine, fjord, and fluvial sedimentary processes.
Suppose there are n players in an ongoing competition, with player i having value vi, and suppose that a game between i and j is won by i with probability vi/(vi + vj). Consider the winner plays competition where in each stage two players play a game, and the winner keeps playing in the next game. We consider two models for choosing its opponent, analyze both models as Markov chains, and determine their stationary probabilities as well as other quantities of interest.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.