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Whether unintentional or by design, built, social, and perceived environments influence the human experience. Behavior is not solely the product of a rational motivated actor, operating independently from his or her environment; rather, it is also a function of edifices, neighborhoods, and public spaces, as well as the inhabitants, community norms, and the social capital they generate. Likewise, addictive behaviors have as much to do with the environmental contexts surrounding individuals as with their unique biological factors, specific brain mechanisms, and psychogenic causes. Any attempt to address addiction at either individual or population levels would benefit from careful consideration of the social and contextual influences on cognitions, opportunities, motivations, and behaviors. Interventions informed by this understanding are more likely to be efficacious than those solely targeted toward individual biology, motivations, or attitudes. In this chapter, we discuss the relationship between physical and social environments (PSE), health, and the behavior of humans. We then focus on the influential role of the PSE on the consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances; food, eating behaviors, and addictions contributing to the current obesity epidemic; and a selection of other behavioral addictions. The chapter closes by discussing methodological considerations and implications for professional practice.
Classic theories posit that depression is driven by a negative learning bias. Most studies supporting this proposition used small and selected samples, excluding patients with comorbidities. However, comorbidity between psychiatric disorders occurs in up to 70% of the population. Therefore, the generalizability of the negative bias hypothesis to a naturalistic psychiatric sample as well as the specificity of the bias to depression, remain unclear. In the present study, we tested the negative learning bias hypothesis in a large naturalistic sample of psychiatric patients, including depression, anxiety, addiction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism. First, we assessed whether the negative bias hypothesis of depression generalized to a heterogeneous (and hence more naturalistic) depression sample compared with controls. Second, we assessed whether negative bias extends to other psychiatric disorders. Third, we adopted a dimensional approach, by using symptom severity as a way to assess associations across the sample.
We administered a probabilistic reversal learning task to 217 patients and 81 healthy controls. According to the negative bias hypothesis, participants with depression should exhibit enhanced learning and flexibility based on punishment v. reward. We combined analyses of traditional measures with more sensitive computational modeling.
In contrast to previous findings, this sample of depressed patients with psychiatric comorbidities did not show a negative learning bias.
These results speak against the generalizability of the negative learning bias hypothesis to depressed patients with comorbidities. This study highlights the importance of investigating unselected samples of psychiatric patients, which represent the vast majority of the psychiatric population.
To quantify diet-related burdens of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) by country, age and sex in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).
Intakes of eleven key dietary factors were obtained from the Global Dietary Database Consortium. Aetiologic effects of dietary factors on CMD outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality data to compute country-, age- and sex-specific absolute and proportional CMD mortality of eleven dietary factors in 1990 and 2010.
Thirty-two countries in LAC.
Adults aged 25 years and older.
In 2010, an estimated 513 371 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) 423 286–547 841; 53·8 %) cardiometabolic deaths were related to suboptimal diet. Largest diet-related CMD burdens were related to low intake of nuts/seeds (109 831 deaths (95 % UI 71 920–121 079); 11·5 %), low fruit intake (106 285 deaths (95 % UI 94 904–112 320); 11·1 %) and high processed meat consumption (89 381 deaths (95 % UI 82 984–97 196); 9·4 %). Among countries, highest CMD burdens (deaths per million adults) attributable to diet were in Trinidad and Tobago (1779) and Guyana (1700) and the lowest were in Peru (492) and The Bahamas (504). Between 1990 and 2010, greatest decline (35 %) in diet-attributable CMD mortality was related to greater consumption of fruit, while greatest increase (7·2 %) was related to increased intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages.
Suboptimal intakes of commonly consumed foods were associated with substantial CMD mortality in LAC with significant heterogeneity across countries. Improved access to healthful foods, such as nuts and fruits, and limits in availability of unhealthful factors, such as processed foods, would reduce diet-related burdens of CMD in LAC.
A range of decision-makers, including policy-makers, NGOs and local communities, have a stake in developing conservation interventions that are to be implemented on the ground. In order to ensure that decision-making is evidence-informed, the science community needs to engage these communities of policy and practice effectively. This chapter brings together work which explores how scientists can work effectively with decision-makers, using global case studies from South America, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere to identify what works. It identifies 10 key tips for successful engagement : (1) know who you need to talk to, (2) engage early, (3) make it easy to engage, (4) include multiple knowledges, perspectives and worldviews, (5) think hard about power, (6) build trust, (7) good facilitation is key, (8) learn new engagement skills, (9) make use of existing spaces of collaboration, and (10) don't give up. While executing these tips will not guarantee successful engagement in every case, it will improve the chances for mutually beneficial relationships and hence better conservation outcomes.
The advent of genome wide association studies have resulted in the identification of a number of novel genetic loci for schizophrenia and related disorders. Understanding the functional impact of these variants on brain structure and function is crucial to understand their role in disease pathology. We presents data based on our genetic and neuropsychological assessment of almost 700 patients and healthy participants for a number of these variants and replication of our findings in independent samples of almost 1500 cases and controls. Specifically, we will use this data to suggest that the risk associated with some genetics variants (e.g. NOS1) is being mediated by an influence on variation in intelligence and other cognitive phenotypes, while other risk variants (e.g. ZNF804A) delineate illness subtypes in which cognitive deficits are a less prominent feature.
Alcohol induced liver disease (ALD) is the predominant cause of alcohol-related mortality in the UK. Therefore helping patients with ALD to quit is a primary treatment goal.
The primary aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness and tolerability of Baclofen in maintaining abstinence, and to determine if this resulted in a reduction in standard measures of liver damage.
An observational prospective clinical audit was performed. Patients with ALD were commenced on Baclofen titrated according to tolerability and response up to 30 mg TDS. Primary outcome measures were severity of physical dependence (SADQ score) and biochemical markers of liver damage GGT, ALT, Bilirubin fibroelastography. These were compared at baseline, and 1 year.
Of the 243 patients commenced on Baclofen, 151 (85 female 66 male) have completed 1 year follow-up (F/U) of which 130 (86%) have remained engaged. 10 have died. Comparison of baseline (B/L) and 1 year biochemical markers showed a reduction in GGT (c2= 66.8 P < 0.0001) and Bil (c2= 82.6 P < 0.0001). There was a significant reduction in alcohol consumption (P < 0.0001 95% CI = 10 to 22). And the presence of physical dependence (c<sup>2</sup> = 77.4 P < 0.0001) as categorised by SADQ.
Baclofen is well tolerated in this very difficult to treat, high risk patient group. It has a positive impact on alcohol consumption, and overall measures of liver function and harm. A RCT is needed to confirm the benefit of Baclofen in this patient group.</div>
The 2009 Quality Network for Inpatient CAMHS (QNIC) Service Standards states that every patient should have a multidisciplinary team (MDT) care plan, which should be developed in collaboration with, and accessible to the child and the parents/carers.
To complete an initial audit, followed by an education session and introduction of a ‘child-friendly' care plan template into the admission pack, and finally re-audit.
To increase the involvement of children and their parents/carers in the care plan.
This project was carried out between October 2013 and January 2014. Audit involved review of paper and electronic (JADE) case notes for all new and current admissions, and parents and young people were contacted in person or via telephone. Care plans were assessed for availability (i.e. presence in children's personal trays), and existence of a ‘child-friendly' version. The intervention consisted of an education session, and introduction of a ‘child-friendly' care plan template into the admission pack.
An education session and introduction of a template for completion of ‘child-friendly' care plans resulted in an increase in children's and parents'/carers' awareness of, access to, and involvement in their care plans. Further work might assess whether service users are equally involved in discharge planning.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe disease with often chronic courses, relapses and drop-outs. Recently, there has been a growing interest for qualitative research in eating disorders since this methodology gained some recognition as a reliable source of new insights and therapeutic implications. There is indeed an increasing qualitative literature about AN during adolescence but yet difficult to gather and synthesize. Therefore, we decided to perform a metasynthesis, i.e.a review of qualitative studies and a transversal analysis of all the studies, about AN treatment during adolescence. In order to obtain an integrated description of this topic, we included qualitative papers with perspectives from the adolescents, their parents or the healthcare professionals.
This meta-synthesis is based on a procedure adapted from meta-ethnography. From five data base (Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, SSCI), we did a systematic review for papers in English published between 1990 and 2014 using solely qualitative methodology and exploring the issue of treatment in adolescent AN. In total, 1140 papers were found and 27 were selected. We used the Critical Appraisal Skill Program – Qualitative research check-list to assess the quality of the studies.
We found three main themes: (1) to cure AN, (2) to care for the adolescent and the family, and (3) the therapeutic alliance as the main treatment challenge. We will discuss the lack of shared representations about treatment and especially the transversal issue concerning the dialectic 'having AN/Being Anorectic”.
We compared methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) captured by culture-based surveillance and MRSA septicemia hospitalizations captured by administrative coding using statewide hospital discharge data in Connecticut from 2010 to 2018. Observed discrepancies between identification methods suggest administrative coding is inappropriate for assessing trends in MRSA BSIs.
Historically, patients with multiple acts of aggression, or chronic aggressors, have been studied as one large group. It was our objective to subdivide this group into those patients who engage in physical aggression consistently over multiple years and see if common characteristics of chronic aggressors could classify patients into an aggressive or nonaggressive group.
Within a forensic hospital system, patients who had committed 5 acts of physical aggression, per year, for 3 years (2010 and 2015) were reviewed. Data was collected on clinical and demographic characteristics that have shown to be associated with chronically aggressive patients and compared to nonaggressive matched controls. Data collection and analysis were completed to determine if the variables could classify patients into an aggressive or nonaggressive group.
Analysis showed that 2 variables, the presence of a cognitive disorder and a history of suicidal behaviors were significant in the univariate and multivariate analyses. The 2 variables were able to correctly classify 76.7% of the cases.
A cognitive disorder, a history of suicidal behavior, and increased age were factors associated with this subgroup of aggressive patients. Clinicians may want to explore treatment programs aimed at these clinical factors including cognitive rehabilitation and social cognition treatments, which have been shown to reduce aggression in cognitively impaired populations.
The first primate-like mammals to appear in the fossil record date to the earliest Palaeocene (Clemens, 2004; Fox and Scott, 2011; Silcox and López-Torres, 2017; Van Valen and Sloan, 1965), and the first primates of modern aspect (euprimates) do not appear until the latest Palaeocene/earliest Eocene (Morse et al., 2019; Ni et al., 2013; Rose et al., 2012; Sigé et al., 1990; Silcox et al., 2017; Smith et al., 2006). However, the most recent molecular estimates for the last common ancestor (LCA) of all living primates suggest that the order originated at some point between the late Cretaceous and the early Palaeocene (approximately between 60 and 70 Mya; Andrews et al., 2016; Herrera and Dávalos, 2016; Seiffert et al., 2018). Later, between 42 and 55 Mya (according to the same sources for molecular dates), Strepsirrhini split into the progenitors of the infraorders Lemuriformes and Lorisiformes (throughout this chapter we use the taxonomy established by Grubb et al., 2003). The Lemuriformes went on to radiate into the vast array of morphologically diverse living and extinct lemurs located on the island of Madagascar, and the lorisiforms split into two families: Lorisidae (pottos, angwantibos, slender lorises and slow lorises) and Galagidae, the bushbabies (Covert, 2002; Martin, 1990; Rasmussen and Nekaris, 1998).
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
In mental health research, functional recovery is increasingly valued as an important outcome in addition to symptomatic remission.
Course types of functional limitations among depressed older patients and its relation with symptomatic remission were explored in a naturalistic cohort study (Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons). 378 depressed older patients (≥60 years) and 132 non-depressed persons were included. Depressive disorders were assessed with Composite International Diagnostic Interview at baseline and two-year follow-up. Functional limitations were assessed every 6 months with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment II.
Depressed patients had more functional limitations compared to their non-depressed counterparts. Growth Mixture Modeling among depressed patients identified two trajectories of functional limitations, both starting at a high disability level. The largest subgroup (81.2%) was characterized by a course of high disability levels over time. The smaller subgroup (18.8%) had an improving course (functional recovery). After two years, the main predictor of functional recovery was the remission of depression. Among symptomatic remitted patients, female sex, higher level of education, higher gait speed, and less severe depression were associated with no functional recovery. Non-remitted patients without functional recovery were characterized by the presence of more chronic somatic diseases, a lower sense of mastery, and a higher level of anxiety.
1 in 5 depressed older patients have a course with functional recovery. Combining functional and symptomatic recovery points to a subgroup of older patients that might profit from more rigorous psychiatric treatment targeted at psychiatric comorbidity and a group of frail depressed older patients that might profit from integrated geriatric rehabilitation.
Standardizing healthcare surface sampling requires the evaluation of sampling tools for organism adherence. Here, 7 sampling tools were evaluated to assess their elution efficiencies in the presence of 5 pathogens. Foam sponges (80.6%), microfiber wipes (80.5%), foam swabs (77.9%), and cellulose sponges (66.5%) yielded the highest median elution efficiencies.
The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed and updated description of the FinnTwin16 (FT16) study and its future directions. The Finnish Twin Cohort comprises three different cohorts: the Older Twin Cohort established in the 1970s and the FinnTwin12 and FT16 initiated in the 1990s. FT16 was initiated in 1991 to identify the genetic and environmental precursors of alcoholism, but later the scope of the project expanded to studying the determinants of various health-related behaviors and diseases in different stages of life. The main areas addressed are alcohol use and its consequences, smoking, physical activity, overall physical health, eating behaviors and eating disorders, weight development, obesity, life satisfaction and personality. To date, five waves of data collection have been completed and the sixth is now planned. Data from the FT16 cohort have contributed to several hundred studies and many substudies, with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data completed or underway. FT16 has also contributed to many national and international collaborations.
This review offers an update on research conducted with FinnTwin12 (FT12), the youngest of the three Finnish Twin Cohorts. FT12 was designed as a two-stage study. In the first stage, we conducted multiwave questionnaire research enrolling all eligible twins born in Finland during 1983–1987 along with their biological parents. In stage 2, we intensively studied a subset of these twins with in-school assessments at age 12 and semistructured poly-diagnostic interviews at age 14. At baseline, parents of intensively studied twins were administered the adult version of the interview. Laboratory studies with repeat interviews, neuropsychological tests, and collection of DNA were made of intensively studied twins during follow-up in early adulthood. The basic aim of the FT12 study design was to obtain information on individual, familial and school/neighborhood risks for substance use/abuse prior to the onset of regular tobacco and alcohol use and then track trajectories of use and abuse and their consequences into adulthood. But the longitudinal assessments were not narrowly limited to this basic aim, and with multiwave, multirater assessments from ages 11 to 12, the study has created a richly informative data set for analyses of gene–environment interactions of both candidate genes and genomewide measures with measured risk-relevant environments. Because 25 years have elapsed since the start of the study, we are planning a fifth-wave follow-up assessment.
Art programmes have been shown to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia. To understand how people with dementia benefit from art programmes it is important to evaluate them. ‘Unforgettable’ is an interactive museum programme for people with dementia and their care-givers in the Netherlands. This study examined how it is experienced and appreciated by its users. It also investigated whether the user experience and appreciation are linked to their specific background characteristics. In a single-group design, we used a ‘take-home’ survey to collect the participants’ background characteristics and their experience and appreciation of the programme. A before and after intervention measurement took place, using a smiley face scale, to measure the change in mood of participants. Participants evaluated the programme very positively. Social interaction proved a key factor in their appreciation. The mood of the persons with dementia (N = 95) and care-givers (N = 104) improved after participation in the ‘Unforgettable’ programme. The results of this evaluation may contribute to the quality of art programmes in museums.
Many school-based interventions for obesity prevention have been proposed with positive changes in behaviour, but with unsatisfactory results on weight change. The objective was to verify the effectiveness of a combined school- and home-based obesity prevention programme on excessive weight gain in adolescents. Teachers delivered the school-based primary prevention programme to fifth- and sixth-graders (nine schools, forty-eight control classes, forty-nine intervention classes), which included encouraging healthy eating habits and physical activity. A subgroup of overweight or obese adolescents also received a home-based secondary prevention programme delivered by community health professionals. Schools were randomised to intervention or control group. Intent-to-treat analysis used mixed models for repeated continuous measures and considered the cluster effect. The main outcomes were changes in BMI and percentage body fat (%body fat) after one school-year of intervention and follow-up. Against our hypothesis, BMI increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (Δ = 0·3 kg/m2; P = 0·05) with a greater decrease in %body fat among boys (Δ = –0·6 %; P = 0·03) in the control group. The intervention group increased physical activity by 12·5 min per week compared with the control group. Female adolescents in the intervention group ate healthier items more frequently than in the control group. The subgroup that received both the school and home interventions had an increase in %body fat than in the control group (Δ = 0·89 %; P = 0·01). In the present study, a behavioural change led to a small increase in physical activity and healthy eating habits but also to an overall increase in food intake.