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Addiction is characterized by excessive desire for a particular substance or behavioral incentive at the expense of other life rewards. Addictive desire can develop even in absence of any associated increase in pleasure, and also in absence of withdrawal. Here we review evidence that the brain mechanisms underlying desire or ‘wanting’ can operate independently from those mediating pleasure, or "liking." That is, "wanting" and "liking" are mediated by two anatomically and neurochemically distinct brain mechanisms that normally interact together to influence motivation, but can become dissociated in the transition to addiction. Pleasure "liking" is the hedonic impact of a pleasant stimulus and is causally amplified by a brain system of several functionally interactive but anatomically distributed locations referred to as "hedonic hotspots." These hedonic hotspots are localized subregions within larger brain structures, and are relatively sensitive to disruption. By contrast, "wanting" or the subconscious desire for reward or reward-related cues is much more robust, and mediated by a larger brain system. "Wanting" can be generated by dopamine enhancements as well as by opioid enhancements in several broadly defined regions throughout mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In susceptible individuals, mesolimbic circuitry can become hyperreactive or sensitized (e.g., through previous drug experience), so that "rewards" and their related cues evoke even greater dopamine release and "wanting." Sensitized "wanting" becomes harder to resist, which can spur on excessive and compulsive pursuit and relapse in addiction. Importantly, this sensitization of brain "wanting" systems need not be accompanied by an enhancement of brain "liking" (i.e., dopamine manipulations do not appear to effect pleasure). In this chapter, we also highlight possible mechanisms for how some drugs or behaviors become the specific focus of excessive but narrow pursuit, usually involving mesolimbic brain interactions with areas such as the amygdala. Further we demonstrate that behavioral addictions such as food addiction and gambling, like drug addiction, are accompanied by sensitization of mesolimbic brain "wanting" systems in the transition to addiction.
Passive acoustic monitoring is rapidly gaining recognition as a practical, affordable and robust tool for measuring gun hunting levels within protected areas, and consequently for its potential to evaluate anti-poaching patrols’ effectiveness based on outcome (i.e., change in hunting pressure) rather than effort (e.g., kilometres patrolled) or output (e.g., arrests). However, there has been no report to date of a protected area successfully using an acoustic grid to explore baseline levels of gun hunting activity, adapting its patrols in response to the evidence extracted from the acoustic data and then evaluating the effectiveness of the new patrol strategy. We report here such a case in Cameroon’s Korup National Park, where anti-poaching patrol effort was markedly increased in the 2015–2016 Christmas/New Year holiday season to curb the annual peak in gunshots recorded by a 12-sensor acoustic grid in the same period during the previous 2 years. Despite a three- to five-fold increase in patrol days, distance and area covered, the desired outcome – lower gun hunting activity – was not achieved under the new patrol scheme. The findings emphasize the need for adaptive wildlife law enforcement and how passive acoustic monitoring can help attain this goal, and they warn about the risks of using effort-based metrics of anti-poaching strategies as a surrogate for desired outcomes. We propose ways of increasing protected areas’ capacity to adopt acoustic grids as a law enforcement monitoring tool.
Poultry production is an important way of enhancing the livelihoods of rural populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As poultry production in LMICs remains dominated by backyard systems with low inputs and low outputs, considerable yield gaps exist. Intensification can increase poultry productivity, production and income. This process is relatively recent in LMICs compared to high-income countries. The management practices and the constraints faced by smallholders trying to scale-up their production, in the early stages of intensification, are poorly understood and described. We thus investigated the features of the small-scale commercial chicken sector in a rural area distant from major production centres. We surveyed 111 commercial chicken farms in Kenya in 2016. We targeted farms that sell the majority of their production, owning at least 50 chickens, partly or wholly confined and provided with feeds. We developed a typology of semi-intensive farms. Farms were found mainly to raise dual-purpose chickens of local and improved breeds, in association with crops and were not specialized in any single product or market. We identified four types of semi-intensive farms that were characterized based on two groups of variables related to intensification and accessibility: (i) remote, small-scale old farms, with small flocks, growing a lot of their own feed; (ii) medium-scale, old farms with a larger flock and well located in relation to markets and (iii) large-scale recently established farms, with large flocks, (iii-a) well located and buying chicks from third-party providers and (iii-b) remotely located and hatching their own chicks. The semi-intensive farms we surveyed were highly heterogeneous in terms of size, age, accessibility, management, opportunities and challenges. Farm location affects market access and influences the opportunities available to farmers, resulting in further diversity in farm profiles. The future of these semi-intensive farms could be compromised by several factors, including the competition with large-scale intensive farmers and with importations. Our study suggests that intensification trajectories in rural areas of LMICs are potentially complex, diverse and non-linear. A better understanding of intensification trajectories should, however, be based on longitudinal data. This could, in turn, help designing interventions to support small-scale farmers.
The new channels of communication as social media (e.g. Facebook and Twitter) and the social marketing campaign (i.e. campaign focused on enabling, encouraging and supporting behavioural changes among target audiences) can represent useful strategies to challenge stigma attached to mental disorders.
To evaluate the efficacy of the social marketing campaign of the time to change (SMC-TTC) anti-stigma programme on the target population in England during 2009–2014.
To assess the impact of the SMC-TTC anti-stigma programme in terms of:
– use of the social media channels;
– levels of awareness of the SMC-TTC;
– changes in knowledge, attitude, and behaviour related to mental disorders.
Participants completed the mental health knowledge schedule (MAKS), the community attitudes toward mental illness (CAMI) and the reported and intended behaviour scale (RIBS), together with an ad-hoc schedule on socio-demographic characteristics.
In total, 10526 people were interviewed, it was found a growing usage of the SMC-TTC media channels and of the level of awareness of the campaign (P < 0.001). Being aware of the SMC-TTC was found to be associated with higher score at MAKS (OR = .95, CI = .68 to 1.21; P < .001), at “tolerance and support” CAMI subscale (OR = .12, CI = .09 to .16; P < .001) and RIBS (OR = .71, CI = .51 to .92; P < .001), controlling for confounders.
In the general population, SMC-TTC has been found to be effective in improving attitudes and behaviours towards people with mental disorders.
Considering these promising results obtained in England, social media can represent the possible way forward for challenging stigma. The future on-going evaluation of the SMC-TTC may further shed light on the essential role of social media in reducing of stigma and discrimination.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The existence of a frontotemporal dementia phenocopy (phFTD) syndrome remains controversial. Opinions differ on whether the phenocopy presentation represents the neuropsychological manifestation of a mid-life decompensation in vulnerable pre-morbid personalities or an indolent prodrome of behavioral-variant FTD (bvFTD). Literature on this topic is sparse and clinicians and patients have little guidance around prognosis and management.
To describe the demographic, neuropsychological and biomarker profiles of a case series of phFTD patients, attending the memory clinic and review relevant literature.
Retrospective review of all cases diagnosed with phFTD.
Eleven cases were identified (male = 9, female = 2). Mean age 55.8 years. Subjective complaints comprised memory and language difficulties. Collateral reports described apathy, aggression, impulsivity, disinhibition, hyperorality. Function was relatively preserved though motivation or supervision for higher-level tasks was sometimes required. All had non-neurodegenerative MRI and PET scans. Neuropsychological test (NPT) findings predominantly showed executive dysfunction and fluency impairment. A total of 3/11 had non-amnestic memory impairment. Follow-up imaging and NPT were invariably unchanged; 1/11 had a pre-morbid psychiatric diagnosis; 5/11 had unusual personality traits pre-morbidly. Major psychosocial stressors were documented in 7/11. Management consisted of psychosocial interventions to support function and interpersonal relationships.
The literature describes the phFTD syndrome as predominantly affecting males though we include 2 females who meet the criteria. In keeping with our findings, personality traits and psychosocial stressors may be more common in phFTD than bvFTD. More severe symptoms, memory impairment at presentation and C9ORF72 gene mutation may predict eventual progression. Those who do not progress have minimal long-term functional impairment though behavioral symptoms persist.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Whole apples are a source of pectin and polyphenols, both of which show potential to modulate postprandial lipaemia (PPL). The present study aimed to explore the effects of whole apple consumption on PPL, as a risk factor for CVD, in generally healthy but overweight and obese adults. A randomised, crossover acute meal trial was conducted with seventeen women and nine men (mean BMI of 34·1 (sem 0·2) kg/m2). Blood samples were collected for 6 h after participants consumed an oral fat tolerance test meal that provided 1 g fat/kg body weight and 1500 mg acetaminophen per meal for estimating gastric emptying, with and without three whole raw Gala apples (approximately 200 g). Plasma TAG (with peak postprandial concentration as the primary outcome), apoB48, chylomicron-rich fraction particle size and fatty acid composition, glucose, insulin and acetaminophen were analysed. Differences between with and without apples were identified by ANCOVA. Apple consumption did not alter postprandial TAG response, chylomicron properties, glucose or acetaminophen (P > 0·05), but did lead to a higher apoB48 peak concentration and exaggerated insulin between 20 and 180 min (P < 0·05). Overall, as a complex food matrix, apples did not modulate postprandial TAG when consumed with a high-fat meal in overweight and obese adults, but did stimulate insulin secretion, potentially contributing to an increased TAG-rich lipoprotein production.
Chapter Two explores how court officials tried to come to terms with Zhu Di’s deep engagement with the steppe and its leaders. Zhu Di’s five steppe campaigns were more than military conflicts. Zhu Di visited the sites – sometimes ruins – of former Yuan palaces and lodges. He offered commentary on the Yuan ruling house, which accentuated his status as successor to the Great Yuan and as a ruler uniquely qualified to pass judgment on fellow sovereigns. Zhu Di’s actions challenged civil officials in many ways. They had to praise a sovereign who openly flouted the founder’s precedents. They celebrated the emperor’s newest subjects, men who drank blood, consumed raw liver, and exulted in physical strength. Court ministers’ writings depicted a style of rulership obviously connected to men from afar in ways that simultaneously satisfied their sovereign’s demands and minimized dangers to the polity and to themselves.
The Conclusion offers observations about what the study’s main findings reveal about Ming rulership and the Ming throne’s place in east Eurasia. It argues that the Ming throne actively sought allies in Eurasia through political patronage, economic support, and a rhetoric that highlights the ties of good faith and loyalty between the emperor and Mongol nobles at home and abroad. The Conclusion also briefly critiques New Qing History exceptionalism, suggesting that the Ming throne’s engagement in Eurasia is one chapter in a far longer story of China’s deep ties to neighboring polities.
Using the unusually rich historical sources generated by the Tumu crisis, Chapter Four offers a reconstruction of Ming rulership in east Eurasia in the mid-fifteenth century. Chapter Four demonstrated that the fifteenth century’s first half saw a multigenerational, multifaceted competition among Mongol, Oirat, and Ming ruling elites to turn the Chinggisid legacy to their advantage. Each developed a genealogy or pedigree of rulership, which it advertised to its neighbors. The best-documented example, that of the Ming dynastic house, trumpeted the superior attributes of the rulership of Zhu Yuanzhang and his descendants. Just as emphatically, the Ming throne denied the qualifications of rival lords such as Toqto’a-Buqa and Esen. The Ming ruling family and its close supporters tried to persuade several audiences, including Jurchen chieftains, the Choson throne, and Oirat and Mongol leaders, of its historical vision of the past and the present.
Chapter Three is a group biography of Mongols in the early Ming throne’s service. Zhu Di and his advisers depicted Esen-Tügel’s decision to join the Ming dynasty in 1423 as a submission, which proved Zhu Di’s superior attributes of rulership. The emperor’s martial prowess, munificence, and ability to recognize men of outstanding ability regardless of their origin won the allegiance and service of a proven Mongol warrior and leader. As was often the case, this dramatic moment – an oath of personal fealty – commanded chroniclers’ attention, but the bigger story had yet to unfold. Imperial patronage continued for much of the remainder of the fifteenth century. It took material form in housing, wages, and personal gifts. It also came in the guise of tax exemptions, prestigious titles and posts, opportunities for advancement, and the throne’s conspicuous protection. Successive emperors displayed their favor through material, financial, political, and honorific means. Such patronage extended to hundreds of Mongolian men, their families, and their descendants for decades and decades. Men from afar embraced this face of rulership. At the same time, it was a pattern of behavior that many civil officials rejected, in part because they felt that such generosity came at their expense.
The introduction discusses the core issues and organization of the book. It argues that despite long-standing stereotypes about Chinese isolation, the Ming court was fully engaged in foreign relations in Eurasia and that relations with Mongol nobles in particular figure prominently in the perception and representation of Ming emperors’ identity and style of rulership.
Zhu Di’s experience as imperial prince shaped his rule’s style and substance. He interacted with Mongolian men as subordinates, advisers, allies, negotiating partners, rivals, and traitors. He was known among them as Lord of Yan. Breaking with his father’s example, Zhu Di repeatedly campaigned in person on the steppe as emperor. There he met with steppe leaders, hosted banquets, conducted grand hunts, and organized vast military reviews. He spoke openly of his motives and objectives on the steppe, not just to audiences at home but also with Korean, Jurchen, Mongol, Moghul, and Timurid leaders. He inserted himself into a Chinggisid world as east Eurasia’s premier ruler and patron.