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US federalism grants state legislators the authority to design many aspects of election administration, including ballot features that mediate how citizens understand and engage with the choices available to them when casting their votes. Seemingly innocuous features in the physical design of ballots, such as the option to cast a straight ticket with a single checkmark, can have significant aggregate effects. Drawing on theoretical insights from behavioral economics and extensive data on state ballot laws from 1888 to the present, as well as in-depth case studies, this book shows how strategic politicians use ballot design to influence voting and elections, drawing comparisons across different periods in American history with varying levels of partisanship and contention. Engstrom and Roberts demonstrate the sweeping impact of ballot design on voting, elections, and democratic representation.
This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
MARGARET Tyler's Mirror of Princely Deeds and Knighthood, published in 1578, translates Book One of Espejo de Príncipes y Caballeros by Diego Ortúñez de Calahorra, but Tyler makes several changes and additions to the Spanish text she translates. As Joyce Boro's excellent 2014 edition details, most of these changes are in the service of Tyler's English audience, incorporating specifically English vocabulary and literary techniques as well as making English characters and settings more attractive than in the Spanish original. One particular addition, however, has remained perplexing: a standalone reference to “the Jews” that Tyler adds to a chapter title. While there are several possible interpretations of Tyler's addition here, this essay suggests that this reference alludes to the apocryphal story of Judith, with which Tyler's audience would have been familiar.
Chapter 29 of the Mirror bears the following title: “Rosicleer, in Liverba's name, slayeth Argion and removeth the Jews.” As Boro notes, “the removal of the Jews is added to the chapter title, which is very odd since there are no Jews in the chapter, or anywhere at all in the romance.” A little context for this title: in chapter 29, one of the Mirror's protagonists, Rosicleer, undertakes his first battle on his quest to become a knight. Rosicleer has grown up in a monastery and has only recently discovered his true identity as the son of the Hungarian princess Briana and a great foreign knight. In the previous chapter, Rosicleer stumbles on a valley ruled by the evil tyrant Argion; among Argion's most despicable practices is his continual demand for young women “for his carnal liking” (127.89). Liverba is one of the young women Argion requests; Rosicleer disguises himself as a woman in order to take her place, get close to Argion, and slay the tyrant.
As Boro notes, the reference to “the Jews” seems misplaced in this episode. “[R]emoveth the Jews” certainly sounds like an anti- Semitic reference, which of course cannot be ruled out given the expulsion of Jews from medieval England as well as the general rhetoric of distrust that persisted into the early modern era.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Humanitarian aid workers are an overlooked population within the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research and assistance. This negligence is an industry-wide failure to address aid workers’ psychological health issues. The suspected numbers of death by suicide, diagnosed PTSD, depression, anxiety disorders, hazardous alcohol and drug consumption, emotional exhaustion, and other stress-related problems are impossible to quantify but are considered endemic. Tools for establishing organizational frameworks for mental health and psychosocial support are readily available. However, the capacity to implement this assistance requires the creation and practice of an open and non-judgmental culture, based on the realistic acceptance that aid work has become inherently dangerous. The possibility of developing a psychological problem because of aid work has increased along with the rise in levels of disease, injury, kidnapping, and assault. As a result, expressions of traumatic stress have become the norm rather than an exception. This commentary outlines the essential steps and components necessary to meet these requirements.
Existing peer-reviewed literature describing emergency medical technician (EMT) acquisition and transmission of 12-lead electrocardiograms (12L-ECGs), in the absence of a paramedic, is largely limited to feasibility studies.
The objective of this retrospective observational study was to describe the impact of EMT-acquired 12L-ECGs in Suffolk County, New York (USA), both in terms of the diagnostic quality of the transmitted 12L-ECGs and the number of prehospital percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-center notifications made as a result of transmitted 12L-ECGs demonstrating a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
A pre-existing database was queried for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) calls on which an EMT acquired a 12L-ECG from program initiation (January 2017) through December 31, 2019. Scanned copies of the 12L-ECGs were requested in order to be reviewed by a blinded emergency physician.
Of the 665 calls, 99 had no 12L-ECG available within the database. For 543 (96%) of the available 12L-ECGs, the quality was sufficient to diagnose the presence or absence of a STEMI. Eighteen notifications were made to PCI-centers about a concern for STEMI. The median time spent on scene and transporting to the hospital were 18 and 11 minutes, respectively. The median time from PCI-center notification to EMS arrival at the emergency department (ED) was seven minutes (IQR 5-14).
In the event a cardiac monitor is available, after a limited educational intervention, EMTs are capable of acquiring a diagnostically useful 12L-ECG and transmitting it to a remote medical control physician for interpretation. This allows for prehospital PCI-center activation for a concern of a 12L-ECG with a STEMI, in the event that a paramedic is not available to care for the patient.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure is associated with increased risk of hormonally mediated cancers and other medical conditions. We evaluated the association between DES and risk of pancreatic cancer and pancreatic disorders, type 2 diabetes, and gallbladder disease, which may be involved with this malignancy. Our analyses used follow-up data from the US National Cancer Institute DES Combined Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex, cohort, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol for the association between prenatal DES exposure and type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease (mainly cholelithiasis), pancreatic disorders (mainly pancreatitis), and pancreatic cancer among 5667 exposed and 3315 unexposed individuals followed from 1990 to 2017. Standardized incidence rate (SIR) ratios for pancreatic cancer were based on age-, race-, and calendar year-specific general population cancer incidence rates. In women and men combined, the hazards for total pancreatic disorders and pancreatitis were greater in the prenatally DES exposed than the unexposed (HR = 11, 95% CI 2.6–51 and HR = 7.0, 95% CI 1.5–33, respectively). DES was not associated overall with gallbladder disease (HR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.88–1.5) or diabetes (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.2). In women, but not in men, DES exposure was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the unexposed (HR: 4.1, 95% CI 0.84–20) or general population (SIR: 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.2). Prenatal DES exposure may increase the risk of pancreatic disorders, including pancreatitis in women and men. The data suggested elevated pancreatic cancer risk in DES-exposed women, but not in exposed men.
We consider the flow of a thermoviscous fluid within a vertical tube which is heated from below, modelling a scenario where a fluid melts, flows and eventually drips due to a temperature-dependent viscosity. To do so, we develop a two-dimensional axisymmetric model comprising three regions, a solid granular upper region (modelled as a region of hydrostatic pressure), a middle highly viscous ‘crust’ region which flows and a lower cavity region within which the material can drip. New material is continuously added to the top, yet the highly viscous middle region can slow mass transfer from the top region to the cavity if it becomes too thick or does not drip fast enough. In the limit of a tall, thin geometry, akin to what is often seen in industrial applications, the resulting model comprises a moving boundary problem governed by an energy equation with a Stefan condition, both subject to a non-local radially averaged convective term. We carry out numerical simulations and an asymptotic analysis of the model in this tall, thin limit, for a variety of physically relevant parameter regimes. Our results reveal a variety of qualitatively different behaviours, and enable us to explore how various parameter regimes influence the salient features of the flow, including the ‘crust’ thickness and the flux of material through the lower moving boundary.
This study describes a procedural blank assessment of the ultraviolet photochemical oxidation (UV oxidation) method that is used to measure carbon isotopes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (NOSAMS). A retrospective compilation of Fm and δ13C results for secondary standards (OX-II, glycine) between 2009 and 2018 indicated that a revised blank correction was required to bring results in line with accepted values. The application of a best-fit mass-balance correction yielded a procedural blank of 22.0 ± 6.0 µg C with Fm of 0.30 ± 0.20 and δ13C of –32.0 ± 3.0‰ for this period, which was notably higher and more variable than previously reported. Changes to the procedure, specifically elimination of higher organic carbon reagents and improved sample and reactor handling, reduced the blank to 11.0 ± 2.75 µg C, with Fm of 0.14 ± 0.10 and δ13C of –31.0 ± 5.5‰. A thorough determination of the entire sample processing blank is required to ensure accurate isotopic compositions of seawater DOC using the UV oxidation method. Additional efforts are needed to further reduce the procedural blank so that smaller DOC samples can be analyzed, and to increase sample throughput.
Calculus students are taught that an indefinite integral is defined only up to an additive constant, and as a consequence generations of students have assiduously added ‘+C’ to their calculus homework. Although ubiquitous, these constants rarely garner much attention, and typically loiter without intent around the ends of equations, feeling neglected. There is, however, useful work they can do, work which is particularly relevant in the contexts of integral tables and computer algebra systems. We begin, therefore, with a discussion of the context, before returning to coax the constants out of the shadows and assign them their tasks.
To assess the associations between nutrient intake and dietary patterns with different sarcopenia definitions in older men.
Sarcopenia was defined using the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2). Dietary adequacy of fourteen nutrients was assessed by comparing participants’ intakes with the Nutrient Reference Values (NRV). Attainment of NRV for nutrients was incorporated into a variable ‘poor’ (meeting ≤ 9) v. ‘good’ (meeting ≥ 10) using the cut-point method. Also, two different dietary patterns, monounsaturated:saturated fat and n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio and individual nutrients were used as predictor variables.
A total of 794 men aged ≥75 years participated in this study.
The prevalence of sarcopenia by the FNIH, EWGSOP and EWGSOP2 definitions was 12·9 %, 12·9 % and 19·6 %, respectively. With the adjustment, poor nutrient intake was significantly associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia (OR: 2·07 (95 % CI 1·16, 3·67)), but not with EWGSOP and EWGSPOP2 definitions. The lowest and second-lowest quartiles of protein, Mg and Ca and the lowest quartiles of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA intakes were significantly associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia. Each unit decrease in n-6:n-3 ratio was significantly associated with a 9 % increased risk of FNIH-defined sarcopenia (OR: 1·09 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·16)).
Inadequate intakes of nutrients are associated with FNIH-defined sarcopenia in older men, but not with the other two sarcopenia definitions. Further studies are required to understand these relationships.
Frailty is a common clinical syndrome in older adults that carries an increased risk for poor health outcomes. Early identification of frailty may help optimizing quality of care. Fried's frailty criteria are often used as the gold standard of frailty. However, it takes too much time and the availability of a hand grip strength meter to measure these criteria in daily practice. Screening instruments for frailty such as the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) and the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), are available. However, it is not yet certain whether the usual cut-off values are applicable to older psychiatric patients.
To determine internal consistency, sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic-curve (ROC- curve) of the GFI and TFI using validated cut-off values, and to determine the optimal cut-off value in older psychiatric patients.
Baseline data of an ongoing prospective cohort study were used. In this study GFI, TFI and Fried-criteria were determined in hospitalized and non-hospitalized psychiatric patients over 65 years old.
A total of 145 participants were enrolled, 90 of which were hospitalized and 55 were non-hospitalized. Median age of participants was 75.2 (SD =7) years, 108 were female. Prevalence of frailty according to Fried-criteria was 29.7%. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the GFI was 0.76 and TFI = 0.75. Using the validated cut-off value and the Fried- criteria as reference, sensitivity of the GFI (≥4) was 0.95 (95% CI 0.83 - 0.99) and specificity 0.27 (95%CI 0.19 - 0.37). Sensitivity of the TFI (≥5) was 0.98 (95% CI 0.86 - 1.00) and specificity 0.31 (95% CI 0.23 - 0.41). The optimum cut-off value for both the GFI and TFI was ≥8. The AUC of the ROC-curve of GFI and TFI were 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 - 0.90) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.72 - 0.87), respectively.
We found an acceptable internal consistency and AUC of both the GFI and the TFI in older psychiatric patients. Increasing the cut-off values of both GFI and TFI seems necessary to lower the amount of false positives in this population.
Background: Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, California (SHIELD OC) was a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention from April 2017 through July 2019 involving 38 hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) to reduce MDROs. Decolonization in NH and LTACHs consisted of universal antiseptic bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for routine bathing and showering plus nasal iodophor decolonization (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week). Hospitals used universal CHG in ICUs and provided daily CHG and nasal iodophor to patients in contact precautions. We sought to evaluate whether decolonization reduced hospitalization and associated healthcare costs due to infections among residents of NHs participating in SHIELD compared to nonparticipating NHs. Methods: Medicaid insurer data covering NH residents in Orange County were used to calculate hospitalization rates due to a primary diagnosis of infection (counts per member quarter), hospital bed days/member-quarter, and expenditures/member quarter from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the second quarter of 2019. We used a time-series design and a segmented regression analysis to evaluate changes attributable to the SHIELD OC intervention among participating and nonparticipating NHs. Results: Across the SHIELD OC intervention period, intervention NHs experienced a 44% decrease in hospitalization rates, a 43% decrease in hospital bed days, and a 53% decrease in Medicaid expenditures when comparing the last quarter of the intervention to the baseline period (Fig. 1). These data translated to a significant downward slope, with a reduction of 4% per quarter in hospital admissions due to infection (P < .001), a reduction of 7% per quarter in hospitalization days due to infection (P < .001), and a reduction of 9% per quarter in Medicaid expenditures (P = .019) per NH resident. Conclusions: The universal CHG bathing and nasal decolonization intervention adopted by NHs in the SHIELD OC collaborative resulted in large, meaningful reductions in hospitalization events, hospitalization days, and healthcare expenditures among Medicaid-insured NH residents. The findings led CalOptima, the Medicaid provider in Orange County, California, to launch an NH incentive program that provides dedicated training and covers the cost of CHG and nasal iodophor for OC NHs that enroll.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, University of California, Irvine, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
Gall wasps in the cynipid genus Diplolepis Geoffroy (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) attack various species of native and introduced roses in Canada. Although gall forms are diverse, gall wasps are parasitised by highly concordant complexes of parasitoids and inquilines. Many species of gall wasps attack the same host plants and develop over the same periods in the season, suggesting that opportunistic parasitoids may be exploiting a range of hosts rather than specialising. We sampled larvae of Eurytoma Illiger (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) from galls of D. variabilis (Bassett) and D. rosaefolii (Cockerell), gall inducers that develop fairly synchronously late in the growing season on leaves of Rosa woodsii Lindl. (Rosaceae) in the Okanagan Valley of central British Columbia, Canada. Galls were sampled at five different sites along a gradient from the north end of the valley to the Canada–United States border, a distance of 100 km. We extracted DNA, then amplified and sequenced the cytochrome b segment for each Eurytoma larva. We identified two well-supported clades that were differentiated by neither sampling location nor host. Instead, at least two species of Eurytoma, E. imminuta Bugbee and E. longavena Bugbee, exist at these localities, and both exploit at least two of the Diplolepis hosts found at these sites.
We analyse United States presidential appointee positions subject to Senate confirmation without a confirmed appointee in office. These “vacant” positions are byproducts of American constitutional design, shaped by the interplay of institutional politics. Using a novel dataset, we analyse appointee vacancies across executive branch departments and single-headed agencies from 1989 to 2013. We develop a theoretical model that uncovers the dynamics of vacancy onset and length. We then specify an empirical model and report results highlighting both position and principal–agent relations as critical to the politics of appointee vacancies. Conditional on high status positions reducing the frequency and duration of vacancies, we find important principal–agent considerations from a separation of powers perspective. Appointee positions in agencies ideologically divergent from the relevant Senate committee chair are vacant for less time than in ideologically proximal agencies. Importantly, this relationship strengthens as agency ideology diverges away from the chair and towards the chair’s party extreme.