To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The hunting of wild animals for their meat has been a crucial activity in the evolution of humans. It continues to be an essential source of food and a generator of income for millions of Indigenous and rural communities worldwide. Conservationists rightly fear that excessive hunting of many animal species will cause their demise, as has already happened throughout the Anthropocene. Many species of large mammals and birds have been decimated or annihilated due to overhunting by humans. If such pressures continue, many other species will meet the same fate. Equally, if the use of wildlife resources is to continue by those who depend on it, sustainable practices must be implemented. These communities need to remain or become custodians of the wildlife resources within their lands, for their own well-being as well as for biodiversity in general. This title is also available via Open Access on Cambridge Core.
An interdisciplinary and easy-to-understand introduction to the subject, covering fundamental theory and practical applications, and using numerous operational examples. This balanced text will allow you to begin from what the radar observes and move deeper through electromagnetic scattering theory and cloud microphysics to understand and interpret data as it appears on the display. It uses illustrations and figures of real radar observations to convey concepts and theory of atmospheric processes typically observed with weather radar, as well presenting a working knowledge of the radar system itself. In addition to covering fundamentals of scattering and atmospheric physics, topics include system hardware, signal processing, and radar networks. This is the perfect tool for scientists and engineers working on weather radars or using radars and their data, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students studying weather radars.
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common following traumatic stress exposure (TSE). Identification of individuals with PTSS risk in the early aftermath of TSE is important to enable targeted administration of preventive interventions. In this study, we used baseline survey data from two prospective cohort studies to identify the most influential predictors of substantial PTSS.
Self-identifying black and white American women and men (n = 1546) presenting to one of 16 emergency departments (EDs) within 24 h of motor vehicle collision (MVC) TSE were enrolled. Individuals with substantial PTSS (⩾33, Impact of Events Scale – Revised) 6 months after MVC were identified via follow-up questionnaire. Sociodemographic, pain, general health, event, and psychological/cognitive characteristics were collected in the ED and used in prediction modeling. Ensemble learning methods and Monte Carlo cross-validation were used for feature selection and to determine prediction accuracy. External validation was performed on a hold-out sample (30% of total sample).
Twenty-five percent (n = 394) of individuals reported PTSS 6 months following MVC. Regularized linear regression was the top performing learning method. The top 30 factors together showed good reliability in predicting PTSS in the external sample (Area under the curve = 0.79 ± 0.002). Top predictors included acute pain severity, recovery expectations, socioeconomic status, self-reported race, and psychological symptoms.
These analyses add to a growing literature indicating that influential predictors of PTSS can be identified and risk for future PTSS estimated from characteristics easily available/assessable at the time of ED presentation following TSE.
The western Antarctic Peninsula is facing rapid environmental changes and many recent publications stress the need to gain new knowledge regarding ecosystems responses to these changes. In the framework of the Belgica 121 expedition, we tested the use of a nimble vessel with a moderate environmental footprint as an approach to tackle the urgent needs of the Southern Ocean research community in terms of knowledge regarding the levels of marine biodiversity in shallow areas and the potential impacts of retreating glaciers on this biodiversity in combination with increasing tourism pressure. We discuss the strengths and drawbacks of using a 75’ (23 m) sailboat in this research framework, as well as its sampling and environmental efficiency. We propose that the scientific community considers this approach to 1) fill specific knowledge gaps and 2) improve the general coherence of the research objectives of the Antarctic scientific community in terms of biodiversity conservation and the image that such conservation conveys to the general public.
Several studies link adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to delinquency. Yet, developmental sequalae accounting for this association remain unclear, with previous research limited by cross-sectional research designs and investigations of singular mediating processes. To redress these shortcomings, this study examines the longitudinal association between ACEs and delinquency as mediated by both sleep problems and low self-control, two factors which past research implicates as potentially important for understanding how ACEs contribute to antisocial behavior. Data collected from 480 adolescents (71.3% boys; 86.3% White) and their parents participating in the Michigan Longitudinal Study was used to conduct a serial mediation analysis. The association between ACEs (prior to age 11) and delinquency in late adolescence was found to operate indirectly via sleep problems in early adolescence and low self-control in middle adolescence. Nonetheless, a direct association between ACEs and later delinquency remained. Pathways through which ACEs contribute to later delinquency are complex and multiply determined. Findings indicate that early behavioral interventions, including improving sleep and self-control, could reduce later delinquency. Still, more research is needed to identify additional avenues through which the ACEs–delinquency association unfolds across development.
Recent initiatives have focused on integrating transdiagnostic biobehavioral processes or dispositions with dimensional models of psychopathology. Toward this goal, biobehavioral traits of affiliative capacity (AFF) and inhibitory control (INH) hold particular promise as they demonstrate transdiagnostic stability and predictive validity across developmental stages and differing measurement modalities. The current study employed data from different modes of measurement in a sample of 1830 children aged 5–10 years to test for associations of AFF and INH, individually and interactively, with broad dimensions of psychopathology. Low AFF, assessed via parent-report, evidenced predictive relations with distress- and externalizing-related problems. INH as assessed by cognitive-task performance did not relate itself to either psychopathology dimension, but it moderated the effects observed for low AFF, such that high INH protected against distress symptoms in low-AFF participants, whereas low INH amplified distress and externalizing symptoms in low-AFF participants. Results are discussed in the context of the interface of general trait transdiagnostic risk factors with quantitatively derived dimensional models of psychopathology.
Background: Sample entropy (SampEn) can quantify the unpredictability of a physiological signal. We sought to assess if SampEn on EEG could reflect recent seizure activity. Methods: Charts of all patients undergoing an outpatient EEG between January and March 2018 were reviewed to assess seizure occurrences in the follow-up period between the two clinical visits surrounding the EEG. 9s-EEG segments were extracted at pre-specified time points. SampEn was calculated for all segments and values aggregated at the 25thpercentile. We performed a multivariate zero-inflated analysis to test the association between SampEn and seizure rate around the EEG, after controlling for age, presence of IED, presence of abnormal slowing, and presence of a focal brain lesion. Results: 269 EEGs were screened and 133 met inclusion criteria (112 patients). 80 EEGs (60%) were from patients with epilepsy, of which 47 had at least one seizure within the year preceding the EEG. Remaining EEGs were from patients who were deemed not to have epilepsy at last follow-up. Each 1SD decrease in SampEn was associated with a 3.93-fold increase in the rate of daily seizures (95% CI: 1.19–12.99, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Sample entropy of EEG is a potential objective method to assess contemporary seizure occurrence.
Lower and middle Cambrian strata of the eastern Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada, were deposited in a semi-enclosed basin along the eastern flank of the Mackenzie Arch. The Mount Clark Formation is predominantly composed of nearshore sandstone and is overlain by deeper water siltstone, mudstone, and carbonates of the Mount Cap Formation. The contact between these formations is interpreted as a flooding surface. Trilobite biostratigraphy indicates the presence of the traditional upper Olenellus through Glossopleura zones (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4–Miaolingian, Wuliuan) and suggests the flooding surface is diachronous, spanning the Dyeran-Delamaran boundary. Above the Olenellus Zone, the Amecephalus arrojosensis-Eokochaspis nodosa Zone, the new Aitkenaspis keelensis Zone, the new Albertelloides mischi Zone, and the Glossopleura walcotti Zone are recognized. Whereas the older zones are comparable to those in other areas of Laurentia, the trilobite faunas in the Albertelloides mischi and Glossopleura walcotti zones show a greater abundance of zacanthoidids and dolichometopids. They also have a lower diversity of ptychoparioids and oryctocephalids, and lack agnostoids, eodiscoids, dorypygids, and ogygopsidids. This suggests that zacanthoidids and dolichometopids were able to tolerate conditions that were unfavorable to the other groups, probably related to semi-restricted conditions in the basin. Four endemic species exhibit characteristics that are considered paedomorphic. This developmental process took place in three separate lineages, suggesting that heterochrony was also environmentally provoked.
New taxonomic names are authored by Handkamer and Pratt. New genera are Eobathyuriscus, Sahtuia, Mexicaspidella Aitkenaspis, Dodoella, and Mackenzieaspis. New species are Bolbolenellus dodoensis, Eobathyuriscus mackenziensis, E. macqueeni, Glossopleura youngi, Sahtuia carcajouensis, Aitkenaspis keelensis, Albertelloides eliasi, Dodoella kobayashii, Mackenzieaspis parallelispinosa, and M. divergens.
Background: Eye movements reveal neurodegenerative disease processes due to overlap between oculomotor circuitry and disease-affected areas. Characterizing oculomotor behaviour in context of cognitive function may enhance disease diagnosis and monitoring. We therefore aimed to quantify cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative disease using saccade behaviour and neuropsychology. Methods: The Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative recruited individuals with neurodegenerative disease: one of Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, or cerebrovascular disease. Patients (n=450, age 40-87) and healthy controls (n=149, age 42-87) completed a randomly interleaved pro- and anti-saccade task (IPAST) while their eyes were tracked. We explored the relationships of saccade parameters (e.g. task errors, reaction times) to one another and to cognitive domain-specific neuropsychological test scores (e.g. executive function, memory). Results: Task performance worsened with cognitive impairment across multiple diseases. Subsets of saccade parameters were interrelated and also differentially related to neuropsychology-based cognitive domain scores (e.g. antisaccade errors and reaction time associated with executive function). Conclusions: IPAST detects global cognitive impairment across neurodegenerative diseases. Subsets of parameters associate with one another, suggesting disparate underlying circuitry, and with different cognitive domains. This may have implications for use of IPAST as a cognitive screening tool in neurodegenerative disease.
Early adolescents (ages 10–14) living in low- and middle-income countries have heightened vulnerability to psychosocial risks, but available evidence from these settings is limited. This study used data from the Global Early Adolescent Study to characterize prototypical patterns of emotional and behavioral problems among 10,437 early adolescents (51% female) living in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Malawi, Indonesia, and China, and explore the extent to which these patterns varied by country and sex. LCA was used to identify and classify patterns of emotional and behavioral problems separately by country. Within each country, measurement invariance by sex was evaluated. LCA supported a four-class solution in DRC, Malawi, and Indonesia, and a three-class solution in China. Across countries, early adolescents fell into the following subgroups: Well-Adjusted (40–62%), Emotional Problems (14–29%), Behavioral Problems (15–22%; not present in China), and Maladjusted (4–15%). Despite the consistency of these patterns, there were notable contextual differences. Further, tests of measurement invariance indicated that the prevalence and nature of these classes differed by sex. Findings can be used to support the tailoring of interventions targeting psychosocial adjustment, and suggest that such programs may have utility across diverse cross-national settings.
The transition from military service to civilian life is a high-risk period for suicide attempts (SAs). Although stressful life events (SLEs) faced by transitioning soldiers are thought to be implicated, systematic prospective evidence is lacking.
Participants in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS) completed baseline self-report surveys while on active duty in 2011–2014. Two self-report follow-up Longitudinal Surveys (LS1: 2016–2018; LS2: 2018–2019) were subsequently administered to probability subsamples of these baseline respondents. As detailed in a previous report, a SA risk index based on survey, administrative, and geospatial data collected before separation/deactivation identified 15% of the LS respondents who had separated/deactivated as being high-risk for self-reported post-separation/deactivation SAs. The current report presents an investigation of the extent to which self-reported SLEs occurring in the 12 months before each LS survey might have mediated/modified the association between this SA risk index and post-separation/deactivation SAs.
The 15% of respondents identified as high-risk had a significantly elevated prevalence of some post-separation/deactivation SLEs. In addition, the associations of some SLEs with SAs were significantly stronger among predicted high-risk than lower-risk respondents. Demographic rate decomposition showed that 59.5% (s.e. = 10.2) of the overall association between the predicted high-risk index and subsequent SAs was linked to these SLEs.
It might be possible to prevent a substantial proportion of post-separation/deactivation SAs by providing high-risk soldiers with targeted preventive interventions for exposure/vulnerability to commonly occurring SLEs.
Successful research and development requires interdisciplinary collaboration, often across organisational boundaries and for extended timeframes, such as in innovation networks or ecosystems. Open Organisation (OO) research can support collaboration and knowledge exchange in such situations. It builds on established concepts of Open Innovation through enhancing the exchange of knowledge by the exchange of humans. This paper contributes to OO research by presenting an OO lifecycle framework, which analyses evolving organisational and collaboration characteristics and resulting management needs.
Background:Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that is transmitted in healthcare facilities and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Environmental contamination is suspected to play an important role in transmission but additional information is needed to inform environmental cleaning recommendations to prevent spread. Methods: We conducted a multiregional (Chicago, IL; Irvine, CA) prospective study of environmental contamination associated with C. auris colonization of patients and residents of 4 long-term care facilities and 1 acute-care hospital. Participants were identified by screening or clinical cultures. Samples were collected from participants’ body sites (eg, nares, axillae, inguinal creases, palms and fingertips, and perianal skin) and their environment before room cleaning. Daily room cleaning and disinfection by facility environmental service workers was followed by targeted cleaning of high-touch surfaces by research staff using hydrogen peroxide wipes (see EPA-approved product for C. auris, List P). Samples were collected immediately after cleaning from high-touch surfaces and repeated at 4-hour intervals up to 12 hours. A pilot phase (n = 12 patients) was conducted to identify the value of testing specific high-touch surfaces to assess environmental contamination. High-yield surfaces were included in the full evaluation phase (n = 20 patients) (Fig. 1). Samples were submitted for semiquantitative culture of C. auris and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacterales (ESBLs), and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Times to room surface contamination with C. auris and other MDROs after effective cleaning were analyzed. Results:Candida auris colonization was most frequently detected in the nares (72%) and palms and fingertips (72%). Cocolonization of body sites with other MDROs was common (Fig. 2). Surfaces located close to the patient were commonly recontaminated with C. auris by 4 hours after cleaning, including the overbed table (24%), bed handrail (24%), and TV remote or call button (19%). Environmental cocontamination was more common with resistant gram-positive organisms (MRSA and, VRE) than resistant gram-negative organisms (Fig. 3). C. auris was rarely detected on surfaces located outside a patient’s room (1 of 120 swabs; <1%). Conclusions: Environmental surfaces near C. auris–colonized patients were rapidly recontaminated after cleaning and disinfection. Cocolonization of skin and environment with other MDROs was common, with resistant gram-positive organisms predominating over gram-negative organisms on environmental surfaces. Limitations include lack of organism sequencing or typing to confirm environmental contamination was from the room resident. Rapid recontamination of environmental surfaces after manual cleaning and disinfection suggests that alternate mitigation strategies should be evaluated.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest or pleasure in activities – is a core self-reported symptom of depression which is poorly understood and often resistant to conventional antidepressants. This symptom may occur due to dysfunction in one or more sub-components of reward processing: motivation, consummatory experience and/or learning. However, the precise impairments remain elusive. Dissociating these components (ideally, using cross-species measures) and relating them to the subjective experience of anhedonia is critical as it may benefit fundamental biology research and novel drug development.
Using a battery of behavioural tasks based on rodent assays, we examined reward motivation (Joystick-Operated Runway Task, JORT; and Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task, EEfRT) and reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test) in a non-clinical population who scored high (N = 32) or low (N = 34) on an anhedonia questionnaire (Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale).
Compared to the low anhedonia group, the high anhedonia group displayed marginal impairments in effort-based decision-making (EEfRT) and reduced reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test). However, we found no evidence of a difference between groups in physical effort exerted for reward (JORT). Interestingly, whilst the EEfRT and Sweet Taste Test correlated with anhedonia measures, they did not correlate with each other. This poses the question of whether there are subgroups within anhedonia; however, further work is required to directly test this hypothesis.
Our findings suggest that anhedonia is a heterogeneous symptom associated with impairments in reward sensitivity and effort-based decision-making.
University and college students are vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. People in low-income countries are disproportionately impacted by mental health problems, yet few studies examine routes to accessing clinical services. Examining motivation and barriers toward seeking clinical mental health services in university students in Bangladesh is important.
Using a cross-sectional survey (n = 350), we assess the relationship between the constructs of autonomy, relatedness, and competency toward using clinical mental health practices (i.e. using professional resources, taking medication) with (1) positive views, (2) perceived need, and (3) use of clinical mental health services among Bangladeshi university students.
Results showed that the perceived need for mental health support was the predictor of the largest magnitude (aOR = 4.99, p = 0.005) for using clinical services. Having a positive view of clinical services was predictive of clinical service use (aOR = 2.87, p = 0.033); however, that association became insignificant (p = 0.054) when adjusting for the perceived need for mental health care. Of the SDT constructs, social influences were predictive of perceiving a need for mental health support, and mental health knowledge was predictive (aOR = 1.10, p = 0.001) of having a positive view of clinical mental health care.
Our findings show that knowledge of mental health is associated with positive views of mental health services, and that higher levels of stress and the presence of people with mental health problems are associated with the perception of a need for mental health care, which is ultimately responsible for using the services.
This chapter aims to synthesize key findings from the SURE-Farm project. We first discuss possible amendments to the framework to assess the resilience of farming systems. We then review why many of Europe’s farming systems face a formidable and structural resilience crisis. While emphasizing the diversity of resilience capacities, challenges and needs, we formulate cornerstones for possible resilience-enhancing strategies. The chapter concludes with critical reflections and suggestions for resilience-enhancing strategies that comprise the levels of farms, farming systems and enabling environments. We identify limitations of the research and suggest avenues for future research on the resilience of farming systems.
Risk and risk management are essential elements of farming. We show that strategies to cope with risk often go beyond the level of the individual farm. Cooperation, learning and sharing of risks play a vital role in European agriculture. An enabling environment should support cooperative approaches, enable a diversity of risk management solutions and harness novel technological opportunities.