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We report here for the first time the presence of Ophelimus mediterraneus sp. n. in Mediterranean Europe. This species appears to be closely related to Ophelimus maskelli, a well-known invasive pest of Eucalyptus. Based on molecular (cytochrome oxidase I, 28S), morphological (multivariate ratio analysis) and bio-ecological investigations, our study gives unambiguous relevant criteria that allow the discrimination between these two species. A full description of O. mediterraneus sp. n. is also provided. The geographic distribution of O. mediterraneus sp. n. as well as its impact on Eucalyptus species needs to be more widely assessed since its presence may have been confused with O. maskelli in their sympatric introduced areas. Further investigations of potential parasitoids in the native area may thus be welcomed to evaluate classical biological control achievability.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide. Although it is considered a polygenic inheritance disease, little is known about its susceptibility when the additive effect is considered. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the genetic risk score (GRS) based on previously associated obesity polymorphisms (SNP) rs9939609 (fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO)), rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) and rs16835198 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)) could serve as a predictor for anthropometric characteristics in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with 1471 children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. BMI, waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat and metabolic parameters were verified. In all, three SNP were genotyped by TaqMan™ allelic discrimination. The metabolic and anthropometric parameters were compared between the genotypes, and the unweighted and weighted GRS (GRS and wGRS, respectively) were created to test the additive effect of these genetic polymorphisms on anthropometric parameters. The prevalence of overweight plus obesity was 41 %. Significant associations were identified for FTO rs9939609, TMEM18 rs6548238 and FNDC5 rs16835198 and for GRS and wGRS with anthropometric phenotypes. The higher score of wGRS was associated with obesity (OR: 2·65, 95 % CI 1·40, 5·04, P=0·003) and with greater WC (OR: 2·91, 95 % CI 1·57, 5·40, P=0·001). Our results suggest that these genetic variants contribute to obesity susceptibility in children and adolescents and reinforce the idea that the additive effect may be useful to elucidate the genetic component of obesity.
Upcoming missions to the outer planets have made evident the need for better theories of their satellites. We have been involved in an effort to provide better satellite theories through new observations (Abbot, Mulholland and Shelus 1975; Mulholland, Shelus and Abbot 1976; Mulholland and Shelus 1977; and Benedict, Shelus and Mulholland 1978), and new analytical theories (Jefferys and Ries 1975; Jefferys 1976. Hereinafter these are denoted Paper I and Paper II, respectively). In this paper we report on our incorporation of new and old observations into our theories, and on our progress on the theoretical front.
Temporomandibular joint fistula into the external auditory canal is a very rare condition. We report a case of spontaneous fistula which presented with repeated episodes of clear fluid otorrhoea and ear infection.
A 53-year-old woman complained of occasional episodes of clear fluid otorrhoea from the right ear followed by infection. Otoscopic examination showed a normal tympanic membrane and normal skin in the external auditory meatus. Otomicroscopy showed a small punctum on the anteroinferior part of the meatus. Computed tomography identified a foramen of Huschke. Surgery revealed a fistula between the meatus and the temporomandibular joint, which was successfully resolved.
This report presents a rare case of a fistula between the temporomandibular joint and the external auditory meatus, associated with Huschke's foramen. Such a defect can be quite difficult to detect. It should be suspected in cases of chronic otorrhoea when neither middle nor external ear disease is apparent. Surgery is usually successful, and is advised in cases with repeated complications.
Research on the structure of co-morbidity among common mental disorders has largely focused on current prevalence rather than on the development of co-morbidity. This report presents preliminary results of the latter type of analysis based on the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A).
A national survey was carried out of adolescent mental disorders. DSM-IV diagnoses were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) administered to adolescents and questionnaires self-administered to parents. Factor analysis examined co-morbidity among 15 lifetime DSM-IV disorders. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to predict first onset of each disorder from information about prior history of the other 14 disorders.
Factor analysis found four factors representing fear, distress, behavior and substance disorders. Associations of temporally primary disorders with the subsequent onset of other disorders, dated using retrospective age-of-onset (AOO) reports, were almost entirely positive. Within-class associations (e.g. distress disorders predicting subsequent onset of other distress disorders) were more consistently significant (63.2%) than between-class associations (33.0%). Strength of associations decreased as co-morbidity among disorders increased. The percentage of lifetime disorders explained (in a predictive rather than a causal sense) by temporally prior disorders was in the range 3.7–6.9% for earliest-onset disorders [specific phobia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] and much higher (23.1–64.3%) for later-onset disorders. Fear disorders were the strongest predictors of most other subsequent disorders.
Adolescent mental disorders are highly co-morbid. The strong associations of temporally primary fear disorders with many other later-onset disorders suggest that fear disorders might be promising targets for early interventions.
This paper reports the effects of a-SiC:H buffer layers on a-Si:H photodiode properties, especially the dark current and decay image lag. The photodiode has an ITO/p-type a-SiC:H/a-Si:H/i-type a-SiC:H/metal structure.
Using two heterojunctions–p-SiC:H/a-Si:H at the surface contact and a-Si:H/i-SiC:H at the back contact–significantly decreases the dark current. The p-SiC:H layer blocks electron injection, and the i-SiC:H layer suppresses the reaction between the a-Si:H layer and metal electrode. The use of both a-SiC:H layers may increase decay image lag. Excess boron doping to the p-SiC:H layer induces boron diffusion into the a-Si:H photo-electric conversion layer, which increases trap levels in the a-Si:H layer. The i-SiC:H layer, because of its high resistivity, decreases the electric field applied to the a-Si:H photo-electric conversion layer.
Optimizing the amount of boron in the p-SiC:H layer and the resistance of the i-SiC:H layer enabled us to produce the characteristics required for high-definition television (HDTV) image sensors–a dark current on the order of 10−10 A/cm2 and a 1% level decay image lag.
Correlation between defects and electrical conduction in surface conductive layers of CVD diamond films has been studied using electron spin resonance ( ESR ) and two points probe technique methods. The ESR analysis revealed the presence of Pac-center with spin density of 1020 spins/cm3. The Pac-center is composed from two ESR signals: ESR signal from carbon dangling bond with carbon atom neighbors and ESR signal from carbon dangling bond associated with nearest neighbor hole ( hole associated Pac-center ). The hole associated Pac-center is an electrically active defect.
SiOx nanowire were synthesized using VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) and SLS (ssolid-liquid-solid) growth mechanism. Grown nanowires had a different shapes by the kind of substrates and kind of catalysts. Diameters and lengths of grown nanowires were varied with growth conditions. By vapor evaporation method, used substrates effected growth scheme and density of nanowires because of differences of catalyst nucleation characteristics. Grown nanowires showed different microstructures and optical properties. By catalyst evaporation method, various shapes of SiOx nanowires were grown. These shapes of nanowire were formed by the typical reaction of catalyst and Si source. Measured optical properties show blue luminescence about 430nm because of oxygen defects in the nannowire.
Poly(urea-formaldehyde) capsules enclosing electrophoretic particle dispersion were formed by carrying out an in-situ polymerization reaction in an oil-in-water emulsion. The internal dispersion was composed of pigment particles Yellow-14 modified by charge control agent to have superior electrophoresis velocity and the mixture of tetrachloroethylene and sec-butylbenzene, using Span 80 as the stabilizer and emulsifier. FE-SEM, TEM, and optical microscope (OM) were performed to investigate on the capsule size and surface morphology. Contact angle measurements showed that UF prepolymer deposited at the o/w interface to form hollow capsules only when the interfacial tension is large enough.
The tribological behavior of crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was compared to that of non-crosslinked UHMWPE, used as control sample. A reciprocating pin-on-disk tribometer was used to determine the effects of countersurface roughness and conformity on wear mechanisms occurring during the initial stage of sliding. Pin samples of two different radii of curvature were slid against medical-grade Co-Cr alloy disks with surface roughness ranging from 0.005 to 0.04 μm in a lubricant of bovine serum. Normal loads were chosen to provide physiological contact stresses. The focus of this study was on the dependence of early wear mechanisms on surface roughness and conformity. Although a correlation between coefficient of friction data and dominant wear mechanisms was not observed, different wear mechanisms were found between control and crosslinked UHMWPE. The results of this study provide insight into the differences of the initial wear behavior of noncrosslinked and crosslinked UHMWPE used in total joint replacements.
The electrical performance of junctions in SiGe Strain Relaxed Buffers (SRB's) with a strained Si top layer is investigated. Most of the SRB's grown in this experiment use a thin C-doped SiGe layer, which allows to fabricate thin (∼250nm) SRB's with a high relaxation degree. The effects of Threading Dislocation Density (TDD) and C-rich layer depth on the electrical behaviour of n+/p and p+/n junctions are studied. The C atoms in the junction's Space Charge Region (SCR) give rise to defects and induce a noticeable increase in the leakage. The effect of the TDD on the leakage in n+/p junctions is linear over the complete voltage range applied, while for p+/n junctions, only a small effect on leakage is measured at V=1V reverse for TDD's below 1×107cm-2. For low reverse voltages, the current varies more linearly with TDD.
SiC nanowire was grown by APCVD using single precursors. Grown SiC nanowires had 10∼60nm diameters and lengths of several micrometers. Nanowire's diameters and lengths were varied with kind of catalysts. Nanowire's growth scheme was divided by two regions with diameter of nanowire. At first region, nanowire was grown by VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) mechanism, but at the second region, nanowire growth was made by VS (vapor-solid) reaction. These differences were made from limitations of growth rate and deactivation effects. Growth temperature, time and flow rates of source gases were affected nanowire's diametesr and its lengths. And kind of catalysts, coating methods and precursors were affected growth direction and microstructures too.