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Populism and authoritarian-populist parties have surged in the 21st century. In the United States, Donald Trump appears to have become the poster president for the surge. David M. Ricci, in this call to arms, thinks Trump is symptomatic of the changes that have caused a crisis among Americans - namely, mass economic and creative destruction: automation, outsourcing, deindustrialization, globalization, privatization, financialization, digitalization, and the rise of temporary jobs - all breeding resentment. Rather than dwelling on symptoms, Ricci focuses on the root of our nation's problems. Thus, creative destruction, aiming at perpetual economic growth, encouraged by neoliberalism, creates the economic inequality that fuels resentment and leads to increased populism. Ricci urges political scientists to highlight this destruction meaningfully and substantively, to use empirical realism to put human beings back into politics. Ricci's sensible argument conveys a sense of political urgency, grappling with real-world problems and working to transform abstract speculations into tangible, useful tools. The result is a passionate book, important not only to political scientists, but to anyone who cares about public life.
The three-dimensional coral scaffolds formed by the skeletons of the cold-water corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa represent an important deep-sea hard substratum and create an optimal shelter for a rich associated fauna in which the contribution of Porifera has still not been fully considered. The taxonomic analysis of sponges collected from two Sardinian canyons (Nora and Coda Cavallo, 256–408 m) and associated with the dead coral matrix resulted in 28 species, including new records for the Mediterranean Sea, Italian fauna or Central Tyrrhenian Sea. In addition, for many species this is the first finding associated with the coral framework or the first documentation of the in situ morphology. The taxonomic comparison with sponge assemblages associated with coral frameworks from Santa Maria di Leuca, Strait of Sicily and Bari Canyon, gave the opportunity to evaluate the similarities among geographically separated banks. Overall, the percentage of exclusive species (recorded only in one site), is very high (81%) and only one species is shared by all four sites, suggesting a low connectivity among the sponge communities. The percentage of shared species is higher for the Maltese community, supporting the role of the Sicily Channel as a crossroads between the communities of the eastern and western Mediterranean basins. Here, 55% of the sponges associated to the coral framework are also reported in shallow-water coralligenous assemblages, indicating a high bathymetric connectivity as well as an ecological plasticity allowing these species to occupy a wide range of small, dark refuges.
The dynamics of electron-plasma waves is described at arbitrary collisionality by considering the full Coulomb collision operator. The description is based on a Hermite–Laguerre decomposition of the velocity dependence of the electron distribution function. The damping rate, frequency and eigenmode spectrum of electron-plasma waves are found as functions of the collision frequency and wavelength. A comparison is made between the collisionless Landau damping limit, the Lenard–Bernstein and Dougherty collision operators and the electron–ion collision operator, finding large deviations in the damping rates and eigenmode spectra. A purely damped entropy mode, characteristic of a plasma where pitch-angle scattering effects are dominant with respect to collisionless effects, is shown to emerge numerically, and its dispersion relation is analytically derived. It is shown that such a mode is absent when simplified collision operators are used, and that like-particle collisions strongly influence the damping rate of the entropy mode.
Exact expressions are given for the K and L x-ray fluorescence cross sections. Hole transfer between the L subshells is taken into account and shown to lead to a substantial enhancement of the cross sections for x rays of the L2 and L3 emission series. Absolute values of Kα and Lα cross sections are calculated for all elements and four excitation energies, namely GeK ≙ 10.0 keV, MoKα ≙ 17.44 keV, AgK ≙ 22.5 keV and Am 241 ≙ 59.6 keV.
According to European Guidelines for Legionnaires’ Disease prevention and control, travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (TALD) cases are managed differently if classified as sporadic or as part of a cluster and more stringent control measures are deployed after clusters are identified. In this study, we propose to modify the current cluster definition: ‘two or more cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) who stayed at, or visited, the same commercial accommodation site 2–10 days before onset of illness and whose onset is within the same 2-year period’ with a new cluster definition, i.e. accommodation sites associated with multiple cases regardless of the time elapsed between them. TALD cases occurred in Italy and in the Balearic Islands between 2005 and 2015 were analysed applying the current European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) cluster definition. In a sample of selected accommodation sites with multiple cases, a microbiological study was also conducted. Using the new definition, 63 additional sites (16.4% increase) and 225 additional linked cases (19.5% increase) were identified. Legionella pneumophila sg1 was isolated from 90.7% of the selected accommodation sites. The use of the here proposed TALD cluster definition would warrant a full investigation for each new identified case. This approach should therefore increase the number of sites that will require a risk assessment and, in the presence of an increased risk, the adoption of LD control measures to hopefully prevent additional cases.
Functional abilities are needed for activities of daily living. In general, these skills expand with age. We hypothesised that, in contrast to what is normally expected, children surviving the Fontan may have deterioration of functional abilities, and that peri-Fontan stroke is associated with this deterioration. All children registered in the Western Canadian Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Program who survived a Fontan operation in the period 1999–2016 were eligible for inclusion. At the age of 2 years (pre-Fontan) and 4.5 years (post-Fontan), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II general adaptive composite score was determined (population mean: 100, standard deviation: 15). Deterioration of functional abilities was defined as ⩾1 standard deviation decrease in pre- to post-Fontan scores. Perioperative strokes were identified through chart review. Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined predictors of deterioration of functional abilities. Of 133 children, with a mean age at Fontan of 3.3 years (standard deviation 0.8) and 65% male, the mean (standard deviation) general adaptive composite score was 90.6 (17.5) at 2 years and 88.3 (19.1) at 4.5 years. After Fontan, deterioration of functional abilities occurred in 34 (26%) children, with a mean decline of 21.8 (7.1) points. Evidence of peri-Fontan stroke was found in 10 (29%) children who had deterioration of functional abilities. Peri-Fontan stroke (odds ratio 5.00 (95% CI 1.74, 14.36)) and older age at Fontan (odds ratio 1.67 (95% CI 1.02, 2.73)) predicted functional deterioration. The trajectory of functional abilities should be assessed in this population, as more than 25% experience deterioration. Efforts to prevent peri-Fontan stroke, and to complete the Fontan operation at an earlier age, may lead to reduction of this deterioration.
Accumulating evidence indicates that saturated fat intake is related to mortality risk increase, whereas unsaturated fat intake is associated with reduced mortality risk. The aim of the present study was to estimate the mortality risk reduction related to a dietary change from saturated fat to mono- or polyunsaturated fat intake. The American National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1999 and 2010 were linked to the 2011 national US death registry resulting in an observational prospective mortality study. Proportional hazards Cox models were used to evaluate the association between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Substitution analysis was conducted to estimate an iso-energetic substitution of 10 % of the energy from dietary fat intake applied to the substitution of saturated fat with an equal amount of energy from monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat. The highest tertile intakes of saturated fat resulted in an increased risk (12 %) of all-cause and specific-cause mortality, whereas the highest tertile intakes of polyunsaturated fat resulted in a reduced risk (7 %) of all-cause and specific-cause mortality when compared with the corresponding lowest tertile. Iso-energetic substitution revealed that a substitution of 10 % of energy (from total fat) from saturated fat to an equal amount of energy from monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat resulted in a significant reduction of the mortality risk ranging from 4 to 8 %. Iso-energetic substitution of saturated fat with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat reduced all-cause and specific-cause mortality in US adults.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence estimates of cerebral palsy (CP) among 5-year-old children in northern Alberta; to provide congenital, gestational age– and birth weight–specific, and postneonatal CP rates; and to describe motor subtypes and function. Methods: This population-based prevalence estimate study, part of the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry, reports confirmed CP diagnoses at age 5 years made by pediatric rehabilitation and child neurology specialists. Prevalence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) used Alberta government denominators of same-age children and live births. Results: The Northern Alberta CP rate (birth years, 2008-2010) for 173 5-year-old children is 2.22 (95% CI 2.12, 2.32) per 1000 5-year-old children. The congenital CP rate is 1.99 (95% CI, 1.89-2.09) per 1000 live births; unilateral congenital CP, 1.0 (95% CI, 0.64-1.36) per 1000 live births; and postneonatal CP, 0.12 (95% CI, 0.1-0.14) per 1000 live births. Gestational age-specific rates are similar: age <28 weeks, 27.2 (95% CI, 23.05-31.35) and 28 to 31 weeks, 29.5 (95% CI, 25.78-33.22). Motor subtypes for 169 children (data missing, 4; male, 97; postnatal, 9) are: spastic, 148 (87.6%) including 31 (20.9%) with diplegia, 10 (6.8%) triplegia, 33 (22.2%) quadriplegia, 74 (50%) hemiplegia/monoplegia); and dyskinetic, 18 (10.6%) and ataxic, 3 (1.8%). A total of 107 (63.3%) ambulate without assistive devices and 111(65.7%) handle most objects with their hands independently. Conclusions: This is the fourth Canadian CP prevalence study; one from Quebec used a similar case ascertainment approach and two 1980s studies from Alberta and British Columbia used administrative databases. Northern Alberta CP rates are comparable with other developed countries. The hemiplegic subtype is the most common. Rates among preterm children have declined but are similar for the <28 and 28 to 31 gestation-week groups.
Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) are indicators of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality and have been associated with increased risk of certain cancers and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been associated with increased melanoma risk. However, GI and GL have not been investigated for melanoma. We present the first study to examine the possible association of GI and GL with melanoma risk. We carried out a population-based, case–control study involving 380 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma and 719 age- and sex-matched controls in a northern Italian region. Dietary GI and GL were computed for each subject using data from a self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We computed the odds ratio (OR) for melanoma according to quintiles of distribution of GL and GL among controls. A direct association between melanoma risk and GL emerged in females (OR 2·38; 95 % CI 1·25, 4·52 for the highest v. the lowest quintile of GL score, Pfor trend 0·070) but not in males. The association in females persisted in the multivariable analysis after adjusting for several potential confounders. There was no evidence of an association between GI and melanoma risk. GL might be associated with melanoma risk in females.
In the framework of the Astronomical Validation and Early Science activities of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT, www.srt.inaf.it), we performed 22 GHz imaging observations of SNR W44 and IC443. Thanks to the single-dish imaging performances of SRT and innovative ad hoc imaging techniques, we obtained maps that provide a detailed view of the structure of the remnants. We are planning to exploit the high-frequency radio data of SNRs to better characterize the spatially-resolved spectra and search for possible spectral steepening or breaks in selected SNR regions, assessing the high-energy tail of the region-dependent electron distribution.
The aim of this study was to compare a fully slatted concrete floor (concrete slatted (CS)) with the same floor on which synthetic rubber slats were placed on the concrete slats (rubber slatted (RS)) as housing solution for finishing beef cattle. The present study involved five commercial beef cattle farms in which the floor of at least three pens was kept as fully slatted, and in an equal number of pens a rubber cover was placed on the floor, tightly matching the gap profile of the concrete slats to allow the drainage of manure. A total of 326 finishing beef bulls were used (153 on CS and 173 on RS), and regardless of the floor treatment animals were housed in groups of 6 to 12 bulls/pen with a space allowance of 3.1±0.2 m2/bull. Bulls had similar initial live weights (422.3 kg on CS and 425.0 kg on RS), but bulls on RS were heavier at the end of the finishing period with a higher average daily gain than bulls kept on CS (1.53 v. 1.46 kg/day; P<0.05). The proportion of bulls treated for locomotor problems was lower in RS pens compared with CS. Rubber covering prevented the occurrence of bursitis, but it increased the odds for hoof overgrowth at end of the finishing period. Hoof overgrowth detected in vivo in bulls on RS was confirmed at the slaughterhouse by the longer dorsal wall and diagonal lengths of the hoof as well as by a more acute toe angle. Compared with bulls on CS, bulls on RS showed less inactivity and resting time, increased social interactions, decreased abnormal lying down and unsuccessful attempts to lie down, as well as shortened the time for lying down. Bulls in RS pens were dirtier compared with those in CS pens, likely due to the draining gaps being reduced to 11.6±1.2% of the total pen surface compared with the 16.9±1.7% in CS pens. This study gave further evidence about the positive effects of the RS floor on growth performance and welfare of finishing beef cattle, although compromising cleanliness and hoof overgrowth.
The TORPEX basic plasma physics device at the Center for Plasma Physics Research (CRPP) in Lausanne, Switzerland is described. In TORPEX, simple magnetized toroidal configurations, a paradigm for the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL), as well as more complex magnetic geometries of direct relevance for fusion are produced. Plasmas of different gases are created and sustained by microwaves in the electron-cyclotron (EC) frequency range. Full diagnostic access allows for a complete characterization of plasma fluctuations and wave fields throughout the entire plasma volume, opening new avenues to validate numerical codes. We detail recent advances in the understanding of basic aspects of plasma turbulence, including its development from linearly unstable electrostatic modes, the formation of filamentary structures, or blobs, and its influence on the transport of energy, plasma bulk and suprathermal ions. We present a methodology for the validation of plasma turbulence codes, which focuses on quantitative assessment of the agreement between numerical simulations and TORPEX experimental data.
This study aimed at evaluating short- and long-term effects of housing beef cattle on deep litter (DL) or concrete fully slatted floor (FS) on their welfare. Animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle were used to assess health status and behaviour of bulls. The assessment was carried out in a large commercial farm on 15 batches of bulls (4 DL and 11 FS) 1 month after their receiving day (short-term) and on 12 batches (three DL and nine FS) the week before slaughter (long-term). Signs of better comfort on deep litter in terms of shorter lying down durations (5.1±0.5 v. 6.5±0.4 s; P<0.05) and lower risk of hairless patches (odds ratio=0.09; 95% confidence interval=0.01 to 0.68; P<0.05) were already observed after 1 month. Heavy bulls after a long-term housing on FS showed a higher prevalence of bursitis, hairless patches and lesions/swellings than animals on DL. Bulls on fully slatted floor were at higher risk of early culling (odds ratio=6.44; 95% confidence interval=1.57 to 26.37; P<0.01), mainly due to musculoskeletal system pathologies/lameness. Deep litter proved to be a valid alternative to slatted floor, making animals more confident to interact with powerful movements such as mounting at the end of the finishing period. A negative aspect of the deep litter was the poor cleanliness of the bulls. Compared with the fully slatted floor, there were higher odds ratios for dirty bulls at both, the short- (odds ratio=25.09; 95% confidence interval=8.96 to 70.22; P<0.001) and the long-term housing (odds ratio=276.13; 95% confidence interval=98.21 to 776.38; P<0.001). In order to improve health and welfare of beef cattle finished at a heavy weight, deep litter systems are a promising alternative to fully slatted floors. However, proper management of deep litter is necessary to maintain satisfactory cleanliness of the bulls.
An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
A significant fraction (~ 30%) of the gamma-ray sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is still of unknown origin, being not yet associated with counterparts at lower energies. Many unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs) could be blazars, the largest identified population of extragalactic gamma-ray sources and the rarest class of active galactic nuclei. In particular, it has been found that blazars occupy a defined region in WISE three dimensional color space, well separated from that occupied by other sources in which thermal emission prevails. For farther sources with weaker IR emission, additional informations can be obtained combining WISE data with X-ray or radio emission. Alternatively, the low-frequency radio emission can be used for identifying potential gamma-ray candidate blazars. However, optical spectroscopic observations represent the tell-tale tool to confirm the exact nature of these sources. To this end, an extensive observational campaign has been performed with several optical telescopes, aimed at pinpointing the exact nature of gamma-ray candidate blazars selected with the different selection methods mentioned above. The results of this campaign lead to the discovery of 60 new gamma-ray blazars, thus confirming the effectiveness of these selection criteria.
Exoplanetary transit observations were carried out for the first time with all the three telescopes at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory in Baja California, Mexico.
We present preliminary results on WASP-39 and WASP-43, two Hot Jupiters known for the presence of a highly-inflated radius. Using the defocused photometry technique, we observed these systems, achieving photometric precision of ± 3–5mmag peak-to-valley. The preliminary fit of their lightcurves shows physical and orbital parameters consistent with published results.
A large fraction of the AGN output power is emitted in the X-rays, in a region very close to the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The most distinctive feature of the X-ray spectra of AGN is the iron Kα line, often observed as the superposition of a broad and a narrow component. While the broad component is found in only ~ 35–45% of bright nearby AGN, the narrow component has been found to be ubiquitous. The narrow Fe Kα line is thought to be produced in the circumnuclear material, likely in the molecular torus. Given its origin, this feature is possibly the most important tracer of neutral matter surrounding the SMBH. One of the most interesting characteristics of the narrow Fe Kα line is the decrease of its equivalent width with the continuum luminosity, the so-called X-ray Baldwin effect (Iwasawa & Taniguchi 1993). This trend has been found by many studies of large samples of type-I AGN, and very recently also in type-II AGN (Ricci et al. 2013c, submitted to ApJ). The slope of the X-ray Baldwin effect in type-II AGN is the same of their unobscured counterparts, which implies that the mechanism at work is the same. Several hypothesis have been put forward in the last decade to explain the X-ray Baldwin effect: i) a luminosity-dependent variation in the ionisation state of the iron-emitting material (Nandra et al. 1997); ii) the decrease of the number of continuum photons in the iron line region with the Eddington ratio, as an effect of the well known correlation between the photon index and the Eddington ratio (Ricci et al. 2013b, submitted to MNRAS); iii) the decrease of the covering factor of the torus with the luminosity (e.g., Page et al. 2004, Ricci et al. 2013a A&A 553, 29) as expected by luminosity-dependent unification models (e.g., Ueda et al. 2003). In my talk I will review the main characteristics of the narrow Fe K? line, and present the results of our recent works aimed at explaining the X-ray Baldwin effect using iron-line emitting physical torus models (Ricci et al. 2013a, b), and at understanding the origin of the Fe K? line (Ricci et al. 2013c). I will focus in particular on the importance of the Fe Kα line as a probe of the evolution of the physical characteristics of the molecular torus with the luminosity.