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Failing to communicate a message in everyday settings can be a frustrating experience. However, miscommunication can lead to disaster in high-stakes situations. Yet in these contexts, under pressure to perform efficiently, speakers may also find themselves with limited resources to devote to message clarity. To understand how cognitive constraint affects communication and explore a possible low-cost solution, we investigated a method for moderating ambiguity production in the face of competing attentional demands: taking the perspective of the listener. Over two experiments, speakers labeled images (Experiment 1) or provided instructions (Experiment 2) to listeners in a non-interactive communication task. In both experiments, speakers were randomly assigned to cognitive constraint and perspective-taking conditions, such that some speakers were under higher cognitive constraint and some speakers received a simple perspective-taking directive. We replicated previous findings that additional cognitive constraint impairs speakers’ ability to avoid ambiguity. Additionally, we found that a simple directive can promote speaker clarity when labeling images, but not when providing instructions. These results suggest that a simple directive is likely insufficient to ensure speaker clarity in all cases.
Hurricane Maria caused catastrophic damage in Puerto Rico, increasing the risk for morbidity and mortality in the post-impact period. We aimed to establish a syndromic surveillance system to describe the number and type of visits at 2 emergency health-care settings in the same hospital system in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
We implemented a hurricane surveillance system by interviewing patients with a short questionnaire about the reason for visit at a hospital emergency department and associated urgent care clinic in the 6 mo after Hurricane Maria. We then evaluated the system by comparing findings with data from the electronic medical record (EMR) system for the same time period.
The hurricane surveillance system captured information from 5116 participants across the 2 sites, representing 17% of all visits captured in the EMR for the same period. Most visits were associated with acute illness/symptoms (79%), followed by injury (11%). The hurricane surveillance and EMR data were similar, proportionally, by sex, age, and visit category.
The hurricane surveillance system provided timely and representative data about the number and type of visits at 2 sites. This system, or an adapted version using available electronic data, should be considered in future disaster settings.
In 2008, for the first time in the history of this country, a black woman became First Lady of the United States. During Barack Obama's presidency, Michelle Obama was ever present in the public eye for her advocacy on issues related to health, military families, education, and for promoting the interests of women and girls. This article contributes to ongoing scholarly discourse, as well as extensive media coverage and analysis, regarding Obama's role as wife and first lady by critically examining how the particular model of motherhood she embraced and exhibited, a model firmly rooted in the black American community, was designed to challenge negative stereotypes of black women, maternity, and families. We address the following questions in this work: How did Obama's identity as a black woman influence the policies she championed as first lady? Does Obama's mothering relate to stereotypes of black mothers and help (re)define black motherhood, and if so, how? What does it mean to be a black mater gentis or mother of the nation? Drawing on her speeches and policy initiatives, we reveal how Michelle Obama defied dominant and oppressive stereotypes of black women and mothers while simultaneously (re)defining black womanhood and motherhood for the nation.
At GE Research, we are combining “physics” with artificial intelligence and machine learning to advance manufacturing design, processing, and inspection, turning innovative technologies into real products and solutions across our industrial portfolio. This article provides a snapshot of how this physical plus digital transformation is evolving at GE.
Continued progress in artificial intelligence (AI) and associated demonstrations of superhuman performance have raised the expectation that AI can revolutionize scientific discovery in general and materials science specifically. We illustrate the success of machine learning (ML) algorithms in tasks ranging from machine vision to game playing and describe how existing algorithms can also be impactful in materials science, while noting key limitations for accelerating materials discovery. Issues of data scarcity and the combinatorial nature of materials spaces, which limit application of ML techniques in materials science, can be overcome by exploiting the rich scientific knowledge from physics and chemistry using additional AI techniques such as reasoning, planning, and knowledge representation. The integration of these techniques in materials-intelligent systems will enable AI governance of the scientific method and autonomous scientific discovery.
We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of human isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of histoplasmosis, using a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) assay to identify associations with the geographic distribution of isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and Argentina. The RAPD-PCR pattern analyses revealed the genetic diversity by estimating the percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, Shannon's index and heterozygosity. Population structure was identified by the index of association (IA) test. Thirty-seven isolates were studied and clustered into three groups by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Group I contained five subgroups based on geographic origin. The consistency of the UPGMA dendrogram was estimated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCCr = 0.94, P = 0.001). Isolates from Mexico and Colombia presented higher genetic diversity than isolates from Argentina. Isolates from Guatemala grouped together with the reference strains from the United States of America and Panama. The IA values suggest the presence of a clonal population structure in the Argentinian H. capsulatum isolates and also validate the presence of recombining populations in the Colombian and Mexican isolates. These data contribute to the knowledge on the molecular epidemiology of histoplasmosis in Latin America.
To examine snacking patterns, food sources and nutrient profiles of snacks in low- and middle-income Chilean children and adolescents.
Cross-sectional. Dietary data were collected via 24 h food recalls. We determined the proportion of snackers, snacks per day and energy from top food and beverage groups consumed. We compared the nutrient profile (energy, sodium, total sugars and saturated fat) of snacks v. meals.
South-east region of Chile.
Children and adolescents from two cohorts: the Food Environment Chilean Cohort (n 958, 4–6 years old) and the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study (n 752, 12–14 years old).
With a mean of 2·30 (se 0·03) snacks consumed daily, 95·2 % of children and 89·9 % of adolescents reported at least one snacking event. Snacks contributed on average 1506 kJ/d (360 kcal/d) in snacking children and 2218 kJ/d (530 kcal/d) in snacking adolescents (29·0 and 27·4 % daily energy contribution, respectively). Grain-based desserts, salty snacks, other sweets and desserts, dairy foods and cereal-based foods contributed the most energy from snacks in the overall sample. For meals, cereal-based foods, dairy beverages, meat and meat substitutes, oils and fats, and fruits and vegetables were the top energy contributors.
Widespread snacking among Chilean youth provides over a quarter of their daily energy and includes foods generally considered high in energy, saturated fat, sodium and/or total sugars. Future research should explore whether snacking behaviours change as the result of Chile’s national regulations on food marketing, labelling and school environments.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To further explore the role of vWF in the pathogenesis of scleroderma by identifying its location within the tissue of sample biopsies obtained as part of routine diagnosis with the use of immuno-histochemical staining. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We examined 8 skin biopsies from 2 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 2 with localized scleroderma (LS) and 4 with JDM. Double immunofluorescence staining was performed in each tissue with antibodies against vWF and collagens type I and III. DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was also used for counterstaining of inflammatory cells. Tissue staining patterns were compared between groups. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Biopsies were obtained from the upper extremity of 7 females and the lower extremity of 1 male. Median age, symptom duration, and serum levels of vWF antigen around the time of biopsy was 8 years (IQR 4.5-11), 5.5 months (IQR 2.5-7), and 245% (IQR 203-302 for 7 patients), respectively. All but 1 biopsy was performed prior to initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. Immunofluorescence staining showed a superficial and deep perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrate that co-localized with vWF in all tissues. There was expression of vWF in the extravascular tissue of patients with JScl co-localizing with collagen III in the reticular dermis (Figures 1 and 2). In comparison, vWF expression was restricted to the endothelium and did not co-localize with collagen in the dermis of patients with JDM (Figure 3). Patients with SSc had higher expression of vWF as compared to patients with LS. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: vWF may participate in the pathogenesis of cutaneous inflammatory conditions. We have demonstrated that vWF co-localizes with cellular inflammatory infiltrates in the perivascular areas and in the dermis of patients with JScl and JDM. We additionally speculate that vWF may participate in the pathogenesis of fibrosing skin diseases based on evidence of increased extravascular expression in the tissue of patients with JScl (vs. JDM), and its co-localization with collagen. vWF expression intensity in the dermis of JScl patients may relate to disease extension (SSc vs. LS).
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most common and malignant histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer. While the majority of HGSOC patients initially respond to platinum-based chemotherapy, they often present with recurrent chemoresistant disease, which is extremely fatal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify predictive biomarkers of platinum response and to develop rational, targeted therapies to improve the outcome of patients with HGSOC. The objectives of the present study are to profile and assess the clinical significance of MYC network dysregulation in HGSOC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will conduct a retrospective cohort study of Puerto Rican Hispanics with HGSOC who underwent surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy at clinical institutions in Puerto Rico. Medical records, pathology reports, and cancer registries will be reviewed to extract data on clinicopathological features, disease recurrence, and death. For eligible patients, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples will be processed and analyzed by quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Expression levels of MYC and MYC-related molecules are expected to correlate with clinicopathological features and prognosis of HGSOC. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The identification and validation of clinically-relevant alterations in HGSOC, such as dysregulation of the MYC network, will be crucial to guide therapy regimen, maximize clinical benefit, and improve patient outcome.
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
Polypyrrole (PPy) thin films were synthetized by plasma and simultaneously doped with Iodine to enhance electromagnetic absorption and charge transfer capability in a resistive coupling cylindrical reactor. Pyrrole monomer and Iodine were the principal reagents used and the chemical reactions were created by high frequency plasma. Micrographs show an irregular surface formed by semi-spherical protrusions with tiny particles in the PPy/I samples and a rather smooth surface with wrinkles and less participation of tiny particles to PPy ones. Infrared spectroscopy analysis reveals important absorption peaks at 3253, 2932, 1668 and 635 cm-1 corresponding to the chemical bonds N-H and C-H, C-H aliphatic, C=C and C-I, respectively, belonging to the chemical structure of Pyrrole. Electrical conductivity of PPy increased from 10-10 to 10-8 S/cm due to Iodine doping. Electromagnetic absorption showed a higher response between 340 and 800 nm in the visible region. Activation energy was calculated in the range from -0.09 to 0.49 eV.
Thousands of new asteroids are discovered every year and the rate of discovery is by far larger than the determination rate of their physical properties. In 2015 a group of researchers and students of several Mexican institutions have established an observational program to study asteroids photometrically. The program, named Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign, is aiming to derive rotation periods of asteroids based on optical photometric observations. Since then four campaigns have been carried out. The results obtained throughout these campaigns, as well as future work, are presented.