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Hydrodynamical instabilities may either spin-up or down the pulsar formed in the collapse of a rotating massive star. Using numerical simulations of an idealized setup, we investigate the impact of progenitor rotation on the shock dynamics. The amplitude of the spiral mode of the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI) increases with rotation only if the shock to the neutron star radii ratio is large enough. At large rotation rates, a corotation instability, also known as low-T/W, develops and leads to a more vigorous spiral mode. We estimate the range of stellar rotation rates for which pulsars are spun up or down by SASI. In the presence of a corotation instability, the spin-down efficiency is less than 30%. Given observational data, these results suggest that rapid progenitor rotation might not play a significant hydrodynamical role in the majority of core-collapse supernovae.
At present, there are many pacing strategies for young patients with complete atrioventricular block. The most frequent policy is to attempt placing a dual-chamber system when possible; however, there is a group of patients that is functioning with a non-synchronous ventricular pacing, raising the question of the ideal timing to upgrade their systems. We investigated the exercise performance of a group of children and young adults with complete atrioventricular block and dual-chamber pacemakers in both single- and dual-chamber pacing modalities. A total of 15 patients performed maximal exercise stress testing after programming the VVIR or DDD modes with 2 hours of interval in a double-blind study protocol.
Compared with VVIR pacing, DDD pacing resulted in increase in the peak VO2, longer test duration, major increase in the heart rate achieved during peak exercise, decreased systemic non-invasive arterial blood pressure measured at maximal exercise, higher maximal workload, prolongation of the anaerobic threshold timing, and better self-rated performance perception in all the patients.
Synchronous atrioventricular pacing contributes to an increase in both the exercise performance and the performance perception in 100% of the patients. This difference contributes to create a sense of “fitness” with repercussions in the overall health, self-esteem, and life quality, as well as encourages youngster to practice sports. Our experience tends to favour upgrading patients’ systems to dual-chamber systems before reaching the adolescent years, even if the centre policy is to prolong as long as possible the epicardial site in order to avoid long years of right ventricular pacing.
The authors have undertaken a systematic survey of rock art along the Jubbah palaeolake in northern Saudi Arabia and interpret the results using GIS. They conclude that the overwhelming majority of prehistoric rock art sites overlook contemporary early Holocene palaeolakes, and that the distribution of later Thamudic rock art offers insights into human mobility patterns at Jubbah in the first millennium BC.
Children are not consuming sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables in their habitual diet. Methods derived from associative learning theories could be effective at promoting vegetable intake in pre-school children. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable. Children aged between 9 and 38 months were recruited from UK nurseries. The children (n 72) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (repeated exposure, flavour–flavour learning or flavour–nutrient learning). Each child was offered ten exposures to their respective version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. At pre-intervention, carrot intake was significantly higher than artichoke intake (P< 0·05). Intake of both vegetables increased over time (P< 0·001); however, when changes in intake were investigated, artichoke intake increased significantly more than carrot intake (P< 0·001). Artichoke intake increased to the same extent in all three conditions, and this effect was persistent up to 5 weeks post-intervention. Five exposures were sufficient to increase intake compared to the first exposure (P< 0·001). Repeated exposure to three variants of a novel vegetable was sufficient to increase intake of this vegetable, regardless of the addition of a familiar taste or energy. Repetition is therefore a critical factor for promoting novel vegetable intake in pre-school children.
Larval survival during planktonic dispersal is crucial to the connectivity among benthic populations. Although predation has been suggested as an important cause of larval mortality, this process has rarely been quantified in the field. We measured the abundance of various larval species in the water column in St George’s Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, on 3 different occasions in summer (August 2008, July and August 2009), the period of high larval abundance in our region. We sampled four numerically dominant predators (scyphozoans: Cyanea capillata and Aurelia aurita; fishes: Gasterosteus aculeatus and Merluccius bilinearis) and lobster larvae near the water surface with a neuston net and other larval species in the water column (3 m depth) with a ring net. Larvae found in the gut contents of the predators included various species of gastropods, crustaceans and bivalves, and these were more abundant in the scyphozoans than the fishes. We attribute these differences to variation in predation method. For certain larval taxa, we found significant differences between the proportional abundance in the guts of C. capillata and in the water column, indicating prey selectivity. This study evaluates the potential impact of predation on larval survival and indicates that the presence of predators can cause changes in abundance and consequent taxonomic shifts in species dominance of larvae, influencing their successful subsequent recruitment to the benthos.
Mbau forest covers much of the Congo, and shifts in its composition could have a large impact on the African tropics. The Ituri forest in east Congo is near a boundary between the monodominant mbau type and non-mbau mixed forest, and two 20-ha censuses of trees ≥ 1 cm diameter were carried out over 12 y to monitor forest change. Based on published diameter allometry, mbau forest had 535 Mg ha−1 biomass above ground and gained 1.1 Mg ha−1 y−1. Mixed forest had 399 Mg ha−1 and gained 3 Mg ha−1 y−1. The mbau tree (Gilbertiodendron dewevrei) increased its share of biomass from 4.1% to 4.4% in mixed forest; other common species also increased. Sapling density declined at both sites, likely because increased biomass meant shadier understorey, but the mbau tree increased in sapling density, suggesting it will become more important in the future. Tree mortality and growth rates were low relative to other tropical forests, especially in the mbau plots. Shifting toward G. dewevrei would represent a large gain in carbon in the mixed forest, but mbau is presently more important as a high-carbon stock: biomass lost during forest harvest could not recuperate for centuries due to slow community dynamics.
Creep tests provide invaluable data to better understand the physical properties of ice under various conditions. We describe here a simple, updated pneumatic apparatus for experimental studies of ice rheological properties. The apparatus is designed to perform two simultaneous compression creep tests either in a cold room or in atmospheric conditions when coupled to an external cooling circulator. We present results from calibration tests of the apparatus and provide new data from creep tests performed on temperate glacier ice samples. These calibration and creep results show that the apparatus is able to provide fast and reliable mechanical ice characterization. The secondary creep rates measured in this study range between 1.59 × 10−8 s−1 (at 0.21 MPa) and 4.38 × 10−7 s−1 (at 0.71 MPa) at −10°C for quasi-isotropic ice, which is consistent with former standard published data. The corresponding mean parameter, A, is 5.20 × 10−16 s−1 kPa−3, which also compares well with the range of reported other studies.
The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey investigates the interplay of star formation activity and the the metal-poor gas and dust of local universe dwarf galaxies using FIR and submillimetre imaging spectroscopic and photometric observations in the 50 to 550 μm window of the Herschel Space Observatory. The dust spectral-energy distributions are well constrained with the new Herschel and MIR Spitzer data. A submillimetre excess is often found in low metallicity galaxies, which, if tracing very cold dust, would highlight large dust masses not easily reconciled in some cases, given the low metallicities and expected gas-to-dust mass ratios. The galaxies are also mapped in the FIR fine-structure lines (63 and 145 μm OI, 158 μm CII, 122 and 205 μm NII, 88 μm OIII) probing the low density ionised gas, the HII regions and photodissociation regions. While still early in the mission we can already see, along with earlier studies, that line ratios in the metal-poor ISM differ remarkably from those in the metal-rich starburst environments. In dwarf galaxies, L[CII]/L(CO) (≥104) is at least an order of magnitude greater than in the most metal-rich starburst galaxies. The 88 μm [OIII] line usually dominates the FIR line emission over galaxy-wide scales, not the 158 μm [CII] line which is the dominant FIR cooling line in metal-rich galaxies. All of the FIR lines together can contribute 1% to 2% of the LTIR. The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy survey will provide statistical information on the nature of the dust and gas in low metallicity galaxies and place constraints on chemical evolution models of galaxies.
We present preliminary results of a 4-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Hα observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a number of OB stars.
We present the results from the spectroscopic follow-up of WR140 (WC7 + O4-5) during its last periastron passage in january 2009. This object is known as the archetype of colliding wind binaries and has a relatively large period (≃8 years) and eccentricity (≃0.89). We provide updated values for the orbital parameters, new estimates for the WR and O star masses and new constraints on the mass-loss rates.
Mouse t haplotypes have been divided into nine subregions that are each defined by one or more molecular markers. In previous studies, three of these subregions were shown to contain ‘distorter loci’ that interact to effect the transmission-ratio distortion phenotype characteristic of all complete t haplotypes. To determine which of the remaining six subregions also play a role in this phenotype, we analysed the accumulated data on transmission ratio distortion from males that carried one of 26 different combinations of two partial t haplotypes. We have obtained evidence for the association of two additional subregions with distorter loci. First, we present further evidence for the existence of a previously postulated distorter locus, Tcd-3, and describe its mapping to the T66C subregion. Secondly, we describe the identification of a new distorter locus, Tcd-4, in association with the subregion defined by the structural gene for the TCP-1 protein. Further studies indicate that two doses of the Tcd-4 locus are equivalent in effect to a single dose each of Tcd-4 and a second distorter locus, Tcd-1. This result suggests that different distorter locus products could have a common mode of action.
Residual stresses in sputtered ZnO films on Si are investigated and discussed. By means of X-ray diffraction, we show that as-deposited ZnO films encapsulated or not by Si3N4 protective coatings are highly compressively stressed. Moreover, a transition of stress is observed as a function of the post-deposition annealing temperature. After a heat treatment at 800°C, ZnO films are tensily stressed while ZnO films encapsulated by Si3N4 are stress-free. With the aid of in-situ X-ray diffraction, we argue that this thermally-activated stress relaxation can be attributed to a variation of the chemical composition of the ZnO films.
Fatigue design of structures for high temperature service
resorts to modelling based on elasto-viscoplasticity constitutive
laws. The new model describes complex anisothermal cyclic
loadings, accounting for viscosity on a large range of strain.
The new constitutive law that has been developed for nodular
cast iron, is intended for the design of automotive parts for
high temperature service.