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To probe the factors that contributes to the relapse of the major depression after being hospitalized for a period of three consecutive months in a psychiatric clinic.
Material & methods
22 patients (8 men) who were in the clinic were examined (average age 49.2, SD=7.2) suffering from major depression and who fully recovered between episodes. The criteria for their participation in the sample were according to DSM-IV®, and the >2 relapses/year.
By the stepwise multiple regression analysis it was found that by hierarchy the factors that cause the relapse are, the fact that the patient does not respond to the first antidepressant treatment (parameter estimate p< 0.002), child or teenage depression background (p< 0.002), the presence of stressful facts (diseases, financial problems, loss of 1st degree relatives, p< 0.004) and the co morbidity with character disorders in the II (p< 0.01) axis.
The importance of a negative outcome of the major depression should be co estimated with the danger of self-destruction as a result of the illness, the difficulties of the interpersonal relationships, the professional activities, the impact on the family, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. and mainly the empirical impact on the patient.
Of this project was to study the characteristics of stress and depression in mental health professionals and the degree at which they are affected by demographic factors.
Material - method
The sample of the study includes 62 mental health professionals. An anonymous closed questionnaire by Bedford & Foulds was used. The data analysis was made with the use of SPSS 16.0.
Two factors were found statistically essential; the age[F(5,41)=0,52 p=0,004] and the marital statue [F(5,41)=0.49 p=0.008]. The married people seem to statistically develop higher anxiety (p=0,001), higher tension (p=0,002) and higher insomnia (p=0,001) in comparison to the singles, the divorced and the widows/widowers. The singles seem to keep more calm (p=0.014) in comparison to the married and the divorced (p=0.001).Working people aged 35-49 experience more intense sorrow than the other age groups (p=0,003), more intense feelings of panic (p=0,018) and tension (p=0,049). The age groups in stressful or depression situations diversify their needs as regards smoking, with the 35-49 age group being the heaviest smokers (p=0,029).
It is discovered that a different defense mechanism is used by mental health professionals as regards their marital statue and their age, developing sleeping disorders, increase in smoking and sadness elements indifference for the future, more often.
Anxiety is considered to be a situation of agony, anguish and is being experienced as psychological pressure. At Mental Health Professionals’ work environment, a lot of factors may contribute to anxiety appearance and create the conditions of depression symptomatology development. The smoking habit is being connected with a great range of psychiatric diagnosis, including anxiety and depression.
Of this study was the examination of the relationship of smoking habit with the appearance of anxiety and depression at Mental Health Professionals.
317 mental health professionals were being examined (144 male, 173 female, with medieval age 38, 64 ± 7,945 years) and their smoking habits were recorded. For anxiety and depression examination the DSSI/Sad QUESTIONNAIRE was being used. The analysis of data was done by the use of statistical package SPSS 16.0.
Smokers have higher levels of depression (t(315) = 2,417, p = 0,016) as well as of anxiety (t(315) = 2,219, p = 0,027). However no one of the specific degrees was related with the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers (r = 0,022, p = 0,777 for depression, r = 0,133, p = 0,084 for anxiety)
The smoking habit appeared to be related with anxiety and depression, it cannot although be considered as the reason but as the result of emotional difficulty of the participants. Even though smoking decreases the privative symptoms, it does not decrease the anxiety and the depression or the confrontation of their deeper reasons. It is being seen the need of development and materialization of interventions of effective support for Mental Health Professional at their own work environment.
The last decade the parents of autistic children have become objects of many controversial studies and theories. A lot of studies have revealed a positive relationship between father's age and the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders.
In the present study, we investigated the association between paternal age and an increased risk of autism in offspring.
Samples consist of 88 autism cases from the Children's Health Center of Thessaly, Greece. Each case was matched with questionnaire on parental education, child's gender, dominant hand, presence of seizures. Six categories of paternal age were created. the relationship between the variables was investigated using Cramer's V correlation coefficient and chi-square tests to explore the relationship between categorical variables. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v. 18.0 (SPSS) was used.
The data show a significant association between higher paternal ages and an increased risk of autism presented a strong, positive relation (Cramer's v = 0.468; p = 0.001< 0.05). An analysis of the combined effect of the incidence rates seizures (30%), offspring's gender (65.9%) male and (34.1%) female were found. in addition, the data shows the right hand is used (67%) more than the left (33%), furthermore the education also revealed that parents with higher education had an increased risk of having autistic children.
Our study provides evidence of the association of paternal age and risk of autism. However, the findings in our sample do not constitute a causal relationship but lay the foundations for thought and further research.
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