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In this work, we study the hard-magnetic properties and its influence on the microstructure of MnBi-based glass-coated microwires obtained by Taylor-Ulitovsky process, as well as their magnetic and thermal dependence in the range of 200 K-360 K. We obtained glass-coated microwires pieces trough of the Taylor-Ulitovsky process. Glass-coated microwires exhibited the formation of Low-Temperature Intermetallic Phase (LTIP)-MnBi, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental chemical composition analysis showed LTIP regions interspersed within Bi- and Mn-rich areas. Magnetic properties were determined by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), for which a considerable intrinsic coercivity field (iHc) up to 6000 Oe at 360 K, together with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 57.49 emu/cm3. Therefore, this combination of properties renders LTIP is a promising precursor with potential for applications at high temperatures.
This study addresses aspects of the phylogenetic relationships of the commercial Tehuelche scallop, Aequipecten tehuelchus s.l. (Bivalvia: Pectinidae), from southern South America using molecular techniques. The Tehuelche scallop presents two different putative subspecies, A. t. tehuelchus and A. t. madrynensis, and a potentially related sympatric species, Flexopecten felipponei. The Tehuelche scallop is a very important component of ecosystems and is the target of artisanal fisheries in the northern Patagonian gulfs of Argentina. Despite its importance, the systematic relationships of these taxa have not been fully addressed. The main goal of this study is to place the Tehuelche scallop within a partial phylogenetic framework of the family Pectinidae. Scallops were sampled at 10 localities distributed along the south-western Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic reconstructions were carried out from two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and two nuclear markers (28S rRNA and H3) using Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that the two putative subspecies of the Tehuelche scallop together with F. felipponei form a monophyletic clade, without differentiating at the specific level. Observed differences would be the result of phenotypic plasticity, probably caused by environmental factors. However, further analysis using genes with faster evolution rate are needed to corroborate it. Our phylogenetic analysis resolved to Aequipecten as polyphyletic. The Tehuelche scallop has a basal position within the Argopecten group and we recommend that it should be transferred to this genus. The relationship between the hypotheses about the origin of the Tehuelche scallop implicit in the literature and our results are discussed.
The assessment of inter-regional functional connectivity (FC) has allowed for the description of the putative mechanism of action of treatments such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, the possible FC alterations of other clinically-effective DBS targets have not been explored. Here we evaluated the FC patterns of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in patients with OCD, as well as their association with symptom severity.
Eighty-six patients with OCD and 104 healthy participants were recruited. A resting-state image was acquired for each participant and a seed-based analysis focused on our two regions of interest was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM8). Between-group differences in FC patterns were assessed with two-sample t test models, while the association between symptom severity and FC patterns was assessed with multiple regression analyses.
In comparison with controls, patients with OCD showed: (1) increased FC between the left STN and the right pre-motor cortex, (2) decreased FC between the right STN and the lenticular nuclei, and (3) increased FC between the left BNST and the right frontopolar cortex. Multiple regression analyses revealed a negative association between clinical severity and FC between the right STN and lenticular nucleus.
This study provides a neurobiological framework to understand the mechanism of action of DBS on the STN and the BNST, which seems to involve brain circuits related with motor response inhibition and anxiety control, respectively.
The main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases is well known. However, translational studies are mostly based in postnatal food excess and, thus, there is a paucity of information on the phenotype of individuals with prenatal deficiencies but adequate postnatal conditions. Thus, we assessed the effects of prenatal programming (comparing descendants from females fed with a diet fulfilling 100 or only 50% of their nutritional requirements for pregnancy) on gene expression, patterns of growth and fattening, metabolic status and puberty attainment of a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance with controlled postnatal nutrition and opportunity of exercise. Maternal restriction was related to changes in the relationships among gene expression of positive (insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2) and negative (myostatin) regulators of muscle growth, with negative correlations in gilts from restricted pregnancies and positive relationships in the control group. In spite of these differences, the patterns of growth and fattening and the metabolic features during juvenile growth were similar in control gilts and gilts from restricted pregnancies. Concomitantly, there was a lack of differences in the timing of puberty attainment. However, after reaching puberty and adulthood, females from restricted pregnancies were heavier and more corpulent than control gilts, though such increases in weight and size were not accompanied by increases in adiposity. In conclusion, in spite of changes in gene expression induced by developmental programming, the propensity for higher weight and adiposity of individuals exposed to prenatal malnutrition may be modulated by controlled food intake and opportunity of physical exercise during infant and juvenile development.
Despite knowledge of amygdala involvement in fear and anxiety, its contribution to the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) remains controversial. In the context of neuroimaging studies, it seems likely that the heterogeneity of the disorder might have contributed to a lack of consistent findings.
To assess the influence of OCD symptom dimensions on amygdala responses to a well-validated emotional face-matching paradigm.
Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 67 patients with OCD and 67 age-, gender- and education-level matched healthy controls.
The severity of aggression/checking and sexual/religious symptom dimensions were significantly associated with heightened amygdala activation in those with OCD when responding to fearful faces, whereas no such correlations were seen for other symptom dimensions.
Amygdala functional alterations in OCD appear to be specifically modulated by symptom dimensions whose origins may be more closely linked to putative amygdala-centric processes, such as abnormal fear processing.
A stochastic algorithm for bound-constrained global optimization is described. The method can be applied to objective functions that are nonsmooth or even discontinuous. The algorithm forms a partition on the search region using classification and regression trees (CART), which defines a region where the objective function is relatively low. Further points are drawn directly from the low region before a new partition is formed. Alternating between partition and sampling phases provides an effective method for nonsmooth global optimization. The sequence of iterates generated by the algorithm is shown to converge to an essential global minimizer with probability one under mild conditions. Nonprobabilistic results are also given when random sampling is replaced with points taken from the Halton sequence. Numerical results are presented for both smooth and nonsmooth problems and show that the method is effective and competitive in practice.
In classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) strong shocks are formed where the accretion funnel impacts with the denser stellar chromosphere. Although current models of accretion provide a plausible global picture of this process, some fundamental aspects are still unclear: the observed X-ray luminosity in accretion shocks is order of magnitudes lower than predicted; the observed density and temperature structures of the hot post-shock region are puzzling and still unexplained by models.
To address these issues we performed 2D MHD simulations describing an accretion stream impacting onto the chromosphere of a CTTS, exploring different configurations and strengths of the magnetic field. From the model results we then synthesized the X-ray emission emerging from the hot post-shock, taking into account the local absorption due to the pre-shock stream and surrounding atmosphere.
We find that the different configurations and strengths of the magnetic field profoundly affect the hot post-shock properties. Moreover the emerging X-ray emission strongly depends also on the viewing angle under which accretion is observed. Some of the explored configuration are able to reproduce the observed features of X-ray spectra of CTTS.
The structure and dynamics of young stellar object (YSO) accretion shocks depend strongly on the local magnetic field strength and configuration, as well as on the radiative transfer effects responsible for the energy losses. We present the first 3D YSO shock simulations of the interior of the stream, assuming a uniform background magnetic field, a clumpy infalling gas, and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We study the dynamical evolution and the post-shock structure as a function of the plasma-beta (thermal pressure over magnetic pressure). We find that a strong magnetic field (~hundreds of Gauss) leads to the formation of fibrils in the shocked gas due to the plasma confinement within flux tubes. The corresponding emission is smooth and fully distinguishable from the case of a weak magnetic field (~tenths of Gauss) where the hot slab demonstrates chaotic motion and oscillates periodically.
The size of particular sub-regions within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been associated with fear extinction in humans. Exposure therapy is a form of extinction learning widely used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we investigated the relationship between morphometric measurements of different sub-regions of the vmPFC and exposure therapy outcome in OCD.
A total of 74 OCD patients and 86 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cortical thickness and volumetric measurements were obtained for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), the medial orbital frontal cortex and the subcallosal cortex. After MRI acquisition, patients were enrolled in an exposure therapy protocol, and we assessed the relationship between MRI-derived measurements and treatment outcome. Baseline between-group differences for such measurements were also assessed.
Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients showed a thinner left rACC (p = 0.008). Also, left rACC thickness was inversely associated with exposure therapy outcome (r – 0.32, p = 0.008), and this region was significantly thinner in OCD patients who responded to exposure therapy than in those who did not (p = 0.006). Analyses based on regional volumetry did not yield any significant results.
OCD patients showed cortical thickness reductions in the left rACC, and these alterations were related to exposure therapy outcome. The precise characterization of neuroimaging predictors of treatment response derived from the study of the brain areas involved in fear extinction may optimize exposure therapy planning in OCD and other anxiety disorders.
A modified critical point model dielectric function for graphene is derived here and used to analyze spectroscopic ellipsometry data obtained over a wide spectral range from 3 to 9 eV. Critical point and exciton resonance energies are extracted and discussed. Our findings indicate that epitaxial graphene on SiC to exhibits equivalent exciton behavior to that of suspended graphene. We further apply our model dielectric function to evaluate dielectric function data for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite reported in the literature. Excellent agreement is found between the critical point model developed here and the literature data even for the low energy spectral range up to 1 eV.
Mismatched or shadowed individual cells in a module can operate in the Reverse Bias (RB) regime. Subjecting a dye solar cell (DSC) to an accelerated RB stress by forcing a constant current equal to 2-fold its ISC, produced significant alterations on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in RB with time and a severe loss of cell efficiency in 32h. We investigated and identified a key mechanism for RB charge transfer and degradation in DSCs. I-V characteristics in RB were found to be sensitive to the type of dye utilized and to TiCl4 substrate treatment.
A crucial step in Dye Solar Cell (DSC) fabrication is the sintering of the TiO2 layer which needs to guarantee good electromechanical bonding between nanoparticles whilst maintaining sufficiently large porosity to yield performing devices. The standard procedure for TiO2 sintering requires firing in an oven at ∼ 500°C. An alternative procedure consists in utilizing laser scanning processing which has the advantageous potential of being noncontact, local, low cost, rapid, selective, automated and scalable. We analyzed and optimised a laser process for the sintering of the TiO2 layers in dye solar cells analyzing temperature profiles, throughput and the embodied energy. The development of electronic and photovoltaic devices on plastic substrates is of considerable interest due to the advantages they bring in terms of flexibility and easy processing for lightweight, low-cost large-area applications. An alternative sintering procedure compatible with flexible substrates and large area processing consists in utilizing a UV lamp. We subjected TiO2 pastes deposited on conductive transparent substrates to UV irradiation. Fully plastic devices fabricated through this method showed efficiencies of 4%.
There has been an increasing demand for high temperature soft magnetic materials with mechanical properties better than those of existing commercial materials such as FeCo alloys. We have designed new magnetic composites by reinforcing FeCo alloys with high strength tungsten fibers. The composite materials were fabricated by electrodeposition. In general, the as-deposited composites have a relatively high coercivity Hc and low magnetic permeability μ, because of induced strain during fabrication. After appropriate thermal annealing, the composites have good soft magnetic properties, comparable to commercial bulk alloys. However, the saturation induction is reduced due to the non-magnetic inclusions. The composites also show significant enhancements in yield strength and tensile strength that increases linearly with fiber volume fraction as seen in other common composite materials. In addition, near zero creep is observed at 600 °C under a stress of 600 Mpa. The mechanical properties can be further improved by co-depositing soft magnetic material and Al2O3 onto the fibers. An approximately linear relationship was observed between the coercivity and volume fraction of Al2O3 particles. The square-root relationship was observed between the hardness and the Al2O3 concentration.
H3OUO2PO4.3H2O (HUP) undergoes intercalative reaction with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) given a black solid with the next composition: (TTF)U02P04.0.6H2O. The electrical conductivity fall from 2.40.10−6 Ω−1 cm−1 (363K) to 8.8.10−8 Ω−1 cm−1(473K).
The lithium derivatives from anhydrous niobium (Y) phosphate were made through NbOPO4.H20 and LiCl by solid state reaction at 200 ºC and subsequentannealed at 500ºC. The solid with the highest lithium content, exhibits the maximum conductivity of all materials prepared. The electrical conductivity of this solid ranges from 10-10 Ω-1 cm-1 at 373K to 3.62.10-3Ω-1cm-1 at 683K.
On the one hand, a recent study on sea turtle by-catch during surface longline fishing targeting swordfish in the western Mediterranean Sea showed that sea turtle by-catch is independent of fishing effort and other technological factors. When the distance to the coast increases, there is a higher probability of catching a loggerhead turtle. The authors proposed to avoid fisheries further than 35 nautical miles (approximately 65 km) from the coast. However, the proposed 35 nautical miles limit could be useful where the continental shelf is narrow, as in the Balearic Sea, and useless where it widens. On the other hand, ecological model validation is considered essential for management application. The objective of the present paper is to validate the new fisheries loggerhead by-catch model in different areas outside the Balearic Sea with wider continental shelves, aimed at maintaining sustainable fishing activity compatible with the conservation of the loggerhead populations. Our present results validate the previous model, and stress the importance of the eco-geographical variable distance to the coast in understanding the loggerhead by-catch (or incidental capture) per unit effort for the longline fisheries targeting swordfish.
The same executive dysfunctions and alterations in neuroimaging tests (both functional and structural) have been found in obsessive-compulsive patients and their first-degree relatives. These neurobiological findings are considered to be intermediate markers of the disease. The aim of our study was to assess verbal and non-verbal memory in unaffected first-degree relatives, in order to determine whether these neuropsychological functions constitute a new cognitive marker for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Recall and use of organizational strategies in verbal and non-verbal memory tasks were measured in 25 obsessive-compulsive patients, 25 unaffected first-degree relatives and 25 healthy volunteers.
First-degree relatives and healthy volunteers did not show differences on most measures of verbal memory. However, during the recall and processing of non-verbal information, deficits were found in first-degree relatives and patients compared with healthy volunteers.
The presence of the same deficits in the execution of non-verbal memory tasks in OCD patients and unaffected first-degree relatives suggests the influence of certain genetic and/or familial factors on this cognitive function in OCD and supports the hypothesis that deficits in non-verbal memory tasks could be considered as cognitive markers of the disorder.
An ATP diphosphohydrolase (EC 126.96.36.199) activity was identified in a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes preparation (Lb). Ultrastructural cytochemical microscopy showed this protein on the parasite surface and also stained a possible similar protein at the mitochondrial membrane. Isolation of an active ATP diphosphohydrolase isoform from Lb was obtained by cross-immunoreactivity with polyclonal anti-potato apyrase antibodies. These antibodies, immobilized on Protein A-Sepharose, immunoprecipitated a polypeptide of approximately 48 kDa and, in lower amount, a polypeptide of approximately 43 kDa, and depleted 83% ATPase and 87% of the ADPase activities from detergent-homogenized Lb. Potato apyrase was recognized in Western blots by IgG antibody from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients, suggesting that the parasite and vegetable proteins share antigenic conserved epitopes. Significant IgG seropositivity in serum samples diluted 1:50 from ACL patients (n=20) for Lb (65%) and potato apyrase (90%) was observed by ELISA technique. Significant IgG antibody reactivity was also observed against synthetic peptides belonging to a conserved domain from L. braziliensis NDPase (80% seropositivity) and its potato apyrase counterpart (50% seropositivity), in accordance with the existence of shared antigenic epitopes and demonstrating that in leishmaniasis infection the domain r82-103 from L. braziliensis NDPase is a target for the human immune response.
The quasi-static lower hybrid eigenmodes of a plasma column in a cylindrical waveguide are determined, and their linear excitation by a small density electron beam is discussed for the cases of a hot electron beam as well as for a cold electron beam. It is shown that under certain conditions, finite geometry effects introduce important quantitative and qualitative differences with respect to the results obtained in an infinite geometry.
The dispersion relations for the quasi-static lower hybrid surface waves are derived. Conditions for their existence and their linear excitation by a small density electron beam are discussed. Instabilities appearing in low-frequency surface waves are also discussed.