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Marine reservoir age is an important component for correction in radiocarbon (14C) dating of marine and coastal samples. 14C concentration in pre-bomb marine samples of known age are used to derive marine reservoir age of a region. Annually banded coral from Landfall island in the northern Andaman has been analyzed for its 14C concentration during the pre-bomb period 1948–1951. 14C age and reservoir effect (∆R) are reported for these pre-bomb coral samples from the northern Andaman region. The mean 14C age of 331 ± 61 yr BP was obtained for the period 1948–1951 with an average reservoir age correction of –138 ± 61 yr. This reservoir age correction is lowest reported from the northern Indian Ocean. ∆R value of the northern Andaman and the Bay of Bengal appears lower than that of southern Andaman. The ∆R values obtained using mollusk shells and coral from the Andaman region shows large variability. The lower reservoir age correction for the Landfall Island situated in the northern part of the Andaman archipelago, could result due to freshwater flux and reduced upwelling in the region.
Childhood abuse has been reported as a precursor and maintaining factors for adult psychiatric disorders. Childhood physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse have been independently reported in women with depression. There is a serious dearth of literature on the incidence of childhood abuse among women with depression from India.
Objectives & aims
We investigated and compared the incidence of childhood abuse (overall) – physical, emotional and sexual (individual components)- among women seeking treatment for unipolar depression (UD) compared to healthy women (HW).
We compared the data of women diagnosed with UD (n = 134) from a larger pool of women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders from our hospital (n = 609) with HW (n = 100) for the purpose of this study. The participants were screened using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and for childhood abuse using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Retrospective (ICAST)-R. The incidence of childhood abuse between the two groups was compared using the Chi-squared test.
The UD women have significantly more childhood emotional abuse than HW (69.5% vs 30.5%; χ2 = 4.819, P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on overall abuse, physical or sexual abuse (all P > 0.16).
Consistent with world literature, significantly more childhood emotional abuse was seen among Indian women with UD compared to HW. It is likely that that repeated emotional abuse in childhood leads to negative attributions among children, later getting generalised to life events resulting in depression in adulthood.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
Dicationic cobalt(II) complexes of the type [Co(fterpy)2]c(X)2·nH2O·mCH3OH (fterpy = 4′-(2-furyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine; 1: X = PF6-, n = 1.5, m = 0; 2: X = ClO4-, n = 1, m = 1) have been isolated using self-assembly method and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In crystalline states both compounds exhibit gradual and incomplete spin crossover (SCO) behaviour in the temperature range 2-320 K. Various spin states of cobalt(II) in 1 have been confirmed by crystallographic evidences at 150 K and 293 K. A variation in counter anions and solvent molecules from 1 to 2 substantially improves the cooperativity among the spin active metal centres and thereby changing the nature of SCO behaviour.
Weekly low-dose cisplatin is routinely used in concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC), despite 3-weekly cisplatin being the standard of care. We compared compliance, toxicity and efficacy in weekly versus 3-weekly cisplatin CCRT in LAHNC.
Materials and methods
In this retrospective study, weekly cisplatin 50 mg flat dose was compared with 3-weekly cisplatin 100 mg/m2, when given in CCRT in LAHNC with curative intent. The study outcome was compliance, toxicity, loco-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
Eighty-four patients received CCRT from January 2013 to June 2017, 40 in weekly and 44 in 3-weekly arm. There was no difference between the arms not completing scheduled radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Patient receiving 200 mg/m2 cisplatin is higher in 3-weekly arm compared with weekly arm (75 versus 40·9%; p<0·0015). Compared with 3-weekly arm, more patient in weekly arm developed grade ≥3 mucositis (52·5 versus 15·9%, p=0·0004), day care intravenous hydration (82·5 versus 38·6% <0·0001) and in-patient admission (55·0 versus 18·2%; p=0·0004). The 2-year LRC, DFS and OS in weekly versus 3-weekly arm were: 70 versus 61·4% (p=0·406); 67·5 versus 56·8% (p=0·314); 67·5 versus 61·4% (p=0·558), respectively. The median time to LRR, DFs and OS was not reached.
Weekly cisplatin is comparable with 3-weekly cisplatin in terms of compliance, disease control and survival, but with increased grade 3 mucositis and higher admissions for supportive care.
Little is known about what motivates people to enroll in research registries. The purpose of this study is to identify facilitators of registry enrollment among diverse older adults.
Participants completed an 18-item Research Interest Assessment Tool. We used logistic regression analyses to examine responses across participants and by race and gender.
Participants (N=374) were 58% black, 76% women, with a mean age of 68.2 years. All participants were motivated to maintain their memory while aging. Facilitators of registry enrolled varied by both race and gender. Notably, blacks (estimate=0.71, p<0.0001) and women (estimate=0.32, p=0.03) were more willing to enroll in the registry due to home visits compared with whites and men, respectively.
Researchers must consider participant desire for maintaining memory while aging and home visits when designing culturally tailored registries.
Many studies have identified changes in the brain associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), but few have examined the relationship between genetic determinants of OCD and brain variation.
We present the first genome-wide investigation of overlapping genetic risk for OCD and genetic influences on subcortical brain structures.
Using single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis, we measured genetic overlap between the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCD (1465 participants with OCD, 5557 controls) and recent GWASs of eight subcortical brain volumes (13 171 participants).
We found evidence of significant positive concordance between OCD risk variants and variants associated with greater nucleus accumbens and putamen volumes. When conditioning OCD risk variants on brain volume, variants influencing putamen, amygdala and thalamus volumes were associated with risk for OCD.
These results are consistent with current OCD neurocircuitry models. Further evidence will clarify the relationship between putamen volume and OCD risk, and the roles of the detected variants in this disorder.
Declaration of interest
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
We have studied, the relationship between monthly variations of average counting rates of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) at Moscow super neutron monitoring station with mid cut-off rigidities (~2.42 GV), and the solar radio flux at 10.7cm (F10.7) and sunspot number (SSN) during the solar cycles 22 − 24. The F10.7cm (2800 MHz) and SSN is an excellent indicator of solar activity for the study period. We have investigated the patterns of long-term and mid-term periodicities of SSN and F10.7, using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. We have observed the time-lag between ascending phase of CRI with F10.7cm and SSN during solar cycles 22 − 24.
For patients with bifascicular block and syncope of unknown origin, different American Heart Association guidelines give Class 2A recommendations for two treatments: the implantable loop recorder (ILR) and empiric pacemaker insertion (PM). Equipoise reflected in guidelines may contribute to uncertainty in management and inefficient resource use. The objective of this analysis is to determine the cost-effectiveness of ILR compared to PM in the management of older adults (age>50 years) with bifascicular block and syncope over two years, from the perspective of a Canadian publicly funded health care system, in the Syncope: Pacing or Recording In ThE Later Years (SPRITELY) trial.
Resource utilization data was collected throughout the trial, and unit costs were assigned (2017 Canadian dollars). Utility was measured at baseline and annually with the EQ-5D-3L. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated as area-under-the-curve, and adjusted for baseline imbalances in utility. Confidence intervals for the incremental cost effectiveness ratio were generated with non-parametric bootstrapping.
Mean cost in participants randomized to PM was CAD 9,759 (USD 7,400), compared to CAD 13,453 (USD 10,200) in participants randomized to ILR. The ILR strategy resulted in 0.020 QALYs more than the PM strategy. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was CAD 186,553 (95% CI: −831,950–1,191,816) (USD 141,900, 95% CI: −632,740–906,440) per additional QALY. In 1,000 bootstrapped replicates, the cost of the ILR strategy was always greater than that of the PM strategy. At the threshold of CAD 50,000 (USD 38,000) per additional QALY, the probability that the ILR strategy is the cost effective option is 0.504.
ILR costs were greater than PM costs, with little difference in QALY outcomes over two-years. Findings are generalizable to patients similar to SPRITELY participants, from the perspective of the Canadian health care system. However, practice pattern variation and payment systems inhibit generalizability to other countries. Future analysis will explore cost and QALY outcomes in countries that participated in the SPRITELY trial.
Six benthic biotic indices (Shannon–Wiener H′log2, W-statistics, BOPA, BENTIX, AMBI and M-AMBI), based on different ecological principles, were applied to assess the health of variously disturbed tropical intertidal habitats of the Port Blair coastline. A total of 243 replicate samples were collected during the dry period (January, February and March) of 2014–2016. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, sediment pH, total organic matter content and texture were analysed. A high mean abundance of opportunistic species (Orbinia sp. 748, Capitella singularis 237 and Armandia sp. 114 ind. m−2) was observed at Phoenix Bay, a gradual decline in diversity at Junglighat and a comparatively high diversity and moderate biomass at Wandoor, reflecting a human pressure gradient. Results showed an annual decline of benthic quality from 2014 to 2016 (good to moderate). Overall BOPA failed to distinguish the magnitude of disturbances, while the rest of the indices classified the benthic quality from undisturbed/high (WD), slightly disturbed/good (JG), to moderately disturbed/moderate to poor (PB). The subjective analysis demonstrated that the urban centres corresponded to disturbed benthic communities of dominant first and second order opportunistic species, while sensitive (EGI) and indifferent (EGII) were associated with the least disturbed or undisturbed site. The study successfully demonstrated the performance of temperate indices in intertidal habitats against the mild organic enrichment. However, for an effective assessment, setting natural reference conditions and sampling in stable dry periods (strong seasonality in tropics) is desirable. In order to test the performance of biotic indices, a long-term monitoring approach of taking abiotic and biotic descriptors into account is recommended.
An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28·5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.