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Studies on neighbourhood characteristics and depression show equivocal results.
This large-scale pooled analysis examines whether urbanisation, socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with the prevalence and severity of depression.
Cross-sectional design including data are from eight Dutch cohort studies (n= 32 487). Prevalence of depression, either DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive disorder or scoring for moderately severe depression on symptom scales, and continuous depression severity scores were analysed. Neighbourhood characteristics were linked using postal codes and included (a) urbanisation grade, (b) socioeconomic characteristics: socioeconomic status, home value, social security beneficiaries and non-Dutch ancestry, (c) physical characteristics: air pollution, traffic noise and availability of green space and water, and (d) social characteristics: social cohesion and safety. Multilevel regression analyses were adjusted for the individual's age, gender, educational level and income. Cohort-specific estimates were pooled using random-effects analysis.
The pooled analysis showed that higher urbanisation grade (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.10), lower socioeconomic status (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.87–0.95), higher number of social security beneficiaries (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.06–1.19), higher percentage of non-Dutch residents (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14), higher levels of air pollution (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.12), less green space (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–0.99) and less social safety (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97) were associated with higher prevalence of depression. All four socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and social safety were also consistently associated with continuous depression severity scores.
This large-scale pooled analysis across eight Dutch cohort studies shows that urbanisation and various socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with depression, indicating that a wide range of environmental aspects may relate to poor mental health.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
Emerging evidence suggests that diet and renal function are related. Little is known, however, about the association of consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We investigated this in a population-based cohort aged 26–65 years. Data were from 3787 participants from the Doetinchem cohort study, who were examined ≥3 times, 5 years apart. Consumption of food groups was assessed at each round with a validated FFQ. GFR was estimated at each round from routinely measured cystatin C and creatinine using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation. ACR was measured at the last round. Generalised estimated equation models were performed to examine associations with changes in eGFR. Linear regression was used to examine associations with ACR. Adjustments were made for covariates related to lifestyle, biological factors and diet. Mean baseline eGFR was 104·5 (sd 13·7) and mean annual decline was −0·95 (sd 0·67) ml/min per 1·73 m2 over a 15-year follow-up. A trend was observed towards slightly less annual decline in eGFR among those with higher consumption of whole grains (P=0·06). This association, however, was attenuated and no longer significant in multivariate models (P=0·29). Consumption of fruit and vegetables was not associated with changes in eGFR and urinary ACR. In conclusion, consumption of whole grains, fruit and vegetables is not associated with changes in eGFR and mean ACR. As this was the first longitudinal study into this association in the general population, and as results are only partially in line with related studies, further research is recommended.
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. Methods: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites). For overall group, age: M=42.65 years, SD=8.93; 86% male; education: M=13.17, SD=2.73; 54% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. NCI was assessed with a comprehensive test battery with normative corrections for age, education and gender. Covariates examined included HIV-disease characteristics, comorbidities, and genetic ancestry. Results: Compared with Whites, Latinos had higher rates of global NCI (42% vs. 54%), and domain NCI in executive function, learning, recall, working memory, and processing speed. Latinos also fared worse than Whites on current and historical HIV-disease characteristics, and nadir CD4 partially mediated ethnic differences in NCI. Yet, Latinos continued to have more global NCI [odds ratio (OR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13–2.23; p<.01] after adjusting for significant covariates. Higher rates of global NCI were observed with Puerto Rican (n=60; 71%) versus Mexican (n=79, 44%) origin/descent; this disparity persisted in models adjusting for significant covariates (OR=2.40; CI=1.11–5.29; p=.03). Conclusions: HIV+ Latinos, especially of Puerto Rican (vs. Mexican) origin/descent had increased rates of NCI compared with Whites. Differences in rates of NCI were not completely explained by worse HIV-disease characteristics, neurocognitive comorbidities, or genetic ancestry. Future studies should explore culturally relevant psychosocial, biomedical, and genetic factors that might explain these disparities and inform the development of targeted interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 163–175)
We present the first demonstration of a general method for the chemical characterization of small surface features at high magnification via simultaneous collection of mass spectrometry (MS) imaging and tandem MS imaging data. High lateral resolution tandem secondary ion MS imaging is employed to determine the composition of surface features on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) that precipitate during heat treatment. The surface features, probed at a lateral resolving power of<200 nm using a surface-sensitive ion beam, are found to be comprised of ethylene terephthalate trimer at a greater abundance than is observed in the surrounding polymer matrix. This is the first chemical identification of PET surface precipitates made without either an extraction step or the use of a reference material. The new capability employed for this study achieves the highest practical lateral resolution ever reported for tandem MS imaging.
Investments have been made to alter the food environment of neighbourhoods that have a disproportionate number of unhealthy food venues. Corner store conversions are one strategy to increase access to fruits and vegetables (F&V). Although the literature shows modest success, the effectiveness of these interventions remains equivocal. The present paper reports on the evaluation of Proyecto MercadoFRESCO, a corner store conversion intervention in two Latino communities.
A repeated cross-sectional design was employed. Data were stratified by intervention arm and bivariate tests assessed changes over time. Logistic and multiple regression models with intervention arm, time and the interaction of intervention and time were conducted. Supplementary analyses account for clustering of patrons within stores and staggering of store conversions.
Three stores were converted and five stores served as comparisons in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California, USA.
Store patrons were interviewed before (n550) and after (n407) the intervention.
Relative to patrons of comparison stores, patrons of intervention stores demonstrated more favourable perceptions of corner stores and increased purchasing of F&V during that store visit. Changes were not detected in store patronage, percentage of weekly dollars spent on food for F&V or daily consumption of F&V.
Consistent with some extant food environment literature, findings demonstrate limited effects. Investments should be made in multilevel, comprehensive interventions that target a variety retail food outlets rather than focusing on corner stores exclusively. Complementary policies limiting the availability, affordability and marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods should also be pursued.
To investigate general practitioners’ (GPs’) desire and perceived added value of point-of-care (POC) troponin, its effect on referral decisions, and test requirements.
Excluding acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in primary care remains a diagnostic challenges for GPs. Consequently, referral rates of chest pain patients are high, while the incidence of a cardiovascular problem is only 8–15%. Previous studies have shown that GPs are interested in a POC troponin test. This test could enhance rapid exclusion of ACS, thereby preventing unnecessary patient distress, without compromising safety and while reducing costs. However, using this test is not recommended in current guidelines due to uncertainty in the test’s potential added value, and the lower sensitivity early after symptom onset as compared with troponin tests in a regular laboratory.
An online survey containing 34 questions was distributed among 837 Dutch GPs in June 2015.
A total of 126 GPs (15.1%) completed at least 75% of the questions. 67.1% of GPs believe that POC troponin tests have moderate to very high added value. Although the availability of a POC test is expected to increase the frequency at which troponin tests are used, it likely decreases (immediate) referral rates. Of the responding GPs, 78.3% only accept 10 min as the maximum test duration, 78.1% think reimbursement of the POC device is required for implementation, and 68.9% consider it necessary that it can be performed with a finger prick blood sample. In conclusion, according to GPs, the POC troponin test can be of added value to exclude ACS early on. Actual test implementation will depend on test characteristics, including test duration, type of blood sample required, and reimbursement of the analyzer.
Live-cell and live-tissue imaging using fluorescence optical microscopes presents an inherent trade-off between image quality and photodamage. Spatially-controlled illumination microscopy (SCIM) aims to strike the right balance between obtaining good image quality and minimizing the risk of photodamage. In traditional imaging, illumination is performed with a spatially-uniform light dose resulting in spatially-variable detected signals. SCIM adopts an alternative imaging approach where illumination is performed with a spatially-variable light dose resulting in spatially-uniform detected signals. The actual image information of the biological specimen in SCIM is predominantly encoded in the illumination profile. SCIM uses real-time spatial control of illumination in the imaging of fluorescent biological specimens. This alternative imaging paradigm reduces the overall illumination light dose during imaging, which facilitates prolonged imaging of live biological specimens by minimizing photodamage without compromising image quality. Additionally, the dynamic range of a SCIM image is no longer limited by the dynamic range of the detector (or camera), since it employs a uniform detection strategy. The large dynamic range of SCIM is predominantly determined by the illumination profile, and is advantageous for imaging both live and fixed biological specimens. In the present review, the concept and working mechanisms of SCIM are discussed, together with its application in various types of optical microscopes.
Combining atmospheric Δ14CO2 data sets from different networks or laboratories requires secure knowledge on their compatibility. In the present study, we compare Δ14CO2 results from the Heidelberg low-level counting (LLC) laboratory to 12 international accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratories using distributed aliquots of five pure CO2 samples. The averaged result of the LLC laboratory has a measurement bias of –0.3±0.5‰ with respect to the consensus value of the AMS laboratories for the investigated atmospheric Δ14C range of 9.6 to 40.4‰. Thus, the LLC measurements on average are not significantly different from the AMS laboratories, and the most likely measurement bias is smaller than the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) interlaboratory compatibility goal for Δ14CO2 of 0.5‰. The number of intercomparison samples was, however, too small to determine whether the measurement biases of the individual AMS laboratories fulfilled the WMO goal.
Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in patients with low back pain (LBP) and is associated with high levels of pain, psychological distress, and physical disability. Studies have reported a bidirectional relationship between sleep problems and intensity of LBP. Accordingly, effective management of LBP should address sleep quality. In addition, genetics has been found to significantly affect the prevalence of both LBP and insomnia. Our study aims to establish the feasibility of a trial exploring the efficacy of a web-based sleep quality intervention in people with LBP, with the genetic influences being controlled for. 30 twins (15 complete pairs) with subacute or chronic LBP (>6 weeks) will be recruited from the Australian Twin Registry. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups with each twin within a pair receiving either an interactive web-based sleep intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy principles (intervention) or a web-based education program (control) for 6 weeks. The feasibility of the trial will be investigated with regard to recruitment rate, feasibility of data collection and outcome measure completion, contamination of intervention, acceptability and experience of intervention, and sample size requirement for the full trial. Patient outcomes will be collected electronically at baseline, immediately post-treatment, and at 3-months’ follow-up post-randomization. This trial employs a robust design that will effectively control for the influence of genetics on treatment effect. Additionally, this study addresses sleep quality, a significant but under-explored issue in LBP. Results will inform the design and implementation of the definitive trial.
During the past two decades, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has allowed major developments in many areas of geosciences and archaeology. In the near future, AMS should realize a similar potential in the field of biomedical research, leading ultimately to clinical applications. For such applications, the required instrument differs significantly from that presently used in the field of 14C dating. Whereas the needed accuracy and sensitivity is more than an order of magnitude less demanding than that for present state-of-the-art 14C instrumentation, the widespread acceptance of 14C AMS in biomedical research will require AMS spectrometers that are small, simple to operate and capable of handling CO2 samples. In order to satisfy these demands, HVEE has developed a compact 14C AMS spectrometer dedicated to biomedical research. The instrument consists of a compact accelerator with a footprint of 2.25 × 1.25 m and an ion source that features direct CO2 acceptance and optimal user friendliness. Having previously described the layout and design of the accelerator, we here discuss progress on the accelerator and present the design and first results of the CO2 ion source.
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial needs of both parents of children with CHD (aged 0–18 years) and patients themselves (aged 8–18 years) in the week before cardiac surgery or a catheter intervention.
Eligible participants included all consecutive patients (0–18 years) scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery or a catheter intervention in our hospital between March, 2012 and July, 2013. Psychosocial needs were assessed using a disease-specific questionnaire designed for this study, consisting of a 83-item parent version and a 59-item child version (for children ⩾8 years), each covering five domains: physical/medical, emotional, social, educational/occupational, and health behaviour; two items assessed from whom and in what format psychosocial care was preferred. Quality of life was also assessed.
If parents/patients reported a need for psychosocial care, referral to adequate mental health-care professionals was arranged.
More than 40% of participating parents and >50% of participating children reported a need for psychosocial care on each of the five domains. Needs for psychosocial care for parents themselves were highest for those with children aged 0–12 years. Parents and patients report clear preferences when asked from whom and in what format they would like to receive psychosocial care. Quality of life was relatively high for both parents and patients. Psychosocial care interventions in our hospital increased significantly after the implementation of this study.
Results show that psychosocial care is rated as (very) important by both parents and children during an extremely stressful period of their life.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.
The Southern Hemisphere SHCal04 radiocarbon calibration curve has been updated with the addition of new data sets extending measurements to 2145 cal BP and including the ANSTO Younger Dryas Huon pine data set. Outside the range of measured data, the curve is based upon the ern Hemisphere data sets as presented in IntCal13, with an interhemispheric offset averaging 43 ± 23 yr modeled by an autoregressive process to represent the short-term correlations in the offset.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.
To determine longitudinal changes in psychopathology in a cohort of patients 30–43 years after their first cardiac surgery for Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) in childhood, to compare outcomes of the 30- to 43-year follow-up with normative data, and to identify medical predictors for psychopathology.
This study is the third follow-up of this cohort. The first and second follow-ups of this same cohort were conducted in 1990 and 2001, respectively. At all three follow-ups, psychopathology was assessed with standardised, parallel questionnaires. In 2011, subjective health status was assessed by the Short Form-36. Medical predictor variables were derived from medical examinations and medical records.
In this third follow-up, a total of 252 patients participated. Of these, 152 patients participated in all three follow-ups. Over a 30-year period, proportions of patients showing psychopathology decreased significantly.
At the 30- to 43-year follow-up, overall outcomes on psychopathology for the CHD sample were similar or even better compared with normative groups. Subjective health status was also better compared with normative data.
No differences were found between cardiac diagnostic groups. Medical variables that predicted the course of psychopathology over time were as follows: the scar, as judged by the patient, results of the first cardiac surgery, and the number of hospitalisations.
Over a 30-year period, psychopathology decreased in patients with CHD. Levels of psychopathology in these patients, who are now aged between 30 and 54 years, were comparable or even better than normative data.