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Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is a promising method for bone tissue engineering applications. For enhanced bone regeneration, it is important to have printable ink materials with appealing properties such as construct interconnectivity, mechanical strength, controlled degradation rates, and the presence of bioactive materials. In this respect, we develop a composite ink composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and hydroxyapatite particles (HAps) and 3D print it into porous constructs. In vitro study revealed that composite constructs had higher mechanical properties, surface roughness, quicker degradation profile, and cellular behaviors compared to PCL counterparts. Furthermore, in vivo results showed that 3D-printed composite constructs had a positive influence on bone regeneration due to the presence of newly formed mineralized bone tissue and blood vessel formation. Therefore, 3D printable ink made of PCL/PLGA/HAp can be a highly useful material for 3D printing of bone tissue constructs.
Research universities can be more than centers of research and education; in the best cases, they can also be hotbeds of innovation and entrepreneurship. We have examined successful innovators and noted similarities and differences. This article describes results from a preliminary investigation that supports a vibrant innovation ecosystem in the fields of materials, energy, and environment at Stanford University. The results are drawn from interviews of a small number of successful innovators in these fields. All of the interview subjects were similar in that they operated within a gap between the present state of the art and a vision of how a particular innovation could reshape the world around them. Important differences were also observed. We found that successful models can be grouped into three successful classes of inquiry: basic research, the search for new solutions to well-known problems, and exploiting the evolutionary arc of technology. Each class of inquiry appears to be matched to definite approaches, and we believe that distinct factors can be used to drive cultural change and enhance the effectiveness of researchers and organizations. Future research in this area may carefully examine these factors and the broader applicability of these findings to other innovation contexts.
A practical approach to the field of androgen excess or deprivation in women's health. The content includes multiple viewpoints on the most common disorders in this class, such as polycystic ovary disease, hirsutism and menopausal issues. Each chapter provides a combination of long-lasting clinical principles in the diagnosis and management of these patients along with a state-of-the-art review. This text takes an innovative approach to uncommon conditions (such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, transgender conditions). In addition to presenting clinical insights, and a review of the basic science underpinning these conditions, it focuses on key concepts that can be derived from these rare conditions to the entire field. This book is an essential addition to the library for any busy clinician who is looking for a practical reference guide but also for the sub-specialist who is looking for new and thought-provoking insights in this complex scientific area.