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This study examined the response of forage crops to composted dairy waste (compost) applied at low rates and investigated effects on soil health. The evenness of spreading compost by commercial machinery was also assessed. An experiment was established on a commercial dairy farm with target rates of compost up to 5 t ha−1 applied to a field containing millet [Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz] and Pasja leafy turnip (Brassica hybrid). A pot experiment was also conducted to monitor the response of a legume forage crop (vetch; Vicia sativa L.) on three soils with equivalent rates of compost up to 20 t ha−1 with and without ‘additive blends’ comprising gypsum, lime or other soil treatments. Few significant increases in forage biomass were observed with the application of low rates of compost in either the field or pot experiment. In the field experiment, compost had little impact on crop herbage mineral composition, soil chemical attributes or soil fungal and bacterial biomass. However, small but significant increases were observed in gravimetric water content resulting in up to 22.4 mm of additional plant available water calculated in the surface 0.45 m of soil, 2 years after compost was applied in the field at 6 t ha−1 dried (7.2 t ha−1 undried), compared with the nil control. In the pot experiment, where the soil was homogenized and compost incorporated into the soil prior to sowing, there were significant differences in mineral composition in herbage and in soil. A response in biomass yield to compost was only observed on the sandier and lower fertility soil type, and yields only exceeded that of the conventional fertilizer treatment where rates equivalent to 20 t ha−1 were applied. With few yield responses observed, the justification for applying low rates of compost to forage crops and pastures seems uncertain. Our collective experience from the field and the glasshouse suggests that farmers might increase the response to compost by: (i) increasing compost application rates; (ii) applying it prior to sowing a crop; (iii) incorporating the compost into the soil; (iv) applying only to responsive soil types; (v) growing only responsive crops; and (vi) reducing weed burdens in crops following application. Commercial machinery incorporating a centrifugal twin disc mechanism was shown to deliver double the quantity of compost in the area immediately behind the spreader compared with the edges of the spreading swathe. Spatial variability in the delivery of compost could be reduced but not eliminated by increased overlapping, but this might represent a potential 20% increase in spreading costs.
We report on the long term X-ray monitoring with Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, Chandra, and XMM-Newton of the outburst of the newly discovered magnetar Swift J1822.3–1606 (SGR 1822-1606), from the first observations soon after the detection of the short X-ray bursts which led to its discovery (July 2011), through the first stages of its outburst decay (April 2012). Our X-ray timing analysis finds the source rotating with a period of P = 8.43772016(2) s and a period derivative Ṗ = 8.3(2) × 10−14 ss−1, which entails an inferred dipolar surface magnetic field of B ≃ 2.7 × 1013 G at the equator. This measurement makes Swift J1822.3–1606 the second lowest magnetic field magnetar (after SGR 0418+5729; Rea et al. 2010). Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst, we find that the flux decreased by about an order of magnitude, with a subtle softening of the spectrum, both typical of the outburst decay of magnetars. By modeling the secular thermal evolution of Swift J1822.3–1606, we find that the observed timing properties of the source, as well as its quiescent X-ray luminosity, can be reproduced if it was born with a poloidal and crustal toroidal fields of Bp ~ 1.5 × 1014 G and Btor ~ 7 × 1014 G, respectively, and if its current age is ~550 kyr (Rea et al. 2012).
Aims: To obtain an estimate of dietary fibre and fluid intake in Australian men undergoing prostate radiotherapy and to establish feasibility and patient compliance with recording normal diet without intervention during the radical course of radiotherapy.
Methods: Eleven participants were enrolled and treated with 74–78 Gray (Gy) to the prostate over 8 weeks. Participants were instructed to record a diary of their food and fluid intake and bowel motions for the duration of treatment. Treating radiation therapists were instructed to initial the diet diary daily. Diet diaries were assessed for compliance by analysing the number of days over the treatment period and the number of diary pages submitted. The diet diaries were analysed for nutrient intake of fibre and fluids.
Results: A total of 10 of 11 participants submitted a diet record for the full duration of treatment with a median compliance of 100% (range 90.4–100%) of days recorded. The mean (standard deviation) of fibre and fluids recorded in the diets were 21.5 g (5.5) and 2227.1 g (733.1), respectively.
Conclusions: It is feasible for patients to record a diet diary over a radical course of prostate radiotherapy. In this study, most patients were highly compliant with submitting a diet record for each day during treatment.
Little is known about the availability and uptake of health and welfare services by women with postnatal depression in different countries.
Within the context of a cross cultural research study, to develop and test methods for undertaking quantitative health services research in postnatal depression.
Interviews with service planners and the collation of key health indicators were used to obtain a profile of service avail ability and provision. A service use questionnaire was developed and administered to a pilot sample in a number of European study centres.
Marked differences in service access and use were observed between the centres, including postnatal nursing care and contacts with primary care services. Rates of use of specialist services were generally low. Common barriers to access to care included perceived service quality and responsiveness. On the basis of the pilot work, a postnatal depression version of the Service Receipt Inventory was revised and finalised.
This preliminary study demonstrated the methodological feasibility of describing and quantifying service use, highlighted the varied and often limited use of care in this population, and indicated the need for an improved understanding of the resource needs and implications of postnatal depression.
Postnatal depression seems to be a universal condition with similar rates in different countries. However, anthropologists question the cross-cultural equivalence of depression, particularly at a life stage so influenced by cultural factors.
To develop a qualitative method to explore whether postnatal depression is universally recognised, attributed and described and to enquire into people's perceptions of remedies and services for morbid states of unhappiness within the context of local services.
The study took place in 15 centres in 11 countries and drew on three groups of informants: focus groups with new mothers, interview swith fathers and grandmothers, and interviews with health professionals. Textual analysis of these three groups was conducted separately in each centre and emergent themes compared across centres.
All centres described morbid unhappiness after childbirth comparable to postnatal depression but not all saw this as an illness remediable by health interventions.
Although the findings of this study support the universality of a morbid state of unhappiness following childbirth, they also support concerns about the cross-cultural equivalence of postnatal depression as an illness requiring the intervention of health professionals; this has implications for future research.
Small-angle neutron studies have been performed on samples of continuous inhomogeneous magnetic recording media. This has allowed the local magnetic structure to be probed at a sub-nanometre resolution, revealing some interesting information about the size and shape of the magnetic grains and their relation to the physical grains.
John F. Oates, Department of Anthropology, Hunter College, CUNY Graduate Center, 356 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A.,
Kelley L. McFarland, PhD Program in Anthropology, CUNY Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A.,
Jaqueline L. Groves, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer BN1 9RH, U.K.,
Richard A. Bergl, PhD Program in Anthropology, CUNY Graduate Center, 356 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A.,
Joshua M. Linder, PhD Program in Anthropology, CUNY Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A.,
Todd R. Disotell, Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, U.S.A.
In this chapter we summarize information on the morphology, genetics, and natural history of the West African gorilla population inhabiting the forests on the Nigeria–Cameroon border at the northern headwaters of the Cross River, a region at the western and northern limits of the species' range. A recent morphological analysis of skeletal specimens from this population has shown that they are sufficiently distinct from other western gorillas to justify being classified as the subspecies Gorilla gorilla diehli, a taxonomic name originally applied to them in the early twentieth century (Sarmiento and Oates, 2000). Just as the distinctiveness of the Cross River gorillas is being appreciated, their continued survival is in jeopardy. Recent surveys suggest that approximately 250 probably remain, concentrated in nine or more isolated hill areas. Because these gorillas are still hunted for their meat and parts of their habitat are under threat, they are one of Africa's most endangered primate taxa. After reviewing data on the status of the Cross River gorillas, our chapter ends by discussing some options for improving their prospects for survival.
In addition to the literature, the information we summarize derives from our own research: Field surveys in Nigeria (by JFO and KLM) and Cameroon (by JLG); an ecological study of a subpopulation inhabiting Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary, Nigeria (by KLM); and the sequencing of mtDNA extracted from hairs of Nigerian gorillas shed into sleeping nests (by RAB and JML in the laboratory of TRD). All our results should be regarded as preliminary.
An outbreak of E. coli O157 infection occurred in the Highland Region of Scotland in the
summer of 1999. The source of the outbreak was traced to an untreated private water supply.
All six cases identified arose in visitors to the area, and most had very limited exposure to the
contaminated water. Permanent residents on the same supply were unaffected. The E. coli O157
isolates from the water, sheep faeces collected from around the source and the human stool
samples were indistinguishable using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Previously reported
outbreaks of E. coli O157 linked to potable water supplies have resulted from structural or
treatment failures, which allowed faecal contamination of source water. Here, contamination of
the water supply and subsequent human infection was due to the use of an untreated,
unprotected private water source in a rural area where animals grazed freely.
The case notes of 185 patients who had bismuth-iodoform-paraffin paste (BIPP) impregnated ribbon gauze used for packing following ear surgery were analysed retrospectively. The incidence of hypersensitive allergic reactions to BIPP was 5.9 per cent and a five-fold increase risk of developing allergic reactions was found in those with previous exposure to BIPP. Where temporalis fascia was used to repair tympanic membrane defects, the incidence of tympanic membrane graft perforations was higher when allergic reactions to BIPP developed post-operatively, compared to non-allergic cases.
Haemangioma of the parotid gland is a well-described condition that accounts for 50 per cent of parotid tumours presenting during the first year of life. Parotid haemangiomas in adults are much rarer and until now only the cavernous variety have been reported. We report a case of a capillary haemangioma in an adult and discuss the literature.
Changes in the electrical resistance induced by electromigration in short (< 20 μm) Al lines show a rather well-defined behavior. For current densities j below a critical value jc the resistance change saturates with time and the resistance fully recovers when the current is switched off. Above the critical current density the induced resistance changes do not saturate and vary approximately linearly with time. In this case the resistance changes recover only partially after removal of the current. We report (i) measurements of the current dependence of the magnitude of the reversible resistance changes and (ii) the results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) inspection of the lines after stressing with current densities above jc. The resistance measurements were made with a high-resolution AC bridge technique. The samples were pure, unpassivated Al lines with a film thickness of 100 nm and a line width of 2 gm. The results show a linear dependence between the magnitude of the reversible changes and the current density. The linear dependence is predicted by two models. The first is based on a description of the vacancy flux and the second on a description of the build-up of mechanical stress during an electromigration experiment. To study the origin of the irreversible effects, samples were stressed at current densities above jc, and the induced irreversible changes in the resistance were recorded. Both negative and positive changes of the resistance were observed. After six hours the experiment was stopped and the lines were inspected by atomic force microscopy. It was always possible to observe a void, a hillock or a hillock/void pair that was created during the passage of the DC current. Moreover, lines with decreasing resistance during stress always showed a hillock and lines with an increased resistance always showed a void.
We have modeled the effects of grain aspect ratio on strain energy density in (100)-oriented grains in a (111 )-textured Cu film on a Si substrate. Minimization of surface energy, interface energy, and strain energy density (SED) drives preferential growth of grains of certain crystallographic orientations in thin films. Under conditions in which the SED driving force exceeds the surface- and interface-energy driving forces, Cu films develop abnormally large (100) oriented grains during annealing. In the elastic regime the SED differences between the (100) grains and the film average arise from elastic anisotropy. Previous analyses indicate that several factors (e.g. elimination of grain boundaries during grain growth) may alter the magnitude of the SED driving force. We demonstrate, using finite element modeling of a single columnar (100) grain in a (111) film, that changes in grain aspect ratio can significantly affect the SED driving force. A minimum SED driving force is found for (100) Cu grains with diameters on the order of the film thickness. In the absence of other stagnation mechanisms, such behavior could cause small grains to grow abnormally and then stagnate while large grains continue to grow. This would lead to a bimodal grain size distribution in the (100) grains preferred by the SED minimization.
Siliconoxynitride layers with thicknesses between 5 and 10 nm were grown on (100) oriented silicon by rapid thermal processing (RTP) using either N2O or NH3 as nitridant. In order to study the trapping behaviour at the interface and in the insulator bulk, capacitance-voltage (CV) and current-voltage (IV) measurements have been performed combined with different magnitudes of Fowler-Nordheim stress. In addition, Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) has been applied for interface state detection. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) has been used to obtain depth profiles for Si, N, O and C. The deconvolution of the AES signal displays significant peak contributions related to intermedium oxidation states. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was successfully applied for hydrogen detection in buried SiOxNy thin films.
When a metal conductor is driven by an AC current of frequency ω, its resistance will vary at a frequency 2ω, and a third harmonic voltage will be generated. If the conductor is also under a DC bias, a second harmonic voltage will arise as well. The magnitude of these harmonic voltages increases with damage because of nonlinear increases in the resistance caused by localized Joule heating. We use the harmonic technique to evaluate the damage in metal lines. The correlation between deliberately introduced defects of different sizes and the amplitude of the harmonic voltages has been studied experimentally. The harmonic technique shows higher damage sensitivity than the commonly used resistance method. Additionally, it has a better rejection to noise and resistance drifting.
A series of investigations have been conducted into the properties of N2O silicon oxynitride gate dielectrics, and the various methods of their growth. One of the principle advantages of these oxides is their resistance to interface state generation. This is linked to the presense of nitrogen near the substrate interface, where it is triply bonded to silicon. It is also demonstrated that during N2O-based furnace growth, the total concentration of NOx species varies strongly with the flow rate of N2O. This has been correlated to the temperature profile of the furnace, which can be affected by the exothermic decomposition of N2O. This property has been exploited to controllably adjust the rate of nitrogen incorporation by up to a factor of three. Although nitrogen incorporation during furnace processing is generally stable, it is shown that atomic oxygen is capable of removing previously incorporated nitrogen. Sources of atomic oxygen include the decomposition of N2O during RTP treatment, N2O processing in a high flow rate furnace, or from ozone annealing.
Nucleation of voids due to vacancy condensation in passivated aluminum lines is analyzed within the context of classical nucleation theory. A discussion of sources of hydrostatic tensile stress in such lines provides a reasonable upper limit of 2 GPa. The void nucleation rate is then calculated at various sites within the line. Results suggest that nucleation rates are far too low to account for observed rates of voiding. Void nucleation at a flaw at the line/passivation interface is then considered as an alternative nucleation mechanism. Such flaws may be created by contaminants introduced during fabrication of the line. In this case, nucleation is feasible at greatly reduced stresses, well within the observed values. Furthermore, a simple model of void growth indicates that a fast atomic transport path, such as a grain boundary, must intersect the void for an appreciable growth rate. These results suggest that void nucleation in aluminum interconnect lines occurs at flaws at the sidewall of the line and that stress-induced and electromigration-induced voiding can be controlled by eliminating interfacial contamination.
We have used transmission electron microscopy to examine in detail how microstructural changes take place in aluminum/copper lines adjacent to tungsten contacts. A structure that could be powered in a probe station was deposited directly on an electron transparent silicon nitride window to allow direct observation of the structure of the line after different intervals of electromigration testing. Observations made on aluminum-4% copper lines show that significant changes in the grain structure surrounding precipitates occur during testing even under conditions where no normal grain growth is observed in the lines. Elecromigration testing at 260°C resulted in grain coarsening and the formation of new diffusion blocking structures in the lines. By making measurements of the volume of individual precipitates as a function of time, the flux of copper through specific segments of the microstructure of the line could be measured. The results indicate that the presence of a single grain boundary can increase the electromigration flux of copper along the line by an order of magnitude. In line segments where a bamboo grain occurred copper diffusion appears to be controlled by diffusion along the Al/oxide interface at the surface of the lines. It is also shown that, in polycrystalline lines, the rate of copper depletion frorr the cathode is largely determined by the rate of dissolution of the precipitates. In mixed structure lines the migration of copper can become quite complex as changes in diffusion paths can occur as precipitates dissolve or grow.
Spatially resolved residual stress and lattice distortion measurements have been made or experimental RF NPN devices which failed electromigration testing. The experimental devices underwent a steady state long term life test for 38272 hours at a die temperature of 100 degrees Celsius and device emitter currents of 100 mA. Residual stress contour maps of the Au interconnect metallurgy of these patterned devices were constructed with spatial resolution approaching 13 microns. The stress contour maps clearly show areas of the Au interconnect emitter lines, approximately 17 microns wide, which buckled when the local stresses exceeded the adhesion limits of these films. A stress gradient was observed going along the Au line from the emitter to the wire bonded pad which went from slightly compressive near the emitter to tensile approaching the wire bonded lead, and consistent with electromigration failures. In addition, lattice distortions as determined by integral line breadths, which were least square fitted by a gaussian*orentzian convolution of the instrument function, show a large continuous increase along the Au interconnect line in going from the emitter to the wire bond pad. The data was acquired using a 4-circle x-ray diffractometer which was specifically constructed to study electromigration issues in-situ. The diffractometer has a very low sphere of confusion (< 5 microns) and is equipped with tapered glass capillary optics, a mechanical, electrical, and thermal stressing stage and various energy dispersive (EDX) or position sensitive (PSD) detectors.