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A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
As demonstrated by neuroimaging data, the human brain contains systems that control responses to threat. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality predicts that individual differences in the reactivity of these brain systems produce anxiety and fear-related personality traits. Here we discuss some of the challenges in testing this theory and, as an example, present a pilot study that aimed to dissociate brain activity during pursuit by threat and goal conflict. We did this by translating the Mouse Defense Test Battery for human fMRI use. In this version, dubbed the Joystick Operated Runway Task (JORT), we repeatedly exposed 24 participants to pursuit and goal conflict, with and without threat of electric shock. The runway design of JORT allowed the effect of threat distance on brain activation to be evaluated independently of context. Goal conflict plus threat of electric shock caused deactivation in a network of brain areas that included the fusiform and middle temporal gyri, as well as the default mode network core, including medial frontal regions, precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus, and laterally the inferior parietal and angular gyri. Consistent with earlier research, we also found that imminent threat activated the midbrain and that this effect was significantly stronger during the simple pursuit condition than during goal conflict. Also consistent with earlier research, we found significantly greater hippocampal activation during goal conflict than pursuit by imminent threat. In conclusion, our results contribute knowledge to theories linking anxiety disorders to altered functioning in defensive brain systems and also highlight challenges in this research domain.
The current study evaluated growth performance and digestion responses of finishing bulls fed diets containing 825 g/kg flint maize [dry matter (DM) basis] ground to medium (1.66 mm; MG) or coarse particle sizes (2.12 mm; CG), with added monensin (26 mg/kg; DM basis; MON) or a blend of essential oils (BEO) + exogenous α-amylase (AM; 90 mg/kg + 560 mg/kg commercial product, respectively, DM basis). In Expt 1, 256 Nellore bulls were blocked by initial body weight (BW) (360 ± 11.7 kg) and assigned to 48 pens in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Effect of a maize particle size × feed additive interaction was not detected for final BW, DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency. The DMI was greater for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON. Final BW and ADG tended to be greater for bulls fed CG than MG maize. An interaction was detected for hot carcass weight which was 11 kg heavier for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON in diets containing CG, but not MG particle size. In Expt 2, four ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were offered the same treatments as Expt 1, in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Intake of most nutrients was greater for steers fed CG than steers fed MG maize. In summary, feeding bulls CG maize increased growth performance and carcass characteristics compared with MG. The combination of BEO + AM resulted in heavier carcass weights compared with MON supplementation when included in diets containing CG maize.
Decreases in Fe status have been reported in military women during initial training periods of 8–10 weeks. The present study aimed to characterise Fe status and associations with physical performance in female New Zealand Army recruits during a 16-week basic combat training (BCT) course. Fe status indicators – Hb, serum ferritin (sFer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin saturation (TS) and erythrocyte distribution width (RDW) – were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and end of BCT in seventy-six volunteers without Fe-deficiency non-anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb ≥120 g/l) or Fe-deficiency anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb <120 g/l) at baseline or a C-reactive protein >10 mg/l at baseline or end. A timed 2·4 km run followed by maximum press-ups were performed at baseline and midpoint (week 8) to assess physical performance. Changes in Fe status were investigated using paired t tests and associations between Fe status and physical performance evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. sFer (56·6 (sd 33·7) v. 38·4 (sd 23·8) µg/l) and TS (38·8 (sd 13·9) v. 34·4 (sd 11·5) %) decreased (P<0·001 and P=0·014, respectively), while sTfR (1·21 (sd 0·27) v. 1·39 (sd 0·35) mg/l) and RDW (12·8 (sd 0·6) v. 13·2 (sd 0·7) %) increased (P<0·001) from baseline to end. Hb (140·6 (sd 7·5) v. 142·9 (sd 7·9) g/l) increased (P=0·009) during BCT. At end, sTfR was positively (r 0·29, P=0·012) and TS inversely associated (r –0·32, P=0·005) with midpoint run time. There were no significant correlations between Fe status and press-ups. Storage and functional Fe parameters indicated a decline in Fe status in female recruits during BCT. Correlations between tissue-Fe indicators and run times suggest impaired aerobic fitness. Optimal Fe status appears paramount for enabling success in female recruits during military training.
The crystal structure of tlapallite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron probe micro-analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tlapallite is trigonal, space group P321, with a = 9.1219(17) Å, c = 11.9320(9) Å and V = 859.8(3) Å3, and was refined to R1 = 0.0296 for 786 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This study resulted from the discovery of well-crystallised tlapallite at the Wildcat prospect, Utah, USA. The chemical formula of tlapallite has been revised to (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6[Te4+3Te6+O12]2(Te4+O3)2(SO4)2·3H2O, or more simply (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6Te4+8Te6+2O30(SO4)2·3H2O, from H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(TeO3)4(TeO6)(SO4). The tlapallite structure consists of layers containing distorted Cu2+O6 octahedra, Te6+O6 octahedra and Te4+O4 disphenoids (which together form the new mixed-valence phyllotellurate anion [Te4+3Te6+O12]12−), Te4+O3 trigonal pyramids and CaO8 polyhedra. SO4 tetrahedra, Ca(H2O)3O6 polyhedra and H2O groups fill the space between the layers. Tlapallite is only the second naturally occurring compound containing tellurium in both the 4+ and 6+ oxidation states with a known crystal structure, the other being carlfriesite, CaTe4+2Te6+O8. Carlfriesite is the predominant secondary tellurium mineral at the Wildcat prospect. We also present an updated structure for carlfriesite, which has been refined to R1 = 0.0230 for 874 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This updated structural refinement improves upon the one reported previously by refining all atoms anisotropically and presenting models of bond valence and Te4+ secondary bonding.
Integrating mental health care into HIV services is critical to addressing the high unmet treatment needs for people living with HIV and comorbid major depressive disorder. Introducing routine mental health screening at the primary health care level is a much needed diagonal approach to enhancing HIV care. In low-resource settings with a shortage of mental health care providers, eMental Health may provide a novel opportunity to attenuate this treatment gap and strengthen the health system.
To conduct formative health systems research on the implementation of routine depression screening using a digital tool – Mood in Retroviral Positive Individuals Application Monitoring (MIR + IAM) – in an HIV primary care setting in South Africa.
A Theory of Change (ToC) approach was utilised through individual and group session interviews to design an intervention that is embedded in the local context. Ten experts and local stakeholders were selected from the UK and South Africa. Data were analysed thematically using Atlas.ti to identify interventions, assumptions, barriers and facilitators of implementation.
The participants considered digital depression screening in HIV care services relevant for the improvement of mental health in this population. The six main themes identified from the ToC process were: (1) user experience including acceptability by patients, issues of patient privacy and digital literacy, and the need for a patient-centred tool; (2) benefits of the digital tool for data collection and health promotion; (3) availability of treatment after diagnosis; (4) human and physical resource capacity of primary health care; (5) training for lay health care workers; and (6) demonstration of the intervention's usefulness to generate interest from decision-makers.
Digital depression screening coupled with routine mental health data collection and analysis in HIV care is an applicable service that could improve the mental and physical health outcomes of this population. Careful consideration of the local health system capacity, including both workers and patients, is required. Future research to refine this intervention should focus on service users, government stakeholders and funders.
Findings as to whether individuals’ experiences of physical maltreatment from their parents in childhood predict their own perpetration of physical maltreatment toward their children in adulthood are mixed. Whether the maltreatment experienced is severe versus moderate or mild may relate to the strength of intergenerational associations. Furthermore, understanding of the roles of possible mediators (intervening mechanisms linking these behaviors) and moderators of the intervening mechanisms (factors associated with stronger or weaker mediated associations) is still relatively limited. These issues were examined in the present study. Mediating mechanisms based on a social learning model included antisocial behavior as assessed by criminal behaviors and substance use (alcohol and drug use), and the extent to which parental angry temperament moderated any indirect effects of antisocial behavior was also examined. To address these issues, data were used from Generations 2 and 3 of a prospective three-generational study, which is an extension of the Oregon Youth Study. Findings indicated modest intergenerational associations for severe physical maltreatment. There was a significant association of maltreatment history, particularly severe maltreatment with mothers’ and fathers’ delinquency. However, neither delinquency nor substance use showed significant mediational effects, and parental anger as a moderator of mediation did not reach significance.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
The quantity of gas accumulated in the in vitro fermentation technique (e.g. Theodorou et al., 1994) results from gaseous end-products of substrate fermentation, lysis of rumen microorganisms and CO2 released when VFA are neutralised by the carbonate-buffered medium (Beuvink and Spoelstra, 1992). However the quantity of gas produced from this acid-buffer interaction is not directly related to substrate fermentation and therefore needs to be quantified if gas evolution from substrate fermentation is to be estimated. This study examined gas release following the addition of acetic acid to a bicarbonate buffered medium and used a Gompertz equation to describe both the rate and total volume produced.
Individuals with a borderline personality disorder (BPD) suffer from a constellation of rapidly shifting emotional, interpersonal, and behavioral symptoms. The menstrual cycle may contribute to symptom instability among females with this disorder.
Fifteen healthy, unmedicated females with BPD and without dysmenorrhea reported daily symptoms across 35 days. Urine luteinizing hormone and salivary progesterone (P4) were used to confirm ovulation and cycle phase. Cyclical worsening of symptoms was evaluated using (1) phase contrasts in multilevel models and (2) the Carolina Premenstrual Assessment Scoring System (C-PASS), a protocol for evaluating clinically significant cycle effects on symptoms.
Most symptoms demonstrated midluteal worsening, a perimenstrual peak, and resolution of symptoms in the follicular or ovulatory phase. Post-hoc correlations with person-centered progesterone revealed negative correlations with most symptoms. Depressive symptoms showed an unexpected delayed pattern in which baseline levels of symptoms were observed in the ovulatory and midluteal phases, and exacerbations were observed during both the perimenstrual and follicular phases. The majority of participants met C-PASS criteria for clinically significant (⩾30%) symptom exacerbation. All participants met the emotional instability criterion of BPD, and no participant met DSM-5 criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
Females with BPD may be at elevated risk for perimenstrual worsening of emotional symptoms. Longitudinal studies with fine-grained hormonal measurement as well as hormonal experiments are needed to determine the pathophysiology of perimenstrual exacerbation in BPD.
A significant portion of ruminant production in the tropics relies on the grazing of native grasses growing in acid, low-fertility soils. Under these conditions, animal production is generally limited by the low quality and availability of forage supply. The introduction of forage legumes into grazing systems is commonly accepted as a way to alleviate this problem. However, many of the tropical forage legumes adapted to acid soils and selected on the basis of good agronomic performance have limited feeding value. This could be associated with increased production of secondary metabolites such as condensed tannins (CT), which have the ability to bind and precipitate proteins, carbohydrates and other molecules (Mueller-Harvey and McAllan, 1992). High intake of CT by ruminants has been associated with depressed intake and reduced digestibilities of protein and cell wall of temperate (Barry and Duncan, 1984; Pritchard et al, 1988) and tropical (Carulla, 1994) forage legumes. However, more recent work showed that intake and digestibility of tropical legumes was not only influenced by CT concentration but also by cell wall content (Barahona et al, 1997). In the ongoing process of identifying legume germplasm for acid soils, the use of in vitro techniques has been of great benefit. Gas production methods have considerable appeal in this respect due to their ability to evaluate digestion kinetics and their potential to simulate digestion processes in the rumen. Pendong et al. (1996) using temperate forages, showed that the pressure transducer gas technique of Theodorou et al. (1994) could be used to assess digestible organic matter disappearance as well as fermentation kinetics. A similar assessment was undertaken in the current study in which the tannin contents and cell-wall characteristics of tanniniferous legumes from Colombia were determined and related using measurements made in laboratories in Colombia and the United Kingdom.
In vitro gas production techniques have become popular for characterizing the rate and extent of digestion of ruminant foods. In a typical gas production study, gas (predominantly carbon dioxide) is produced as particles of substrate are fermented by rumen micro-organisms in a bicarbonate buffered culture medium. Innovations in equipment design, including automated pressure recording systems and mathematical descriptions of the gas production profiles themselves, make the techniques both simple and precise and therefore good as laboratory procedure. The technique of measuring gas is of value in ruminant science because the kinetics of gas production and substrate degradation are very closely correlated. However, although it is relatively easy to measure gas volumes and to determine the kinetics of gas production, the underlying processes that give rise to the gas in the first place are complex and not well understood. Therefore, there is concern about what is being measured in gas production studies and how this relates to the digestion process in the ruminant animal. In this paper we review some of the fundamental properties of gases, describe their behaviour in liquids and consider some of the biological and chemical factors influencing gas production. From a knowledge of how gases behave in liquids and at gas-liquid interfaces, both at ambient and increased temperatures and pressures, it is possible to deduce what is happening in gas production studies. However, although the technique is invaluable for obtaining information about the digestion of particulate substrates in anaerobic ecosystems, we conclude that gas production should be used with caution in routine food evaluation studies.
Bioassay methods to estimate the digestibility of forages for ruminants, such as the in vitro digestibility technique (Tilley and Terry, 1963), the nylon bag technique (Ørskov et al., 1980) and the gas production methods of Menke and Steingass (1988) and Theodorou et al. (1994), require rumen fistulated animals, either to provide a suitable in situ environment or to provide rumen liquor as a source of inoculum. Not only is establishing and maintaining fistulated animals expensive, but fistulation is an invasive technique which is increasingly discouraged on animal welfare grounds. There is therefore a need to find an alternative to rumen liquor as a source of micro-organisms for bioassays.
Although the Tilley and Terry (1963) technique is widely used, it is limited by being an end-point digestibility method. Ørskov et al. (1988) showed that intake of forages and their rate of digestion in the rumen are more correlated than intake and digestibility. Thus, since 1988, there has been much interest in determining rate of rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique (Huntington and Givens, 1995). However, as indicated earlier, this in vitro technique requires fistulated animals. Recently Sileshi et al. (1996) showed that the in vitro gas production technique of Theodorou et al. (1994), offers a possibility of assessing rate of rumen degradation.
The purpose of the present experiment was to compare rumen liquor and faeces as sources of inoculum in the gas technique of Theodorou et al. (1994).
Sugar cane bagasse is produced in large quantities in Brazil. The cultivated area of sugar cane in recent years has been around 4.2 X 106 ha/year, with a production of about 270 X 106 t/year of cane. As each tonne of cane produces around 300 kg of bagasse by-product, a large quantity of bagasse is generated.
Bagasse is of low dry matter (DM) digestibility (about 250 g/kg), because of lignification. Efforts have been made to improve the digestibility of bagasse using treatment with chemicals (sodium hydroxide, ammonia) or steam (Abdalla et al., 1990). Although steam and pressure treatments have improved in situ degradability, intake and digestibility in cattle were disappointing (Mello et al, 1989). Recently treatment of bagasse with irradiation and ammonia have been investigated.
It is widely accepted that robust and accurate in vitro techniques are required to predict the proportion of food nitrogen (N) degraded in the rumen. One such technique is to estimate the solubility of food N. In these experiments, relationships between solvent soluble N and in situ rumen degradability of forage N were investigated.
Samples of 11 fresh grasses (FG) (mainly perennial ryegrass) and their corresponding silages (GS) were used. GS was prepared from material ensiled in laboratory scale silos for 90 days. Prior to the experiments, FG and GS samples were initially hand chopped to approximately 1 cm lengths. In the in situ study a fresh sample equivalent to 0-5 g DM was weighed into polyester bags (pore size 43 μ 200 X 90 mm internal diameter). Duplicate bags for each of FG or GS were incubated in the rumen of three wethers for 0, 3, 8, 16, 24, 45 and 72 h. The incubated residues including the 0 h samples were washed in a washing machine and freeze-dried for 48 h. Rumen degradability characteristics and effective degradability (ED, at rumen outflow rate of 0.08 per h) of N were calculated using the exponential model of Ørskov and McDonald (1979). In vitro solubility of N (S) was determined by incubating for 1 h (at room temperature) the fresh sample (0.5 g on dry matter basis) in each of the four solvents: Borate phosphate buffer (BFB), Durand's buffer (DB), clarified rumen fluid (CRF) and distilled water within a balanced three way factorial design (three operators; four solvents; 11 forages; Deaville et al., 1997). Residues from S were filtered under vacuum and the filter paper plus residue were oven dried for 18 h at 100°C. All samples and residues were analysed for total N using Kjeldahl method (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1986). Factorial analysis on the general linear model (Minitab®, 1994) was used in the analysis of variance(ANOVA) for in vitro data and regression analyses of in situ and in vitro data were performed (Minitab®, 1994). Only the regression results are reported here.
Cauterisation techniques are commonly used and widely accepted for the management of epistaxis. This review assesses which methods of intranasal cautery should be endorsed as optimum treatment on the basis of benefits, risks, patient tolerance and economic assessment.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised methodology and search strategy.
Eight studies were identified: seven prospective controlled trials and one randomised controlled trial. Pooling of data was possible from 3 studies, yielding a total of 830 patients. Significantly lower re-bleed rates were identified (p < 0.01) using electrocautery (14.5 per cent) when compared to chemical cautery (35.1 per cent). No evidence suggested that electrocautery was associated with more adverse events or discomfort. Limited evidence supported the use of a vasoconstrictor agent and operating microscope during the procedure. The included studies had considerable heterogeneity in terms of design and outcome measures.
Consistent evidence suggests that electrocautery has higher success rates than chemical cautery, and is not associated with increased complications or patient discomfort. Lower quality evidence suggests that electrocautery reduces costs and duration of hospital stay.
In a previous study in Reading (altitude 66 m) (Mauricio et al., 1997) the lag phase was greater when cow faeces was used as a source of microorganisms in the in vitro gas production technique instead of rumen liquor when twelve temperate forages were fermented for 96 h. In the Reading study faeces and rumen liquor were obtained from a cow fed grass silage and concentrate (60:40). The present study was done in Piracicaba, Brazil-BR (altitude 780 m) which has a tropical climate. Using the same forages as in Mauricio et al. (1998), the study examined whether the same differences between faeces and rumen liquor would occur in a tropical environment. In addition, the opportunity was taken to develop an equation relating pressure and volume for the semi-automated pressure transducer technique and compare it with the equation developed in UK by Mauricio et al. (1998).
Mauricio et al.(1997) reported that faeces as an inoculum in the gas production produced similar results to rumen liquor in terms of total gas production and OM digestibility but a greater initial lag phase was observed. Where a mathematical description is to be used to develop the gas production profiles an accurate description of the lag phase (the period prior to degradation during which multiplication and attachment of the micro-organisms occur) must be obtained. For this to be achieved when a large number of samples are to be examined, measurement of gas production has to be achieved rapidly; this is possible using a semi-automated technique (Mauricio et al., 1998). This study evaluated the effect of recording gas production using a manual (syringe) technique, with a standard 3 h interval, and at 1h and 3 h intervals using a semi-automated system.