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Recovery Colleges are opening internationally. The evaluation focus has been on outcomes for Recovery College students who use mental health services. However, benefits may also arise for: staff who attend or co-deliver courses; the mental health and social care service hosting the Recovery College; and wider society. A theory-based change model characterising how Recovery Colleges impact at these higher levels is needed for formal evaluation of their impact, and to inform future Recovery College development. The aim of this study was to develop a stratified theory identifying candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes (impact) for Recovery Colleges at staff, services and societal levels.
Inductive thematic analysis of 44 publications identified in a systematised review was supplemented by collaborative analysis involving a lived experience advisory panel to develop a preliminary theoretical framework. This was refined through semi-structured interviews with 33 Recovery College stakeholders (service user students, peer/non-peer trainers, managers, community partners, clinicians) in three sites in England.
Candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes were identified at staff, services and societal levels. At the staff level, experiencing new relationships may change attitudes and associated professional practice. Identified outcomes for staff included: experiencing and valuing co-production; changed perceptions of service users; and increased passion and job motivation. At the services level, Recovery Colleges often develop somewhat separately from their host system, reducing the reach of the college into the host organisation but allowing development of an alternative culture giving experiential learning opportunities to staff around co-production and the role of a peer workforce. At the societal level, partnering with community-based agencies gave other members of the public opportunities for learning alongside people with mental health problems and enabled community agencies to work with people they might not have otherwise. Recovery Colleges also gave opportunities to beneficially impact on community attitudes.
This study is the first to characterise the mechanisms of action and impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, mental health and social care services, and wider society. The findings suggest that a certain distance is needed in the relationship between the Recovery College and its host organisation if a genuine cultural alternative is to be created. Different strategies are needed depending on what level of impact is intended, and this study can inform decision-making about mechanisms to prioritise. Future research into Recovery Colleges should include contextual evaluation of these higher level impacts, and investigate effectiveness and harms.
This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
The resonance lines of Mgii occur at wavelengths (2802.7 Å, 2795.5 Å) just beyond the extinction limit of the Earth's atmosphere. At such wavelengths sophisticated optical techniques can now be employed and this fact, together with the high cosmic abundance of magnesium, makes these lines particularly important for study in UV Astronomy. In the case of the Sun, the lines consist of a broad absorption with a pronounced emission core.
Molecular imprinting is the process by which molecules are imprinted into the matrix of a material through non-covalent bonding, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. In this study hydrogels were imprinted with glaucoma medication with the purpose of creating a reusable ocular drug delivery device with reversible binding sites. The material was synthesized and tested with UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine the concentration of the released drug after twelve hours in distilled water. Modifications were made to the polymer to explore methods required for the proper delivery of the drug over an adequate period of time.
The acheulian site at Boxgrove contains one of the most extensive areas of in situ fauna and flintwork yet discovered in Britain. This material is found in a complex sequence of sediments which represent depositional conditions from a 42 m sea level rise to the onset of a full periglacial climate. Excavation of the archaeological horizon has been accompanied by a programme of multidisciplinary research examining site formation processes, palaeolandscape and palaeoecological development, using sedimentological and environmental reconstruction techniques. Dating of the site is tentative as no absolute dates are available at present. However, comparative analysis with other British sites would suggest a position for the Boxgrove sequence within the Middle Pleistocene. The archaeological horizon is interpreted as being deposited towards the latter part of an interglacial or an interstadial period.
Two alkali-tin-silicate (ATS) glasses have been prepared at Argonne National
Laboratory (ANL) as part of our ongoing research in radioactive waste glass
development. These glasses dissolved 5% and approximately 7% Pu. Early
corrosion test results indicate that Pu-bearing ATS glass is extremely
durable. The initial goal in this project concerned equally both the
solubility of Pu and the durability of the ATS glasses; however, our primary
emphasis has changed recently to maximizing the loading of Pu in the glass.
ATS-based glasses, using Th(VI) and Ce(III) as surrogates for Pu(IV), are
now being investigated to increase the solubility of Pu without
substantially sacrificing the durability of the current ATS formulations.
The solution data from various corrosion tests on the original Pu-containing
ATS glasses are also presented.
Previous reports have indicated that a proportion of pigs, homozygous normal for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), was halothane sensitive, and this was associated with poor meat quality when pigs were handled aggressively. This study was conducted to evaluate halothane sensitivity in RYR1-normal pigs, managed under simulated commercial conditions, to ascertain the association of halothane sensitivity with growth rate and meat quality. A total of 363 pigs across four farrowing groups, from seven Landrace sires and 38 Yorkshire–Landrace F1 dams, were tested at 8 weeks of age for halothane sensitivity using a closed system that delivered 5% halothane at 2 l/min for 3 (group 1) or 2 (groups 2 to 4) min. After 1 min, limb rigidity, limb tremors and abdominal discoloration were evaluated on a binomial scale with 0 indicating no reaction and 1 indicating reaction. Testing was repeated 2 days later. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were moved to finishing pens and not moved again until marketing. Within farrowing group, pigs were harvested in one of two groups, and at marketing were moved a distance of 91 m, weighed, tattooed, loaded and transported a distance of 550 km to a commercial harvest plant. After overnight rest, pigs were harvested and the pH of the loin muscle was measured at 45 min (pH45) after stunning. After an 18-h chill, loin muscle pH (pHu), International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, b*, color (1 to 6) and marbling (1 to 10) scores and fluid loss percent were collected. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate repeatabilities for response to halothane challenge. Repeatabilities for limb rigidity for the front right and left legs were 0.24 and 0.31, respectively, whereas rear right and left leg repeatabilities were 0.19 and 0.17, respectively. Repeatabilities for front right and left leg tremors were 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. Growth rate was not influenced by any measure of halothane sensitivity. Carcasses from pigs exhibiting limb rigidity tended to have lower pH45 (5.88 v. 5.97; P = 0.06), similar pHu (5.47 v. 5.49; P = 0.32), less pH decline from 45 min to 18 h (−0.40 v. −0.50; P = 0.04) and a tendency for greater fluid loss percent (5.01 v. 4.55; P = 0.08) than carcasses from pigs that did not exhibit limb rigidity during halothane challenge. A proportion of pigs normal for RYR1 did exhibit limb rigidity during halothane gas challenge, and subsequently tended to have lower 45 min pH and greater longissimus muscle fluid loss post harvest.
The target adopted by world leaders of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 was not met but this stimulated a new suite of biodiversity targets for 2020 adopted by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in October 2010. Indicators will be essential for monitoring progress towards these targets and the CBD will be defining a suite of relevant indicators, building on those developed for the 2010 target. Here we argue that explicitly linked sets of indicators offer a more useful framework than do individual indicators because the former are easier to understand, communicate and interpret to guide policy. A Response-Pressure-State-Benefit framework for structuring and linking indicators facilitates an understanding of the relationships between policy actions, anthropogenic threats, the status of biodiversity and the benefits that people derive from it. Such an approach is appropriate at global, regional, national and local scales but for many systems it is easier to demonstrate causal linkages and use them to aid decision making at national and local scales. We outline examples of linked indicator sets for humid tropical forests and marine fisheries as illustrations of the concept and conclude that much work remains to be done in developing both the indicators and the causal links between them.
Yttrium oxide and barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films were grown directly on Si substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Because the optimum oxygen pressure during PLD process is of the order of 10 mTorr, some of the oxygen atoms are trapped inside the grown films and contribute to the growth of a silicon oxide interfacial layer. The use of an UV source during the growth resulted in the reduction of the optimum oxygen pressure and, as a consequence, the amount of trapped oxygen and thickness of the interfacial layer. In addition to that, UV radiation influenced the film morphologies and electrical properties. A further reduction of the interfacial layer was obtained on substrates that were exposed prior to deposition to NH3 for short periods of time under UV radiation.
Thin film amorphous electrolytes with compositions xLi2O:ySiO2:zP2O5 were deposited by single and dual source rf magnetron sputtering and their compositions determined by electron and ion beam techniques. Films containing P but no Si were composed of mainly orthophosphate and some linear chain phosphate anions, whereas single phase films containing Si and P were evidently composed of branched and possibly cyclic and extended network structures. Films with Si/P > 1 appeared to contain two or more amorphous phases. In the range of compositions investigated, the lithium ion conductivity depends mainly on the lithium ion mobility which is sensitive to the structure of the films. An open circuit voltage from 1 to 3 V measured between blocking metal contacts on the electrolyte thin films suggests that the films mightbe electrets.
Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetronsputtering of ceramic targets containing Li4SiO4 and Li3PO4. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li4SiO4, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth.
Results are presented of physical measurements on candidate buffer materials for use in nuclear fuel waste disposal. The materials being considered as constituent elements of engineered barriers are essentially calcium smectite clays, in other terms swelling clays, coming from fourteen french deposits. The criteria for good candidates are mainly: smectite content in the clay materials, carbonate and organic material content and bulk density of the material, compacted under a pressure of 100 MPa.
Experimental studies of silicate glass/water reactions at low temperatures have previously identified the glass surface area-to-solution volume ratio (SA/V) as a significant rate determining parameter [1-4]. The value produced when SA/V is multiplied by reaction time, hereafter referred to as SVT, has been proposed as a scaling factor for comparing experimental results collected under different test conditions and for extrapolating short-term results to longer periods of time. Developing an understanding of the effect of SAN is needed for modeling experimental results where SA/V ranges in value or may vary during experiments. It is also useful to understand the effect of SA/V for modeling natural systems where this value almost certainly varies, such as during the hydrothermal diagenesis of natural glasses or projecting the long-term reaction of water and borosilicate nuclear waste glass in a geologic repository.
Molecular water diffusion in natural obsidians and tektite was investigated in vapor hydration tests performed between 75 and 230°C for up to 400 days. Reaction progress was monitored using measurements of the birefringent hydration layer, an alteration feature associated with strain caused by molecular water diffusion in obsidians. The hydration rate constants and temperature dependence of the reaction are strongly correlated with the logarithm of the initial total water content of the glass. These values have been quantified for conditions relevant to the potential Yucca Mountain repository. The low initial total water concentrations of Savannah River Lab nuclear waste glasses produced at the bench-top scale help to minimze the effects of molecular water diffusion in waste glasses. The results of this study indicate that molecular water diffusion does not dominate waste glass reactions under conditions considered in this study. However, it is unknown whether molecular water diffusion will be important under other reaction conditions, especially longer time periods.
The glycine/nitrate process (GNP) is a combustion synthesis method that is particularly useful for synthesizing ultra-fine, multi-component oxide powders. During the self-sustaining combustion, the precursor solution is rapidly converted into an oxide product with glycine serving as the fuel and nitrates providing the oxidant. This paper examines the effects of altering the fuel/oxidant ratio on the characteristics of the product. Examples discussed include La(Sr)CrO3 and La(Sr)FeO3 perovskites and NiO.
Monoliths of SRL 131 borosilicate glass were irradiated in a saturated air-steam environment, at temperatures of 150°C, to examine the effects of radiation on nuclear waste glass behavior. Half of the tests used actinide and Tc-99 doped glass and were exposed to an external ionizing gamma source, while the remaining glass samples were doped only with uranium and were reacted without any external radiation exposure. The effects of radiation exposure on glass alteration and secondary phase formation were determined by comparing the reaction rates and mineral paragenesis of the two sets of samples.
All glass samples readily reacted with the water that condensed on their surfaces, producing two types of smectite clay within the first three days of testing. Additional crystalline phases precipitated on the altered glass surface with increasing reaction times, including zeolites, smectite, calcium and sodium silicates, phosphates, evaporitic salts, and uranyl silicates. Similar phases were produced on both the nonirradiated and irradiated samples; however, the quantity of precipitates was increased and the rate of paragenetic sequence development was accelerated in the latter. After 56 days of testing, the composite smectite layer developed at an average rate of ~0.16 and 0.63 µm/day for the nonirradiated and irradiated samples, respectively. These comparisons indicate that layer development is accelerated approximately four-fold due to the radiation exposure at high glass surface area/liquid volume (SA/V) conditions. This increase apparently occurs in response to the rapid concentration of radiolytic products, including nitric acid, in the thin films of water contacting the sample monoliths.