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To compare and validate neurocognitive tests in the Harmonized Cognitive Assessment Protocol (HCAP) for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and to identify appropriate tests to be administered in future waves of CHARLS.
We recruited 825 individuals from the CHARLS sample and 766 subjects from hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. All participants were administered the HCAP-neurocognitive tests, and their informants were interviewed regarding the respondents’ functional status. Trained clinicians administered the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) to assess the respondents’ cognitive status independently.
The testing protocol took an average of 58 minutes to complete. Refusal rates for tests of general cognition, episodic memory, and language were less than 10%. All neurocognitive test scores significantly correlated with the CDR global score (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.139 to 0.641). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) - telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS), community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) for respondent, episodic memory and language tests each accounted for more than 20% of the variance in global CDR score (p < 0.001) in bivariate tests. In the CHARLS subsample, age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance across most cognitive domains, and with functional status.
A brief set of the CHARLS-HCAP neurocognitive tests are feasible and valid to be used in the CHARLS sample and hospital samples. It could be applied in the future waves of the CHARLS study, and it allows estimating the prevalence of dementia in China through the population-based CHARLS.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
Covering a broad optical spectrum, ternary InxGa1−xAs nanowires, grown by bottom-up methods, have been receiving increasing attention due to the tunability of the bandgap via In composition modulation. However, inadequate knowledge about the correlation between growth and properties restricts our ability to take advantage of this phenomenon for optoelectronic applications. Here, three different InGaAs nanowires were grown under different experimental conditions and atom probe tomography was used to quantify their composition, allowing the direct observation of the nanowire composition associated with the different growth conditions.
To develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm which can automatically detect food items from images acquired by an egocentric wearable camera for dietary assessment.
To study human diet and lifestyle, large sets of egocentric images were acquired using a wearable device, called eButton, from free-living individuals. Three thousand nine hundred images containing real-world activities, which formed eButton data set 1, were manually selected from thirty subjects. eButton data set 2 contained 29 515 images acquired from a research participant in a week-long unrestricted recording. They included both food- and non-food-related real-life activities, such as dining at both home and restaurants, cooking, shopping, gardening, housekeeping chores, taking classes, gym exercise, etc. All images in these data sets were classified as food/non-food images based on their tags generated by a convolutional neural network.
A cross data-set test was conducted on eButton data set 1. The overall accuracy of food detection was 91·5 and 86·4 %, respectively, when one-half of data set 1 was used for training and the other half for testing. For eButton data set 2, 74·0 % sensitivity and 87·0 % specificity were obtained if both ‘food’ and ‘drink’ were considered as food images. Alternatively, if only ‘food’ items were considered, the sensitivity and specificity reached 85·0 and 85·8 %, respectively.
The AI technology can automatically detect foods from low-quality, wearable camera-acquired real-world egocentric images with reasonable accuracy, reducing both the burden of data processing and privacy concerns.
The goal of the present study was to improve the CERES-wheat model simulation of grain protein concentration (GPC) for winter durum wheat and to use the model as a basis for the development of a GPC Simplified Forecasting Index (SFIpro). The performances of CERES-wheat, which is one of the most widespread crop simulation models, with (i) its standard GPC routine and (ii) a novel equation developed to improve the model GPC simulation for durum wheat, were assessed through comparison with field data. Subsequently, CERES-wheat was run for a 56-year period in order to identify the most important status and forcing variables affecting GPC simulation. The number of dry days during the early growth stages and the leaf area index (LAI; green leaf area per unit ground surface area) at heading stage (LAI5) were identified as the main variables positively correlated with CERES-wheat predicted GPC, and so included in the SFIpro. At validation against observed data SFIpro was found to perform differently on the basis of observed plant LAI. In fact, SFIpro was able to forecast GPC variability for intermediate values of LAI5 ranging from 1 to 2, while it totally failed when LAI5 was outside this range (LAI5 < 1 or LAI5 > 2). The results suggest that the relationship between LAI and GPC is not linear and that the model assumptions for GPC simulation in CERES-wheat are only partially confirmed, being valid for an intermediate range of LAI.
As the energy spread of intense pulsed electron beams (IPEB) strongly influences the irradiation effects, it has been of great importance to characterize the IPEB energy spectrum. With the combination of Child–Langmuir law and Monte Carlo simulation, the IPEB energy spectrum has been obtained in this work by transformation from the accelerating voltage applied to the diode. To verify the accuracy of this simple algorithm, a magnetic spectrometer with an imaging plate was designed to test the IPEB energy spectrum. The measurement was completed with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode, the pulse duration, maximum electron energy, total beam current being 80 ns, 450 keV, and 1 kA, respectively. The results verified the reliability of the above analysis method for energy spectrum, which can avoid intercepting the beam, and at the same time significantly improved the energy resolution. Some calculation and experimental details are discussed in this paper.
Meta-analyses support the efficacy of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia in western cultures. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of CBT and supportive therapy (ST) for patients with schizophrenia in China.
A multicentre randomized controlled, single-blinded, parallel-group trial enrolled a sample of 192 patients with schizophrenia. All patients were offered 15 sessions of either CBT or ST over 24 weeks and followed up for an additional 60 weeks. All measures used were standardized instruments with good reliability and validity. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess symptoms of schizophrenia. The Schedule for Assessing Insight (SAI) was used to assess patients’ insight and the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) was used to assess their social functioning.
Effect-size analysis showed that patients made rapid improvements in all symptoms, insight and social functioning as measured by the PANSS, SAI and PSP at 12 and 24 weeks and maintained these improvements over the course of the study to 84 weeks. Patients in the CBT group showed significantly greater and more durable improvement in PANSS total score (p = 0.045, between-group d = 0.48), positive symptoms (p = 0.018, between-group d = 0.42) and social functioning (p = 0.037, between-group d = 0.64), with significant differences emerging after completion of therapy.
Both CBT and ST combined with medication had benefits on psychopathology, insight and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. CBT was significantly more effective than ST on overall, positive symptoms and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia in the long term.
Hume views the passions as having both intentionality and qualitative character, which, in light of his Separability Principle, seemingly contradicts their simplicity. I reject the dominant solution to this puzzle of claiming that intentionality is an extrinsic property of the passions, arguing that a number of Hume's claims regarding the intentionality of the passions (pride and humility in particular) provide reasons for thinking an intrinsic account of the intentionality of the passions to be required. Instead, I propose to resolve this tension by appealing to Hume's treatment of the ‘distinctions of reason’, as explained by Garrett (Cognition and Commitment in Hume's Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Carbon nanotube-spinel lithium titanate (CNT-Li4Ti5O12) nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and higher-temperature calcinations with LiOH·H2O and TiO2 precursors in the presence of carbon nanotubes sources. The CNT-Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The particles exhibited a spinel cubic crystal phase and homogenous size distribution, with sizes around 50-70 nm. HAADF imaging confirmed that carbon content exists on the surface of the CNT-Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles with graphitic carbon coating of 3-5 nm thickness under 800oC in the Ar gas. The graphitic carbon phase was further confirmed with Raman spectroscopy analysis on powder samples. Electrochemical characteristics were evaluated with galvanostatic discharge/charge tests, which showed that the initial discharge capacity is 172 mA·h/g at 0.1C. The nanoscale carbon layers uniformly coated the particles, and the interconnected carbon nanotube network is responsible for the improved charge rate capability and conductivity.
In this presentation, we first introduced the definition and classification of rotating sunspots. Using multi-wavelength data, we investigated the evolution of some rotating sunspots and the response of upper atmosphere relevant to the rotating sunspots. Moreover, the distribution of rotating sunspots in solar cycle 23 and the statistics of flares relevant to rotating sunspots are also presented.
In this work, we demonstrate a new density modulated multilayered silicon thin film anode approach that can provide a robust high capacity electrode for Li-ion batteries. These films have the ability to tolerate large volume changes due to their controlled microstructure. Silicon films with alternating layers of high/low material density were deposited using a DC sputtering system. Density of the individual layers was controlled by simply changing the working gas pressure during sputtering. Samples of Si films having thicknesses of 460 nm with different number of high/low density layers have been deposited on Cu current collectors. The electrochemical performance of the multilayered anode material was evaluated using a galvanostatic battery testing system at C/10 rate. After reaching a stabilized phase the battery cell showed a high coulombic efficiency of 96% to 99% and reversible specific capacity of 666 mAh g-1 (after 100 cycles). Low-density layers are believed to be acting as compliant sheets during volume expansion making the films more durable compared to conventional Si film anodes. The results indicate that density modulated multilayer Si thin films can be used to improve the mechanical properties of Li-ion battery anodes leading to high reversible capacity values even after high number of cycles.
The mechanism of continental growth of the Altaids is currently under debate between models invoking continuous subduction-accretion or punctuated accretion by closure of multiple ocean basins. We use the Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite belt of the Beishan collage (southern Altaids) to constrain the earliest oceanic crust in the southern Palaeo-Asian Ocean. Five lithotectonic units were identified from S to N: the Huaniushan block, a sedimentary passive margin, the structurally incoherent Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite complex, a coherent sedimentary package and the Mazongshan island arc with granitic rocks. We present a structural analysis of the accretionary complex, which is composed of the incoherent ophiolitic melange and coherent sedimentary rocks, to work out the tectonic polarity. A new weighted mean 206Pb–238U age of 533 ± 1.7 Ma from a plagiogranite in the Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite indicates that the ocean floor formed in early Cambrian time. Furthermore, we present new geochemical data to constrain the tectonic setting of the Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite. The Yueyashan–Xichangjing ophiolite was emplaced as a result of northward subduction of an oceanic plate beneath the Mazongshan island arc to the north in late Ordovician to early Silurian time. Together with data from the literature, our work demonstrates that multiple overlapping periods of accretion existed in the Palaeozoic in the northern and southern Altaids. Therefore, a model of multiple accretion by closure of several ocean basins is most viable.
In this study we use numerical N-body/SPH simulations to investigate the vertical stellar
distribution of thick disks formed in minor mergers. These disks have a sech-shape
vertical surface density profile which needs two sech functions with different scale
heights to fit due to an additional stellar excesses at large heights
(z ≳ 4 − 5 kpc). The scale heights of merger-induced thick disks increase
with radius but the details of this thickening are sensitive to orbital configurations and
gas fraction of the galaxies. The scale height of the stellar excess is constant with
radius and largely independent of the initial conditions. The effects of minor mergers is
cumulative in the sense that several minor mergers have the same impact of a single minor
merger of the same total mass. Scattering by self-gravitating masses (clumps) in unstable
gaseous disks can produce thick disks with constant scale height, however, there is not a
stellar excess at large scale heights. Most of these results are found to be in good
agreement with observations and thus we conclude that minor mergers remains a viable
mechanism for the creation of galactic thick disks.
Parents may influence children’s fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in many ways, but research has focused primarily on counterproductive parenting practices, such as restriction and pressure to eat. The present study aimed to assess the association of diverse parenting practices to promote F&V and its consumption among pre-school children.
An exploratory analysis was performed on cross-sectional data from 755 Head Start pre-school children and their parents collected in 2004–5. Data included parent practices to facilitate child F&V consumption (grouped into five categories); parent-reported dietary intake of their child over 3 d; and a number of potential correlates. K-means cluster analysis assigned parents to groups with similar use of the food parenting practice categories. Stepwise linear regression analyses investigated the association of parent clusters with children’s consumption of F&V, after controlling for potential confounding factors.
A three-cluster solution provided the best fit (R2 = 0·62), with substantial differences in the use of parenting practices. The clusters were labelled Indiscriminate Food Parenting, Non-directive Food Parenting and Low-involved Food Parenting. Non-directive parents extensively used enhanced availability and teachable moments’ practices, but less firm discipline practices than the other clusters, and were significantly associated with child F&V intake (standardized β = 0·09, P < 0·1; final model R2 = 0·17) after controlling for confounders, including parental feeding styles.
Parents use a variety of parenting practices, beyond pressuring to eat and restrictive practices, to promote F&V intake in their young child. Evaluating the use of combinations of practices may provide a better understanding of parental influences on children’s F&V intake.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with macroscopically ordered structures (e.g., aligned or patterned mats, fibers, and sheets) and associated large surface areas have proven promising as new CNT electroactive polymer materials (CNT-EAPs) for the development of advanced chemical and biological sensors. The functionalization of CNTs with many biological species to gain specific surface characteristics and to facilitate electron transfer to and from them for chemical- and bio-sensing applications is an area of intense research activity.
Mechanical actuation generated by CNT-EAPs is another exciting electroactive function provided by these versatile materials. Controlled mechanical deformation for actuation has been demonstrated in CNT mats, fibers, sheets, and individual nanotubes. This article summarizes the current status and technological challenges for the development of electrochemical sensors and electromechanical actuators based on carbon nanotube electroactive materials.
Benthic macroinvertebrates collected at seven different streams displaying different pollution levels were used to investigate
species abundance patterns in polluted streams. Community response to disturbances in streams was analysed using species
abundance distribution (SAD) for benthic macroinvertebrates across different levels of pollution. The slopes of rank abundance
were characteristically steeper with decreasing species richness at the polluted sample sites, while the slopes were less steep with
higher species richness at the clean or slightly disturbed sample sites. The SADs were broadly fitted to the log normal
distribution in benthic macroinvertebrate communities across different levels of pollution. A geometric series was partly accepted
for the communities at the severely polluted sites where new species could not be readily introduced. A power law was applied to
the SADs, and the parameters reflected the states pertaining to the sample sites. The SADs were also efficient in revealing
ecological state of communities where physico-chemical indicators could not be easily differentiated for stressful conditions in
The diffusion barrier properties for ultrathin Ru/Ta and Ru/TaN bilayer structure as the copper diffusion barrier are compared. Cu, Ru, Ta and TaN thin films are deposited by using the ion beam sputtering technique. The experimental results show that the thermal stability of the Cu/Ru/Ta or TaN /Si structure is much more improved than that of the Cu/Ru/Si structure without the interlayer. However, the Cu/Ru/TaN/Si shows better thermal stability than the Cu/Ru/Ta/Si structure, which should be attributed to the amorphous nature of the TaN interlayer. The microstructure evolution of the Cu/Ru/Ta (TaN)/Si structure during annealing is discussed. The results show that the Ru/TaN bilayer can be a very promising diffusion barrier in the future seedless Cu interconnect technology.
We report on the nonlinear optical properties of cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor colloidal quantum dots. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the size of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots, dependent on the growth reaction time, was ∼2-10 nm or near the exciton Bohr radius. The strong blue-shifts of the CdTe, CdSe and CdS nanocrystal absorption spectra and the atomic-like discrete energy states of exciton indicate an exciton quantum confinement. These are completely different optical properties from the bulk crystals. The energy transition for exciton absorption was assigned as h1→e+, h2→e+, h1+→e-, and h2+→e- for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th exciton absorption peaks. Z-scan and I-scan nonlinear spectroscopy revealed that the CdTe nanocrystal quantum dot in toluene (∼8 × 10-5 mol/L) has the negative nonlinearity (self-defocusing) with ∼ -1 × 10-13 m2/W and a high nonlinear figure of merit of ∼200. For the optical power self-limiting experiment, the CdTe nanocrystal was almost opaque above ∼0.8 MW/cm2 at the position of z∼6.9 cm.