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Hurricane Maria caused catastrophic damage in Puerto Rico, increasing the risk for morbidity and mortality in the post-impact period. We aimed to establish a syndromic surveillance system to describe the number and type of visits at 2 emergency health-care settings in the same hospital system in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
We implemented a hurricane surveillance system by interviewing patients with a short questionnaire about the reason for visit at a hospital emergency department and associated urgent care clinic in the 6 mo after Hurricane Maria. We then evaluated the system by comparing findings with data from the electronic medical record (EMR) system for the same time period.
The hurricane surveillance system captured information from 5116 participants across the 2 sites, representing 17% of all visits captured in the EMR for the same period. Most visits were associated with acute illness/symptoms (79%), followed by injury (11%). The hurricane surveillance and EMR data were similar, proportionally, by sex, age, and visit category.
The hurricane surveillance system provided timely and representative data about the number and type of visits at 2 sites. This system, or an adapted version using available electronic data, should be considered in future disaster settings.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
Aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries and trunk are rare entities. The Waterston shunt is a palliative procedure for children with cyanotic CHD due to obstruction of the pulmonary outflow. Described complications are distortion of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary arterial hypertension. We report a patient with a giant right pulmonary artery aneurysm in relation to a Waterston shunt.
Gas detecting and sensing is a largely studied field of knowledge, but total understanding is not yet achieved and the ideal device is still far in the future. Many experimental efforts have been devoted to find the minimum optimal temperature and operational conditions for SnO2 to sense hydrocarbons; different methods to build gas-detecting devices keep being developed all around the world, from paste-based bulk devices to nanostructured thick and thin films, but little effort has been aim to characterize the reactions by calculating their related enthalpies. Computational methods have been widely used to characterize, understand and model many physicochemical interactions. In this regard, three main courses can be followed: Ab initio (first principles of quantum mechanics), DFT (Density Functional Theory) and MD (Molecular Dynamics) simulation. In this research, DFT modelling tool is employed to understand and characterize the gas-sensing reactions of Tin Oxide when exposed to an atmosphere with Methane. In CASTEP, a robust DFT module of the Materials Studio suite, one SnO2 (110) crystal plane is exposed to CH4 and the structure is optimized many times for each possible step of the reaction, recording the energies related with each optimization stage, in sum giving us the Transition State (TS) of the reaction. Based on the data, a promising reaction-path is proposed and analyzed for the (110) surface.
Albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and large petrels (Macronectes and Procellaria spp.) are among the world’s most rapidly declining birds. Some of the most endangered species, Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis, Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche carteri and Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca, are at risk from recurrent avian cholera outbreaks. Yet little is known about the overall impact of disease in this group. We compiled all available information on pathogens described in albatrosses and large petrel species listed under the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) (n = 31). Available reports (n = 53) comprise nearly 60% of ACAP species (18/31). However, only 38% of them focus on threatened species (20/53), and 43% solely report macroparasite findings (23/53). Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophrys (Near Threatened) and Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus (Least Concern) are the two species with higher number of publications (29/53, 55% of all papers). Conversely, seven species on the IUCN Red List have three papers or less each. Most existing research has resulted from disease or mortality investigations and baseline studies (28 and 32%, respectively). Pathogens reported in the subset of ACAP species, included bacteria in seven species (39%), viruses in five (28%), protozoa in four (22%), helminths in nine (50%), ectoparasites in 13 (72%) and fungi in one species (5%). Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, appears as the most severe threat to ACAP species. Infections by poxvirus are the most common viral finding, yet entail lower population level impact. Few serosurveys report pathogen exposure in these species, but add valuable baseline information. There are numerous obvious gaps in species and geographical coverage and likely under-reporting due to remoteness, accessibility and sporadic monitoring. This insufficient knowledge may be hampering effective protection and management of populations at risk. Attention to species currently affected by avian cholera is of utmost priority.
The objective of this study is to design and implement an intervention program centered on preventing functional dependence.
A pre/post quasi-experimental (typical case) design study with a control group was conducted on a group of 75–90-year-old individuals with functional dependence (n = 59) at three nursing homes in Madrid (Spain). The intervention program consists of two types of activities developed simultaneously. Some focused on emotional well-being (nine 90-minute sessions, once per week), whereas others focused on improving participants’ physical condition (two 30-minute sessions, twice per week). The simple randomized participants included 59 elderly individuals (Intervention Group = 30, Control Group = 29) (mean age 86.80) [SD, 5. 19].
Fifty-nine participants were analyzed. The results indicate that the program is effective in improving mood, lowering anxiety levels (d = 0.81), and increasing both self-esteem (d = 0.65) and the perception of self-efficacy (d = 1.04). There are improvements in systolic pressure and functional dependence levels are maintained. Linear simple regression (independent variable pre-Barthel) shows that the pre-intervention dependence level can predict self-esteem after the intervention.
We have demonstrated that the program is innovative with regard to bio-psychosocial care in elderly individuals, is based on actual practice, and is effective in increasing both self-esteem and self-efficacy. These variables positively affect functional capabilities and delay functional dependence.
We present V and I photometry of the globular cluster systems of the early-type galaxies NGC 1374, NGC 1379, NGC 1387, NGC 1427, and NGC 1399, obtained with the 100 inch telescope of Las Campanas Observatory.
Division XI, the predecessor to Division D until 2012, was formed in 1994 at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague by merging Commission 44 Astronomy from Space and Commission 48 High Energy Astrophysics. Historically, space astrophysics started with the high energy wavelengths (far UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray astronomy) which are only accessible from space. However, in modern astronomy, to study high energy astrophysical processes, almost all wavelengths are used (including gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared, submillimeter and radio). In addition other ground-based facilities, including gravitational wave antennas, neutrino detectors and high-energy cosmic ray arrays are joining in this era of multi-messenger astrophysics, as well as space missions with the primary goals to discover and study exoplanets, are under the umbrella of Division XI.
Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/Titania (P3HT/TiO2) heterojunction has been widely studied in the field of hybrid solar cells. Usually, organic dyes shift the neat TiO2 absorption edge toward the visible range improving the conversion efficiency or/and the TiO2 surface is modified with ligands in order to increase the electron transport. On the other hand, copper sulfide, non-toxic semiconductor, has been included in bulk organic P3HT based solar cell, increasing the photocurrent density of devices. Therefore, we propose the use of copper sulfide in the hybrid TiO2/P3HT heterojunction to determine its effect in the performance of TiO2/P3HT solar cell. Copper sulfide nanocrystals (CuxS) were synthesized at 230 °C, 240 °C and 260 °C and, they were mixed with P3HT in order to form P3HT:CuxS bulk heterojunctions. Scattered grains and irregular morphology in the final topography of the reference device (P3HT/TiO2 heterojunction) were observed by AFM, while a granular morphology and a few pores like craters were observed in the devices containing P3HT:CuxS bulk heterojunctions. Chalcocite phase (Cu2S) was obtained at 230 and 240°C and, digenite (Cu1.8S) phase at 260°C, both copper sulfide phases are very promising for solar cells. Despite this, poor rectifications in the devices were found in the current-voltage curves of the devices containing copper sulfide nanocrystals in contrast to the P3HT/TiO2 cell (device without nanocrystals), it could be due to the current leakage or recombination process in the copper sulfide/TiO2 interface. It suggests future work in order to improve the devices.
We present new radial velocities for 306 bright (R < 16) galaxies in a 77 deg2 region of the Shapley supercluster, measured with the FLAIR-II spectrograph on the UK Schmidt Telescope. The galaxies we measured were uniformly distributed over the survey area, in contrast to previous samples which were concentrated in several rich Abell clusters. Most of the galaxies (230) were members of the Shapley supercluster: they trace out two previously unknown sheets of galaxies linking the Abell clusters of the supercluster. In a 44 deg2 area of the supercluster excluding the Abell clusters, these sheets alone represent an overdensity of a factor of 2·0 ± 0·2 compared to a uniform galaxy distribution. The supercluster is not flattened in the Declination direction as has been suggested in previous papers. Within our survey area the new galaxies contribute an additional 50% to the known contents of the Shapley supercluster, with a corresponding increase in its contribution to the motion of the Local Group.
Originally, Division XI concerned itself only with high-energy astrophysics (in particular UV, X-ray and gamma rays), to which was later added the domain of lower-energy astrophysics where observations are generally performed from space (optical, infrared, submillimeter and parts of the radio spectrum). The Division also includes ground-based high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray experiments, gravitational wave, and Moon-based astronomical observations. The individual expertise of the present OC reflects primarily the UV and higher energy domains. However, since there are plans within the IAU to restructure divisions, we propose that, following the changes in the Divisional structure and renewal of the OC, the new members will be recruited to broaden the spectral range of research covered by the Division.
Bulk tank ewe's milks with low (<500,000 ml−1), medium (1,000,000–1,500,000 ml−1) and high (>2,500,000 ml−1) somatic cell counts (SCC) from three breeds were used to manufacture hard ewes’-milk cheese. Physico-chemical analysis and capillary electrophoresis of fresh cheeses and cheeses that had been ripened for 1, 2, 3 and 6 months were carried out. The results showed that high SCC levels in milk affected the moisture content of only freshly made cheeses and the pH, fat content and fat acidity of ripened cheeses. Regarding proteolysis, the levels of all β-CNs in freshly made cheeses were significantly lower as the SCC values increased and the Castellana breed was the most affected by SCC levels because a significant decrease in all α-CNs was also observed as SCC levels rose. Analysis of the casein profile by principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that there were no clear differences according the SCC up to the third month. However in the third and sixth months cheeses with low levels of SC were closely grouped and characterised by the highest levels of intact caseins. Regarding the effect of breed, the results point to a more intense proteolytic activity in the Assaf breed, whose more matured cheeses showed the highest content of casein proteolytic fragments.
A series of coordination compounds -macrocycle tetraaza derivatives with extended electronic conjugations- as molecular solids have been synthesized and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Their resistivity vs. temperature characteristics, measured in thin films, show three types of behavior: metallic, semiconductor and, in some cases, semiconductor with a transition to metallic below certain temperature. Room temperature Raman spectra were obtained in a FT-IR spectrometer and some stretching modes show different Raman shifts depending on the reactants. We relate these shifts with the degree of charge transfer between donor and acceptor radicals.
We used the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory to perform fast (ps range) time-resolved diffraction measurements of the dynamic characteristics in BaTiO3 films subjected to strong high-frequency electric fields. The time-dependent lattice response measured at frequencies between 6.5 MHz and 1.3 GHz revealed damped domain movements with attenuation time rapidly increasing with electric field frequency, v. We found that at frequencies higher than ν ∼ 600 MHz the domain motions in BaTiO3 films become heavily damped, information that may be important to future device operation. A minimum attenuation time, τ ∼ 330 ps, measured at ν = 1.3 GHz was limited by the time constant of the electrical circuit.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer disease. Most MCI subjects present disturbances in multiple neuropsychological domains, including executive function. This study aimed at exploring frontal lobe cortical thinning in MCI and healthy controls, and its relationship with problem-solving abilities. Twenty-three MCI patients and 30 elderly controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological assessment. Cortical thickness was measured by means of FreeSurfer. Problem-solving was assessed by means of the Tower of London (TOL) task. MCI showed a global thinning of the cortex. With regard to specific regions of interest, a thinning in the left frontal lobe and the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri was found. Partial correlations, after controlling for age, education, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and non-frontal mean thickness revealed negative significant correlations between frontal lobe thickness and executive outcomes in the control group. This counterintuitive relationship was not observed in the MCI group, suggesting that the frontal cortical atrophy observed in MCI entails a specific pathology-related relationship with high-level executive outcomes that is qualitatively different from that observed in healthy aging. (JINS, 2010, 16, 836–845.)