To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Litter size has a great impact on the profit of swine producers. Uterine development is an important determinant of reproduction efficiency and could hence affect litter size. Chinese Erhualian pig is one of the most prolific breeds in the world, even though large phenotypic variation in litter size was observed within Erhualian sows. To dissect the genetic basis of the phenotypic variation, we herein conducted genome-wide association studies for total number born and number born alive (NBA) of Erhualian sows. In total, one significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (P<1.78e−06) and 11 suggestive SNPs (P<3.57e−05) were identified on 10 chromosomes, confirming seven previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and uncovering six QTL for litter size or uterus length. One locus on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 13 (79.28 to 90.43 Mb) harbored a cluster of suggestive SNPs associated with multiparous NBA. The SNP (rs81447100) within this region was confirmed to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with litter size in Erhualian (n=313), Sutai (n=173) and Yorkshire (n=488) populations. Retinol binding protein 2 and retinol binding protein 1 functionally related to the development of uterus were located in a region of 2 Mb around rs81447100. Moreover, four genes related to embryo implantation and development were also detected around other significant SNPs. Taken together, our findings provide a potential marker (rs81447100) for the genetic improvement of litter size not only in Chinese Erhualian pigs but also in European commercial pig breeds like Yorkshire, and would facilitate the final identification of causative variant(s) underlying the effect of SSC13 QTL on litter size.
This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) extracts against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) and isolate the acaricidal components. Acaricidal activities of lettuce extracts isolated from different parts (the leaf, root and seed) using various solvents (petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) were evaluated with slide-dip bioassay and relatively high median lethal concentration (LC50) values were detected. Acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July and September were fractionated and isolated with silica gel and thin-layer chromatography. Consequently, acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July exhibited higher acaricidal activity than those harvested in September, with an LC50 value of 0.268 mg ml−1 at 72 h post-treatment. A total of 27 fractions were obtained from the acetone extract of lettuce leaves harvested in July, and mite mortalities with the 11th and 12th fractions were higher than those with the other 25 fractions (LC50: 0.751 and 1.258 mg ml−1 at 48 h post-treatment, respectively). Subsequently, active acaricidal components of the 11th fraction were identified by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Five components were isolated from the 11th fraction, with components 11-a and 11-b showing relatively high acaricidal activities (LC50: 0.288 and 0.114 mg ml−1 at 48 h post-treatment, respectively). Component 11-a was identified as β-sitosterol. In conclusion, acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July might be used as a novel phytogenic acaricide to control mites.
Studies from high-income countries report moderate-to-strong positive associations between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other mental disorders, but there is little evidence about the comorbidity of AUD from low-and-middle-income countries.
A sample of 74 752 adults from five provinces that account for >12% of China's adult population was screened using the General Health Questionnaire, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was administered by psychiatrists to a subsample of 9619 males. The associations between AUD and other mental disorders at each site and the characteristics of men with AUD with and without comorbid mental disorders were estimated using logistic regression and summarized across sites using meta-analysis. Generalized estimation equations estimated the associations between the clinical features of alcohol dependence and comorbidity.
Robust inverse associations were found between current AUD and any mood disorder (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8) and any anxiety disorder (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3–1.0). Compared with men without AUD, men with AUD without comorbid disorders were more likely to be middle-aged, to be currently married, and to have higher family incomes. Men with comorbid AUD and other disorders were more likely to have the clinical features of alcohol dependence than men with AUD without comorbid disorders.
Inverse associations between AUD and other mental disorders and the higher social status of men with AUD than men without AUD found in this large, representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese males highlight the importance of considering the local substance-use culture when designing clinical or preventive interventions for addictive conditions.
Accurate and reliable dating of paleosols, animal remains, and artifacts is of crucial importance in reconstructing environmental change and understanding the interrelationship between human activities and natural environments. Dating different materials in the same sample can help resolve problems such as soil carbon sources and carbon storage state. Conventional radiocarbon dating of soil (inorganic and organic matter) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of animal remains (fossil bones and teeth) result in different ages for materials from the same sample position in a typical loess section at Xinglong Mountain, Yuzhong County, Gansu Province in NW China. Inorganic matter is ∼3400 yr older than organic matter, 4175 ± 175 cal BP to 3808 ± 90 cal BP. A 1610-yr difference between the 14C ages of fossils (animal bones and teeth) and soil organic matter suggests that a depositional hiatus exists in the studied profile. The varying 14C ages of fossils and soil organic and inorganic matter have important implications for paleoclimate reconstructions from loess sections. It is critical to consider the meaning of the variable 14C ages from different material components from the same sample position in terms of soil organic and inorganic carbon storage, vegetation history reconstruction, archaeology, and the study of ancient civilizations.
A comparative study of the effect of dietary nitrogen (N) content [Low: 11·0; Medium-Low (MLow): 16·7; Medium-High (Mhigh): 23·1; High: 29·2 N g/kg dry matter (DM)] on apparent digestibilities, rumen fermentation and N balance was conducted in coarse wool Tibetan sheep and Gansu Alpine fine-wool sheep at Wushaoling in the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It was hypothesized that responses would differ between breeds and that responses would favour Tibetan over fine-wool sheep at low N intakes. Eight wethers [four Tibetan sheep and four fine-wool sheep, 20–24 months old; body weight ± standard deviation was 52 ± 3·2 kg] were used in two concurrent 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep when fed the Low, MLow and High N diets while N retention was higher when the animals were fed the Low and MLow N diets. Tibetan sheep had a higher rumen pH than fine-wool sheep; however, total volatile fatty acids were similar between breeds. Molar proportions of acetate were higher but propionate and butyrate lower in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep. In addition, Tibetan sheep had higher concentrations of ruminal free amino acid-N and soluble protein-N than fine-wool sheep. Plasma and saliva urea-N concentrations were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep when supplied with the Low N diet. It was concluded that Tibetan sheep were better able to cope with low N feed than fine-wool sheep because of the higher N retention and higher DM and fibre digestibilities with Low and MLow diets.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Low-dose clarithromycin has been recommended for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. However, it is uncertain whether a high dose of clarithromycin is more effective than a low dose.
Forty-three chronic rhinosinusitis patients were randomised to low-dose or high-dose clarithromycin groups, and clinical efficacy was evaluated. Pre- and post-treatment measures included: nasal symptom assessment, endoscopic inspection (Lund–Kennedy system), a quality of life questionnaire (the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20) and examination of cytokine levels (interleukin-5 and -8) in nasal secretions.
The high dose of clarithromycin was significantly better in terms of clinical efficacy than the low dose for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (p < 0.025). Significant differences in nasal cytokine levels (interleukin-5 and -8) were also observed between the low-dose and high-dose groups after short-term clarithromycin treatment (p < 0.025).
Short-term, high-dose clarithromycin appears to be more effective for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis than low-dose clarithromycin.
The magnetic reconnection (MR) configuration was constructed by using two approaching laser-produced plasma bubbles. The characteristics of the MR current sheet were investigated. The driving energy of the laser pulse affects the type of the current sheet. The experiments present “Y-type” and “X-type” current sheets for larger and smaller driving energy, respectively. The energetic electrons were found to be well-collimated. The formation and ejection of plasmoid from the “Y-type” current sheet was expected to enhance the number of accelerated electrons.
The laser wakefield structure in a magnetized underdense plasma is studied analytically and numerically. Because of the DC magnetic field perpendicular to the laser propagation direction, an electromagnetic component appears in addition to the normal electrostatic component. This electromagnetic component can transmit partially into vacuum at the plasma–vacuum boundary as shown by particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that the emission has components both at the fundamental plasma frequency and its harmonics if the wakefield is driven at a high amplitude. Comparing with the emission at the plasma frequency, the harmonic emission depends weakly upon the density profile at plasma–vacuum boundary and it can pass through the boundary almost without energy loss, providing a new method for the diagnostic of wakefields.
A new regime of droplet ejection following the slow deposition of drops onto a near-complete wetting solid substrate is identified in experiments and direct numerical simulations; a coalescence cascade subsequent to pinch-off is also observed for the first time. Results of numerical simulations indicate that the propagation of capillary waves that lead to pinch-off is closely related to the self-similar behaviour observed in the inviscid recoil of droplets, and that motions of the crests and troughs of capillary waves along the interface do not depend on the wettability and surface tension (or Ohnesorge number). The simulations also show that a self-similar theory for universal pinch-off can be used for the time evolution of the pinching neck. However, although good agreement is also found with the double-cone shape of the pinching neck for droplet ejection in drop deposition on a pool of the same liquid, substantial deviations are observed in such a comparison for droplet ejection in rapid drop spreading (including the newly identified regime). This deviation is shown to result from interference by the solid substrate, a rapid downwards acceleration of the top of the drop surface and the rapid spreading process. The experiments also confirm non-monotonic spreading behaviour observed previously only in numerical simulations, and suggest substantial inertial effects on the relation between an apparent contact angle and the dimensionless contact-line speed.
Amorphous carbon nitride films (a-CNx) were synthesized by using single ion beam sputtering of a graphite target in argon and nitrogen sputtering gases. This thin film could be used as a novel photovoltaic material. The films were characterized with the technique of laser Raman, spectroscopic ellipsometry and electron spin resonance spectrometer (ESR). In this paper we report the effects of ion impacting and nitrogenation on the microstructure, density of defect states, bonding character, optical and photovoltaic properties. Effective decreasing of intensity of the ESR signal and formation of C-N bonding were observed, which could be attributed to the increment of the impinging ions on the growing films. The nitrogenation of a-CNx films could decrease the Tauc optical gap (0.62∼0.86eV) and the intensity of ESR signal, increase photon absorption coefficient of the films (106∼104cm−1).
The primary photovoltaic values of the devices having Schottky structure of ITO/CNx/Al are Isc 1.56 μ A/cm2 and Voc 250 mV, respectively, when exposed to AM1.5 illumination ( 100mW/cm2, 25°C).
The field emission properties of molybdenum and silicon emitter coated with tetrahedral amorphous carbon (or amorphous diamond) were studied. The tetrahedral amorphous carbon was deposited by laser ablation and showed a uniformly coated columnar structure over the entire emitter. In general, current conditioning improved stability and increased the current density. Coatings of ta-C on Mo emitters with and without nitrogen incorporated both yielded significantly higher emissivity than uncoated emitters. Nitrogen incorporation reduced the effective workfunction and the sp3/sp2 ratio. However similar depositions on Si emitters reduced the emissivity, and may be attributable to the residual oxide at the ta-C/Si interface. Annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere enhanced emissivity from both ta-C/Mo and ta-C/Si emitters. In general, thick coatings lowered the emissivity and the slope of the I-V curves. A temperature dependence of emission was observed only in the low field regions.
Neospora caninum infection is a significant cause of abortion in cattle. We investigated the tissue distribution of N. caninum in aborted bovine fetuses and dam blood samples by a nested PCR assay, and compared the nested PCR with ELISA in the diagnosis of N. caninum infection. In total, 26 aborted fetuses and 813 blood samples were collected from 8 dairy herds in Beijing (n=212) and Tianjin (n=601), China. Fifteen fetuses (57·7%) were tested N. caninum-positive by the nested PCR. N. caninum DNA was detected from the brain of 52%, kidneys of 22%, skeletal muscle of 18%, and heart of 4% of the aborted fetuses. The PCR-positive cases (55%, 11/20) were higher than seropositive cows (40%, 8/20) in a subset of 20 fetuses, but the PCR results of blood samples of the 20 cows were all negative. The seroprevalence of the 813 samples was 15·5% (43·4% of samples from Beijing, 5·7% of samples from Tianjin), compared to the PCR-positive blood samples of 0·9%. Our study showed that the nested PCR is a valuable diagnostic tool for the primary diagnosis of N. caninum in aborted fetuses, while ELISA is the preferred assay for testing blood samples collected from cows. The two assays are complementary in determining whether abortions are associated with N. caninum infection in cattle.
An experimental study on the angular distribution and conversion of multi-keV X-ray sources produced from 2 ns-duration 527nm laser irradiated thick-foil targets on Shenguang II laser facility (SG-II) is reported. The angular distributions measured in front of the targets can be fitted with the function of f(θ) = α+ (1−α)cosβθ (θ is the viewing angle relative to the target normal), where α = 0.41 ± 0.014, β = 0.77 ± 0.04 for Ti K-shell X-ray sources (~4.75 keV for Ti K-shell), and α = 0.085 ± 0.06, β = 0.59 ± 0.07 for Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources (2–2.8 keV for Mo L-shell, 2.8–3.5 keV for Pd L-shell, and 3–3.8 keV for Ag L-shell). The isotropy of the angular distribution of L-shell emission is worse than that of the K-shell emission at larger viewing angle (>70°), due to its larger optical depth (stronger self-absorption) in the cold plasma side lobe surrounding the central emission region, and in the central hot plasma region (emission region). There is no observable difference in the angular distributions of the L-shell X-ray emission among Ag, Pd, and Mo. The conversion efficiency of Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources is higher than that of the Ti K-shell X-ray sources, but the gain relative to the K-shell emission is not as high as that by using short pulse lasers. The conversion efficiency of the L-shell X-ray sources decreases with increasing atomic numbers (or X-ray photon energy), similar to the behavior of the K-shell X-ray source.
We investigate the altitude dependence of hard X-ray (HXR) spectra in solar flares, i.e., whether the HXR spectra are related to the altitudes of reconnection sites. We assume that the reconnection altitude can be scaled by the distance between the two conjugate HXR footpoints in the flare. By searching the RHESSI flare list from 2002 to 2004, we find 42 solar flares below X-class that have enhanced 50–100 keV HXR emission and two well-resolved HXR footpoints at the nonthermal peak time. The preliminary results show that there is a weak correlation ($\sim$ –0.31) between the HXR spectral index and the HXR footpoint distance. We further discuss the possible implications.
The superfine Fe–B–Si–Mo and Fe–B–Zr–Nb alloys were prepared by liquidus casting in which the levitation melting combining with the rapid solidification was used. The melt was poured into a copper mold at various temperatures, and a superfine granular microstructure was obtained at liquidus temperature. The behavior of Cu and Ag addition to Fe–B–Si–Mo and Fe–B–Zr–Nb alloys was studied. Both adding Cu and Ag to Fe–B–Si–Mo and Fe–B–Zr–Nb alloys had influence on refining the alloys. The refinement effect of adding Cu is stronger than that of adding Ag in Fe–B–Zr–Nb alloy.
A Pd–Si–Cu bulk nanocrystalline material was prepared by quenching the melted Pd78Si16Cu6 alloy at a cooling rate of 200 K/s under 2–6 GPa. It was found that the nanocrystalline material consists of Pd(Cu) disordered solid solution and a metastable phase-II, Pd4Si. The grain size was found to decrease with increasing pressure. The influence of high pressure on the grain size of bulk nanocrystalline material is discussed, and a possible formation mechanism is proposed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.