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First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
Few randomised clinical trials have examined the efficacy of an
intervention aimed at improving psychosocial functioning in bipolar
To examine changes in psychosocial functioning in a group that has been
enrolled in a functional remediation programme 1 year after baseline.
This was a multicentre, randomised, rater-masked clinical trial comparing
three patient groups: functional remediation, psychoeducation and
treatment as usual over 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was change
in psychosocial functioning measured by means of the Functioning
Assessment Short Test (FAST). Group×time effects for overall psychosocial
functioning were examined using repeated-measures ANOVA (trial
There was a significant group×time interaction for overall psychosocial
functioning, favouring patients in the functional remediation group
(F = 3.071, d.f. = 2, P =
Improvement in psychosocial functioning is maintained after 1-year
follow-up in patients with bipolar disorder receiving functional
Functional remediation is a novel intervention with demonstrated efficacy at improving functional outcome in euthymic bipolar patients. However, in a previous trial no significant changes in neurocognitive measures were detected. The objective of the present analysis was to test the efficacy of this therapy in the enhancement of neuropsychological functions in a subgroup of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients.
A total of 188 out of 239 DSM-IV euthymic bipolar patients performing below two standard deviations from the mean of normative data in any neurocognitive test were included in this subanalysis. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess the impact of the treatment arms [functional remediation, psychoeducation, or treatment as usual (TAU)] on participants’ neurocognitive and functional outcomes in the subgroup of neurocognitively impaired patients.
Patients receiving functional remediation (n = 56) showed an improvement on delayed free recall when compared with the TAU (n = 63) and psychoeducation (n = 69) groups as shown by the group × time interaction at 6-month follow-up [F2,158 = 3.37, degrees of freedom (df) = 2, p = 0.037]. However, Tukey post-hoc analyses revealed that functional remediation was only superior when compared with TAU (p = 0.04), but not with psychoeducation (p = 0.10). Finally, the patients in the functional remediation group also benefited from the treatment in terms of functional outcome (F2,158 = 4.26, df = 2, p = 0.016).
Functional remediation is effective at improving verbal memory and psychosocial functioning in a sample of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients at 6-month follow-up. Neurocognitive enhancement may be one of the active ingredients of this novel intervention, and, specifically, verbal memory appears to be the most sensitive function that improves with functional remediation.
This work presents the main results from a selection of optical spectra of Seyfert and LINER galaxies taken from the 9th release of the SDSS with detectable coronal emission. A catalogue of 345 Seyfert 1 (Sy1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy2) galaxies with Forbidden High Ionization Lines (FHILs) emission is presented. By analysing their spectra as well as utilising data from the literature we found evidence of anisotropy in optical FHIL emissions between Sy1 and Sy2 galaxies for the following lines: [Ne v] λ3426, [Fe vii] λ6087, [Fe x] λ6374 and [Fe xi] λ7892. Results continue indicating that optical FHILs are not observed in LINER type galaxies.
We report one amorphous and four new crystalline phases in the Bi-Sr-0 system. The structure of three of the crystalline phases was identified. The Br10Bi6O24-y phase, which is cubic with space group Fm3m and cell parameter a = 0.8471(1) nm. The SreBi10O27-y phase, which is tetragonal with the space group I/mmm, and cell parameters a = 0.6007(1), c = 0.8376(1) nm. The SreBi10O27-y phase, which is tetragonal with space group I/mmm and cell parameters a = 1.3221(1), c = 0.4249(1) nm. We show that in the crystalline structures Sr and Bi occupy equivalent sites.
Nanophases of sol-gel zirconia were prepared with HCl, C2H4O2 and NH4OH as hydrolysis catalysts, and sulfated with H2SO4. They were analyzed by using X-ray powder diffraction, and their crystalline structure was refined by using the Rietveld method. All samples annealed below 300 °C were amorphous. The non-sulfated samples crystallized around 350 °C, while the sulfated samples crystallized around 600 °C, when they started loosing sulfate ions. In the initial stage of crystallization, both the tetragonal and monoclinic nanophases coexisted, with the tetragonal as the main phase. Annealing the samples at higher temperatures transformed the tetragonal nanophase, stabilized by OH ions, into the monoclinic one.
We prove results on geodesic metric spaces which guarantee that some spaces are not hyperbolic in the Gromov sense. We use these theorems in order to study the hyperbolicity of Riemann surfaces. We obtain a criterion on the genus of a surface which implies non-hyperbolicity. We also include a characterization of the hyperbolicity of a Riemann surface $S^*$ obtained by deleting a closed set from one original surface $S$. In the particular case when the closed set is a union of continua and isolated points, the results clarify the role of punctures and funnels (and other more general ends) in the hyperbolicity of Riemann surfaces.
The crystalline structure of the Ba2Y1−xCuxWO6−y system was obtained from x-ray diffraction measurements as a function of copper concentration. Five different x regions are observed, four of which correspond to solid solutions and lie at x ≤ 0.75. The crystalline structure of the phases at these copper concentrations has cubic symmetry with lattice parameters between 0.8382 and 0.8275 nm. At 0.75 < x ≤ 1.0 the samples are a mixture of two phases. In this study we have identified the existence of only two stoichiometric compounds: Ba8Y3CuW4O24 with a cubic crystalline structure with space group Pm3m and lattice parameter of 0.8350(1) nm, and Ba2CuWO6 with a crystalline tetragonal structure and space group I4/mmm and lattice parameters a = 0.5566(1) nm and c = 0.8634(1) nm. The crystalline structure at all copper concentrations is based in the ordered perovskite structure. The samples show electrical insulator behavior.
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