Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) such as rumenic acid (RA) have the potential to alter blood lipid profiles in animals and in humans. In contrast, physiological effects of conjugated α-linolenic acids (CLnAs), which concomitantly are omega-3 and conjugated fatty acids, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of CLnA to interfere in early steps of atherosclerosis by altering lipoprotein profiles and fatty streaks in the aortas. F1B hamsters were fed a control or one of the three hypercholesterolemic (HC) diets: HC-control, HC-RA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) or HC-CLnA (CLnA: equimolar mixture of 18:3 cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 and cis-9, trans-13, cis-15) diet. In low-cholesterol control-fed hamsters, the proportion of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was around 45% while in HC-fed hamsters, HDL-C was around 10% and cholesterol was mostly (80%) carried by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides (TGs) increased by approximately 60% in hamsters fed either HC-RA or HC-CLnA compared with HC-controls but not compared with the low-cholesterol control diet. HDL cholesterol decreased by 24% and 16% in hamsters fed HC-RA and HC-CLnA, respectively. Small dense LDL-cholesterol increased by approximately 60% in hamsters fed HC-RA and HC-CLnA compared with the HC-control group and by more than a 100% compared with hamsters on the control diet. The relative percentage of liver cholesteryl ester content increased by 88% in hamsters fed HC diets compared with the control diet. Significant differences in fatty streaks were observed between control and HC-diet-fed hamsters. However, no significant difference was observed among the HC-diet-fed hamsters. This study shows that animals fed any one of the HC diets developed an adverse lipoprotein profile compared with a normolipidic diet. Also, HC-RA or HC-CLnA diets altered lipoprotein profile compared with animals fed the HC-control diet but had no beneficial effects on atherosclerosis.