To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The physiological demands of weight-pulling dogs have yet to be investigated. Two groups of competitive weight-pulling dogs both underwent two identical pull series 3 h apart. The control group (n 8) was compared with a group fed a rapidly digestible carbohydrate and protein supplement after the first pull series (n 9). Blood was drawn before and after each pull series as well as at 15 and 30 min after the first pull series finished. Biochemistry values remained unremarkable throughout the study in both groups regardless of supplementation or exercise over time. Lactic acid showed mild significant increases post-exercise (2·1 (sd 1·2) mmol/l) compared with baseline (1·4 (sd 0·3) mmol/l; P = 0·03) after the initial pull series. When examining the effects of time there was a significant increase in insulin from baseline (median of 10·8 (range 6·8–17·4) μIU/ml) compared with 30 min after supplementation (17·0 (range 8·1–33·0) μIU/ml) and at 3 h after supplementation (19·2 (range 9·7–53·4) μIU/ml). In the treatment group there was also a time effect, with glucagon being elevated from baseline (median of 100 (range 79–115) pg/ml) compared with 30 min after supplementation (114 (range 90–183) pg/ml) and after the second pull series (131 (range 107–152) pg/ml). Evaluation of each dog's ability to pull the same or greater amount of weight on the second pull series revealed no significant differences. In conclusion, weight-pulling dogs have mild elevations in lactate reflecting little anaerobic metabolism compared with other canine sprinting athletes; hormonal changes associated with carbohydrate absorption are reflected within the treatment group, and supplementation had no effect on performance.
Wild peanut species are useful genetic resources for improving the levels of disease/pest resistance and for enhancing the quality of seed composition by interspecific hybridization. The variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of wild peanut species in the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection is unknown. Seeds available from 39 wild species (plus a cultivated peanut) were requested from the U.S. peanut germplasm collection. Oil content was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance, fatty acid composition was analysed using gas chromatography, and the D150N functional mutation of the FAD2A gene was screened by real-time PCR. Significant variability in oil content (41.7–61.3%) was identified among the wild peanut species. Arachis magna contained significantly more oil (61%) than cultivated peanut (56%). There was no functional mutation identified within the FAD2A gene target, and no wild species were identified with a high ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid. The results from gas chromatography and real-time PCR analyses were consistent. However, Arachis sylvestris contained a significantly higher amount (22%) of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) than the cultivated peanut (4%). Thus, A.magna and A. sylvestris may be good breeding materials to use for increasing oil content or LCFA composition of cultivated peanuts in breeding programs.
Within the cultivated peanut species (Arachis hypogaea L.), there are two subspecies comprising six botanical varieties, and the effect of botanical taxon on oil content and fatty acid composition variability is unclear. To gauge the variability, 83 peanut accessions were analyzed for oil content (expressed at 0% moisture) and fatty acid composition. We found that within the subsp. hypogaea, var. hypogaea contained a much higher amount of oil in seeds than did the var. hirsuta Köhler (520 vs. 473 g/kg, P < 0.05); within the subsp. fastigiata Waldron, the vars. aequatoriana Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and vulgaris Harz contained a similar amount of oil in seeds (491 g/kg), not significantly different from other botanical varieties, but var. fastigiata contained a higher amount of oil (500 g/kg) than the var. peruviana Krapov. & W.C. Gregory (483 g/kg). In terms of the fatty acid composition, oil from seeds of var. hypogaea contained much more oleic acid than did var. hirsuta (491 vs. 377 g/kg, P < 0.05), but much less palmitic acid (97 vs. 138 g/kg, P < 0.05%) and linoleic acid (308 vs. 402 g/kg, P < 0.05). Oil from seeds of var. vulgaris contained much more oleic acid than did var. aequatoriana (437 vs. 402 g/kg, P < 0.05), but much less linoleic acid (346 vs. 380 g/kg, P < 0.05). Significant negative correlations of oleic with palmitic and linoleic acids were detected. The information on the oil content and fatty acid composition variability among botanical varieties would be useful for peanut breeders seeking germplasm containing both high oil content and proper fatty acid composition.
trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants, is believed to greatly contribute to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. trans-Resveratrol content in air-dried peanut seeds was on average about 0.5 μg/g and a statistically significant variation (from 0.125 to 1.626 μg/g, at least a ten-fold difference) was detected among the accessions analysed. The average weight for 100 seeds was 52.84 g. A statistically significant variation in seed weight (from 22.30 to 87.94 g, at least a four-fold difference) was observed. There was no significant correlation between trans-resveratrol content and seed weight. The information about the levels of trans-resveratrol in peanut seeds will be useful for peanut cultivar development and peanut product processing. Breeders could use germplasm accessions containing a high amount of resveratrol to develop new nutritionally improved peanut cultivars and food processors could use these new cultivars to manufacture high resveratrol peanut products.
Convergent evidence implicates white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder. The cingulum is an important candidate structure for study in bipolar disorder as it provides substantial white matter connections within the corticolimbic neural system that subserves emotional regulation involved in the disorder.
To test the hypothesis that bipolar disorder is associated with abnormal white matter integrity in the cingulum.
Fractional anisotropy in the anterior and posterior cingulum was compared between 42 participants with bipolar disorder and 42 healthy participants using diffusion tensor imaging.
Fractional anisotropy was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulum in the bipolar disorder group compared with the healthy group (P=0.003); however, fractional anisotropy in the posterior cingulum did not differ significantly between groups.
Our findings demonstrate abnormalities in the structural integrity of the anterior cingulum in bipolar disorder. They extend evidence that supports involvement of the neural system comprising the anterior cingulate cortex and its corticolimbic gray matter connection sites in bipolar disorder to implicate abnormalities in the white matter connections within the system provided by the cingulum.
Flavonoid content was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and seed-coat colour was recorded from different legume seeds. Soybean seeds generally contained significantly higher amounts of daidzein (315–354 μg/g), genistein (438–458 μg/g), kaempferol (38–68 μg/g) and total measured flavonoids (892–917 μg/g), while cowpea and peanut seeds contained a significantly higher amount of quercetin (214–280 μg/g and 133–289 μg/g, respectively) than the other legumes tested. Significant variation for flavonoid content existed among and within legume species. Daidzein was significantly correlated with genistein and kaempferol (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001; r = 0.68, P < 0.0001), respectively. Genistein was also significantly correlated with kaempferol (r = 0.84, P < 0.0001). Due to differences in genetic background, no consistent relationship was observed between seed-coat colour and flavonoid content. Variation observed in flavonoid content and seed-coat colour would be useful for legume breeding programmes and consumer use.
In this paper, we describe the experimental validation of the technique of correction of wavefront aberration in the middle of the laser amplifying chain. This technique allows the correction of the aberrations from the first part of the laser system, and the pre-compensation of the aberrations built in the second part. This approach will allow an effective aberration management in the laser chain, to protect the optical surfaces and optimize performances, and is the only possible approach for multi-petawatt laser system from the technical and economical point of view. This approach is now possible after the introduction of new deformable mirrors with lower static aberrations and higher dynamic than the standard devices.
AIGaN HFETs are attractive devices for high power microwave applications. Sapphire, which is the typical substrate for AlGaN epitaxy, has a very poor thermal conductivity, and the power performance of AlGaN HFETs fabricated on sapphire substrates is severely limited due to this large thermal impedance. We report on HFETs fabricated on high thermal conductivity electrically insulating SiC substrates. Excellent RF power performance for large area devices is demonstrated. On-wafer CW measurements at 10 GHz of a 320 micron wide FET resulted in an RF power density of 2.8 Watts/mm, and measurements of a 1280 micron wide FET resulted in a total power of 2.3 Watts. On-wafer pulsed measurements, at 8 GHz, of a 1280 micron wide FET resulted in a total power of 3.9 Watts. Design of a hybrid microwave amplifier will be discussed.
The use of neuropsychological tests in non-English-speaking
populations and among those with less education has been
limited because most tests have been standardized for English-speaking
populations with relatively high levels of education. In
effort to establish norms, a battery of neuropsychological
tests was administered, in either English or Spanish, to
995 normal elders with a wide range of educational attainment,
residing in the community of Washington Heights–Inwood
in northern Manhattan. Results indicate that age, education,
and language all influence test performance and should
be considered when evaluating neuropsychological measures.
(JINS, 1998, 4, 311–318.)
This research examined individual differences in attitudes about elder abuse and other concerns in contemporary social morality. Study 1 was part of a larger investigation intended to identify examples of elder abuse through a survey of 572 seniors and practioners. Using a series of construct validation filters, a unifactorial Elder Abuse Attitude Test (EAAT) was developed that measures individual differences in evaluating examples of elder abuse. The EAAT contains 13 items and had an internal consistency exceeding 9. Study 2 included the EAAT in a survey of attitudes about wider social issues. Data on the EAAT, 31 survey items, and indexes of extremity and agreement set were analysed for 257 respondents. Zero-order and factor analysis showed relationships of the EAAT with extremity set and items stating that society should provide fiscal and other resources towards the prevention and remediation of child, spousal, and elder abuse. Attitude extremity was uncorrelated with four other attitude factors. We conclude that people more prone to attitude extremity have stronger convictions about the responsibility of society to attenuate abusive situations.
For a particle with two or three perpendicular planes of symmetry rotating at low Reynolds number in a Couette flow field, there are three orbits in which the motion is simply periodic. The three scalars Bi involved in Bretherton's shape tensor are found experimentally from periods of rotation in these orbits. Experiments on right parallelepipeds, ranging from thin platelets through cubes to rectangular section rods, are described. Each of the Bi is found to depend on the aspect ratio of one of the particle cross-sections, with only slight influence from its third dimension. Results are expressed in terms of a relationship between this aspect ratio and that of an equivalent ellipse, incorporating a weak function of the third particle dimension. The equations of motion governing a general doubly periodic motion, and incorporating experimental Bi values, are integrated numerically and compared satisfactorily with experimental observations.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.