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The climate of north-western Spain, with high temperatures and relative humidity during the grapevine vegetative cycle, can especially favour the development of fungal diseases in vineyards. One of the most important diseases is downy mildew, caused by the fungus Plasmopara viticola. The aim of the current study is to propose a system containing phenological data, biological sensors of pathogen indicator and the agrometeorological Goidanich Index in order to optimize the application of downy mildew fungicide treatments. The study was conducted in a vineyard of the ‘Ribeiro’ Designation of Origin region from 2005 to 2016 during the Vitis vegetative period. Aerobiological sampling was performed using a LANZONI VPPS-2000 volumetric trap. The highest number of infection cycles was recorded during the 2009 harvest, with a total of 16 cycles. Years with fewer infection cycles were 2008, 2011 and 2012 (13 cycles). Primary infections were produced during the third fortnight of April and a high amount of secondary infection cycles were detected by the Goidanich algorithm during the fruit development and berry ripening stages. The best estimators of the P. viticola spore concentrations were the fungus spore levels during the previous day, the average temperature 5 days before and rainfall 2 days before. The regression equation obtained accounted for the 95.9% of the spore concentration variation. The combination of the Goidanich index and biological sensors provides a valuable tool to establish an accurate, modern, integrated downy mildew pest-management strategy.
Radiocarbon (14C) is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of underground geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, and the understanding of the 14C behavior in stainless steel may lead to a re-evaluation of the near-surface repository for the disposal of wastes containing this radionuclide in high concentrations. To achieve this objective, leaching experiments were planned for two different scenarios. The first is where the leaching solution, NaOH solution of pH ca. 12 in aerobic conditions, simulates the expected conditions in a cement-based near-surface repository over long time periods. The other one uses an acid solution of 1M H3PO4, which has been proved as a high efficiency chemical removal agent of 14C in graphite. The development of both analytical methods and protocols to measure the release of 14C from the activated steel samples and the speciation in the aqueous and gaseous phase has been undertaken as part of the EC CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) project. Analytical methods, suitable for identifying and quantifying low molecular weight organic molecules, comprise ion chromatography (IC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); they are described for aqueous and gaseous samples, respectively. In this paper the preparation of leaching experiments to measure the release of 14C and the results obtained are described.
Carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers are materials of high industrial interest. When presented as a felt, its use becomes easier and more practical. This work aims to study the conditions for obtaining and characterizing an activated carbon felt, using sheep wool as a precursor. The wool felt was oxidized, carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere and activated in water vapor. The working temperatures were selected through thermogravimetric analysis. The products and intermediates were characterized through thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The products were assessed as potential sorbents for methane-carbon dioxide separation by adsorption kinetics measurements at different pressures. Results revealed a high influence of the carbonization temperature on the physicochemical and textural properties of the products. The adsorption kinetics and capacities of the gases showed that selectivities in separation were related to both felt carbonization temperature and gas pressure. This work revealed that activated carbon wool felts are a good alternative to synthetic fibers felt and they can be used for methane/carbon dioxide separation.
O-antigens present on the surface of Escherichia coli provide antigenic specificity for the strain and are the main components for O-serogroup designation. Serotyping using O-group-specific antisera for the identification of E. coli O-serogroups has been traditionally the gold-standard for distinguishing E. coli strains. Knowledge of the O-group is important for determining pathogenic lineage, classifying E. coli for epidemiological studies, for determining virulence, and for tracing outbreaks of diseases and sources of infection. However, serotyping has limitations, as the antisera generated against each specific O-group may cross-react, many strains are non-typeable, and others can autoagglutinate or be rough (lacking an O-antigen). Currently, the nucleotide sequences are available for most of the 187 designated E. coli O-groups. Public health and other laboratories are considering whole genome sequencing to develop genotypic methods to determine O-groups. These procedures require instrumentation and analysis that may not be accessible and may be cost-prohibitive at this time. In this review, we have identified unique gene sequences within the O-antigen gene clusters and have targeted these genes for identification of O-groups using the polymerase chain reaction. This information can be used to distinguish O-groups by developing other platforms for E. coli diagnostics in the future.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychosis share deficits in social cognition. The insular region has been associated with awareness of self and reality, which may be basic for proper social interactions.
Total and regional insular volume and thickness measurements were obtained from a sample of 30 children and adolescents with ASD, 29 with early onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 26 healthy controls (HC). Total, regional, and voxel-level volume and thickness measurements were compared between groups (with correction for multiple comparisons), and the relationship between these measurements and symptom severity was explored.
Compared with HC, a shared volume deficit was observed for the right (but not the left) anterior insula (ASD: p = 0.007, FEP: p = 0.032), and for the bilateral posterior insula: (left, ASD: p = 0.011, FEP: p = 0.033; right, ASD: p = 0.004, FEP: p = 0.028). A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) conjunction analysis showed that ASD and FEP patients shared a gray matter volume and thickness deficit in the left posterior insula. Within patients, right anterior (r = −0.28, p = 0.041) and left posterior (r = −0.29, p = 0.030) insular volumes negatively correlated with the severity of insight deficits, and left posterior insular volume negatively correlated with the severity of ‘autistic-like’ symptoms (r = −0.30, p = 0.028).
The shared reduced volume and thickness in the anterior and posterior regions of the insula in ASD and FEP provides the first tentative evidence that these conditions share structural pathology that may be linked to shared symptomatology.
Government regulations have created new markets for non-timber forest products such as tropical forest seeds for ecological restoration and agroforestry in Brazil. This paper examines whether and how participation in the seed market has affected assets that will shape households’ ability to pursue new livelihood opportunities. These impacts may vary across different dimensions of capital and among sociocultural groups. Impacts were characterized through semi-structured interviews following the sustainable livelihoods approach; 40 producers in the Xingu Seed Network, from settler farmer, urban and indigenous groups, were interviewed. The groups differed in perceptions of impacts on their natural, social and human capital, which could be related to the sociocultural background and vulnerability context of each group. Communities that were already organized were most likely to strengthen their social capital through participation. Cash income earned from sale of seeds was correlated with household-reported gains in financial capital, but not correlated with changes in other dimensions of capital. Contrary to expectations, sociocultural groups less integrated with the market achieved better livelihood outcomes through participation in the seed market.
The objective of the Apollon project is the generation of 10 PW peak power pulses of 15 fs at 1 shot/minute. In this paper the Apollon facility design, the technological challenges and the current progress of the project will be presented.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food-borne pathogens that are an important public health concern. STEC infection is associated with severe clinical diseases in human beings, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which can lead to kidney failure and death. Cattle are the most important STEC reservoir. However, a number of STEC outbreaks and HUS cases have been attributed to pork products. In swine, STEC strains are known to be associated with edema disease. Nevertheless, the relationship between STEC of swine origin and human illness has yet to be determined. This review critically summarizes epidemiologic and biological studies of swine STEC. Several epidemiologic studies conducted in multiple regions of the world have demonstrated that domestic swine can carry and shed STEC. Moreover, animal studies have demonstrated that swine are susceptible to STEC O157:H7 infection and can shed the bacterium for 2 months. A limited number of molecular epidemiologic studies, however, have provided conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between swine STEC and human illness. The role that swine play in STEC transmission to people and the contribution to human disease frequency requires further evaluation.
The purpose of this study was to achieve a descellularized scaffold from cartilage tissue, which can be used as xenograft for cartilage tissue regeneration.
This work presents the results obtained using one method to wash porcine trachea in order to remove cellular material from the extracellular matrix and to avoid the immune reaction using enzymatic detergent and partial enzymatic degradation with Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase-I), Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) and Trypsin. This treatment was qualitatively evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and H&E Stain (Histology), and quantitatively evaluated by DNA quantification. The thermal characterization of the descellularized scaffold was carried out using Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The type of collagen obtained from the scaffold was determined through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. When using Enzymatic Treatment (ET) to wash trachea tissue, it is possible to obtain an acellular xenograft; this procedure has the potential to avoid rejection reactions of the xenograft.
The scaffold is obtained from acellular bovine bone: Nukbone® (produced by Biocriss SAPI de CV). This acellular bone was subjected to a demineralization process after which the composition was found to be 10% water, 65% of collagen and 25% of hydroxyapatite. The techniques used to characterize these natural scaffolds were: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and determination of pore size using nitrogen adsorption, and physical adsorption of N2. The pore size is between 100 and 500 microns. These scaffolds have been tested in several biological tissues as urethra, trachea, blood vessels, bone and heart successfully.
Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitutes the O antigens which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune systems and play a major role in host–pathogen interactions. O antigens are responsible for antigenic specificity of the strain and determine the O serogroup. The designation of O serogroups is important for classifying E. coli strains, for epidemiological studies, in tracing the source of outbreaks of gastrointestinal or other illness, and for linking the source to the infection. For conventional serogroup identification, serotyping by agglutination reactions against antisera developed for each of the O serogroups has been used. In the last decade, many O-antigen gene clusters that encode for the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the variable oligosaccharide region on the surface of the bacteria have been sequenced and characterized. Unique gene sequences within the O-antigen gene clusters have been targeted for identification and detection of many O groups using the polymerase chain reaction and microarrays. This review summarizes current knowledge on the DNA sequences of the O-antigen gene clusters, genetic-based methods for O-group determination and detection of pathogenic E. coli based on O-antigen and virulence gene detection, and provides perspectives on future developments in the field.
Ion-exchange reactions, particularly with molten salts, are a convenient low temperature route to prepare new materials. Six different complex oxides (KTaO3, K2Ti4O4, NaAlSiO4, Na2Si2O5,ß-NaAlO2 and K2Ge4O9) were reacted with different salts (NaCI, KC1, Na2SO4, NaNO3, LiCl and LiNO3) by the ion exchange route with molten salts. In this work, new phases and substitution reactions are reported.
Cementum contains specific molecules that could serve to identify, isolate and characterize the cementoblast lineage and to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the cementogenesis process, since it plays a key role during the periodontal regeneration process. One of these molecules is the human cementum protein 1 (CEMP1); which has a molecular weight of 25,9 kDa. In vitro experiments have shown that CEMP1 promotes cellular adhesion and differentiation. In addition, this protein has been implied in regulating the degree of deposition, composition and morphology of hydroxyapatite crystals formed by putative cementoblast in vitro. Therefore, it is possible that CEMP1 promotes the formation, growth and regulates the morphology of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro. We have produced a human recombinant CEMP1 (hrCEMP1) in a prokaryotic system. The hrCEMP1 purification was realized using the column NiTA HisPrep FF/16. Assays of calcium phosphate crystal growth were realized by means of capillary counterdiffusion system. Our results demonstrated that hrCEMP1 promotes octacalcium phosphate crystal nucleation and possesses high affinity for hydroxyapatite. We infer that hrCEMP1 plays a key role during the regeneration of mineralized tissues.
Our mid-infrared and near-infrared surveys over the last five years have helped to strengthen and clarify the relationships between water, methanol, and OH masers and the star formation process. Our surveys show that maser emission seems to be more closely associated with mid-infrared emission than cm radio continuum emission from UC HII regions. We find that masers of all molecular species surveyed trace a wide variety of phenomena and show a proclivity for linear distributions. The vast majority of these linear distributions can be explained by outflows or shocks, and in general do not appear to trace circumstellar disks as was previously thought. Some water and methanol masers that are not associated with radio continuum emission appear to trace infrared-bright hot cores, the earliest observable stage of massive stellar life before the onset of a UC HII region.
In this paper, the distributional properties and power rates of the Lz, Eci2z, and Eci4z statistics when they are used as item fit statistics were explored. The results were compared to t-transformation of Outfit and Infit mean square. Four sample sizes were selected: 100, 250, 500, and 1000 examinees. The abilities were uniform and normal with mean 0 and standard deviation 1, and uniform and normal with mean –1 and standard deviation 1. The pseudo-guessing parameter was fixed at .25. Two ranges of difficulty parameters were selected: ±1 logits and ±2 logits. Two test lengths were selected: 15 and 30 items. The results showed important differences between the T-infit, T-outfit, Lz, Eci2z, and Eci4z statistics. The T-oufit, T-infit, and Lz statistics showed poor standardization with estimated parameters because their distributional properties were not close to the expected values. However, the Eci2z and Eci4z statistics showed satisfactory standardization on all conditions. Further, the power rates of Eci2z and Eci4z were 5% to 10% higher than the power rates of Lz, T-outfit, and T-infit to detect items that do not fit Rasch model.
The discriminant validity of children's and parents' ratings of the child's fear on the Revised
Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-R; Ollendick, 1983) was examined using a clinic
sample of children who met DSM criteria for phobic disorders (N=120). Discriminant
function analyses and item analyses were conducted to determine if children meeting
diagnostic criteria for a primary disorder of social phobia, simple phobia of the dark/sleeping
alone, simple phobia of animals, or a simple phobia of shots/doctors could be differentiated
on the basis of FSSC-R subscale scores and items. Results of the discriminant function
analyses indicated that the child-completed as well as the parent-completed FSSC-Rs were
similarly useful in differentiating the specific types of phobias. Results of the item analyses
indicated that child-completed FSSC-R items could discriminate among the different simple
phobias but not social phobia and that parent-completed FSSC-R items could discriminate
not only the different simple phobias but also social phobia. Results are discussed in terms
of the utility of the FSSC-R in the assessment of clinically significant fears in children with
phobic disorders and the relative utility of child and parent ratings in the assessment of
A program is under way to develop methods and instrumentation based on charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors for hot plasma diagnostics. We have developed a new X-ray spectrometer in which a freestanding X-ray transmission grating is coupled to a CCD linear array detector with electronic digitized readout replacing film and its wet processing. This instrument measures time-integrated pulsed X-ray spectra with moderate spectral resolution (δλ ≤ 0.6 nm) over a broad spectral range (0.3–2 keV) with high sensitivity, linearity, and large dynamic range. The performance of the device was tested using laser plasma as the X-ray source.
The paper presents results of an investigation of energy transport in 6-μm aluminum foils covered with a silver or gold layer irradiated with 1·06-μm, 1-ns laser-pulse at intensities 1013to 1014 W/cm2. The increase in mass ablation rate and volume heating of accelerated fragment of the foil as well as the increased range of lateral energy transport were registered. The measured plasma parameters from aluminum foils were used for testing the one-dimesional numerical code.
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