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Mating and receiving ejaculate can alter female insect physiology and postcopulatory behaviour. During mating, females receive both internal and external stimuli and different components in the ejaculate. In insects, these components consist mostly of sperm and male accessory gland secretions. Some of the most important changes associated with receiving male accessory gland secretions are a reduction in female sexual receptivity and an increase in oviposition. However, a clear function for these molecules has not been found in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Here, we tested how the stimulus of mating, receiving a full ejaculate, or only receiving accessory gland secretions can influence ovarian development and oviposition. Our results indicate that the stimulus of mating per se is enough to induce oviposition and increase egg laying in females even if ejaculate is not received, whereas receiving only accessory gland secretions does not increase ovarian development and is not enough to induce oviposition or increase egg production. Further research on the internal and external copulatory courtship of A. ludens will increase our understanding of the role of these secretions in stimulating oviposition independent of ejaculate effects. A biological function for male accessory gland secretions on female behaviour for A. ludens still needs to be found.
HCWs not fulfilling COVID-19 case definition underwent SARS-CoV-2 screening. Risk of exposure, PPE adherence and symptoms were assessed. Two thousand HCWs were screened: 5.5% were PCR+. There were no differences in PPE use between PCR+ and PCR- HCWs (adherence >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with PCR+.
Although dried orange pulp (DOP) may conveniently replace cereals in ruminant diets, few studies have considered similar diet substitution for goats. We hypothesised that DOP could replace cereal-based concentrate in goat diets without detrimental effects on growth performance and carcass quality of suckling kids and milk performance and blood biochemical parameters of dams in early lactation. We also hypothesised that DOP substitution may increase the levels of antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds and vitamin E, in milk and improve its total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Therefore, 44 primiparous Payoya dairy goats were allocated to three experimental groups, each fed a different diet: control (CD, n = 14) based on a commercial concentrate with alfalfa hay as forage; and DOP40 (n = 16) in which 40% and DOP80 (n = 14) in which 80% of the cereal in the concentrate were replaced by DOP. The experiment lasted from the final month of pregnancy to 55 days postpartum. The DOP diets did not affect suckling kids’ carcass quality, but at 28 days, led to improvement in live weight (LW) and average daily gain (ADG) from birth, although no differences were found between DOP40 and DOP80 (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, LW at 28 days was 8.00, 8.58 and 8.34 kg and ADG was 184, 199 and 195 g/day, respectively). Diet had no significant effect on milk yield (average daily milk yield and total yield at 55 days were 1.66 l/day and 90.6 l, respectively) and commercial and fatty acid composition. Nevertheless, α-tocopherol, total phenolic compound (TPC) and TAC concentration in milk increased with substitution of cereals by DOP (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, concentration of α-tocopherol was 21.7, 32.8 and 42.3 μg/100 g, TPCs was 63.5, 84.1 and 102 mg gallic acid equivalents/l, and TAC was 6.63, 11.1 and 12.8 μmol Trolox equivalents/ml, respectively). Every plasma biochemistry parameter considered was within reference values for healthy goats; therefore, no pathological effect was detected for these variables due to dietary treatment. However, DOP diets caused a reduction in plasmatic creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, implying reduced oxidative damage to muscles. In conclusion, DOP may be an interesting alternative to cereals in early lactation goat diets for increasing farmers’ income and the healthy antioxidant capacity of milk.
In spite that the patients with long-acting neuropletics(LAN)can drop out and have relapses,its use allows a more long-lasting time and more stable plasmatic concentrations that supply clinical and neurocognitive advantages.
To analyze the symptomatology and neurocognitive differences(P300)among the patients that relapse after withdrawing from the previous treatment with oral antipsychotic as regards those treated with LAN.
Material and methods
34 schizophrenic patients with a history of at least one admission in a acute adult psychiatric ward.All the patients have been assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and with potential auditory evocations(wave P300).
Clinical profile: 73.5% suffers from paranoid schizophrenia.Only 32.4% shows antipsychotic monotherapy;the 61.8% have been prescribed with long-acting Risperidone.
PANSS: The patients who had at least two admissions and who in the previous admission received long-acting Risperidone,showed a PANSS-N punctuation lower than the rest of the patients(21.64±4.6 vs. 25.4±3.2)at the end of the last admission(p=0.037).The same takes place with PANSS-PG at the end of the last admission(30.71 ± 3.8 vs. 3.61 ± 5.89(p=0.012).
P300: The latency measures of P300 are lower in those patients who in the previous admission received a long-acting Risperidone treatment(average of 314±34.65msec vs. 344.67±24.67msec),being the differences statistically relevant(p=0.012).The ranges are higher in the patients treated with long-acting Risperidone in the previous admission(average 5.3 ± 2.44vs.5±2.64 μV),though the differences are not statistically relevant.
At the end of the last admission,the patients who in the previous admission received long-acting Risperidone,showed a PANSS-N,a PANSS-PG and a latency of P300 lower than the rest of the patients but the range of P300 was higher.
In our work we propose to use the adult developmental eye movement test (A-DEM) of Gene Sampedro et al, for the study of saccadic movements in schizophrenia.
To study the importance of saccades and attention in a sample of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia in a Unit of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.
Sample formed by 30 people.15 patients and 15 controls. 15 patients were corresponding to all the schizophrenic patients admitted in January, 2009 in a Unit of Psycosocial Rehabilitation of Conxo's Psychiatric Hospital. The 15 of the group control were selected of random form between sanitary personnel without psychiatric pathology, homogenizing the variables chronological age and sex with regard to the group of investigation.
The A-DEM vertical half to 44.37 seconds in the control group versus 59.54 seconds in the sample of patients. Regarding the results of the horizontal A-DEM obtained an average score of 47.07 seconds compared to control group obtained 60.68 seconds in the group of patients. The schizophrenic patients are characterized for having an attention diminished in 87 %, opposite to 47 % of the group control that they have a normal attention and 40 % increased. These differences of saccadic movements and of the attention are statistically significant.
Schizophrenic patients have few saccades both horizontally and vertically slower than normal people.
Schizophrenic patients show a marked deficit of attention to the normal population.
Despite lithium has been used for the last 50 years as a maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, there is limited information about perinatal clinical outcomes from fetal exposure to lithium.
1. To quantify the rate of lithium placental passage
2. To assess any association between plasma concentration of lithium at delivery and perinatal outcome.
Observational and prospective study. Subjects: Women in maintenance treatment with lithium, being attended during pregnancy at the Perinatal Psychiatry Programme of Hospital Clínic (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009. Procedure: We assessed sociodemographical data; dose/day of lithium carbonate; other drugs doses; plasmatic concentration of lithium carbonate in maternal blood intrapartum and in the umbilical cord; obstetrical maternal complications; gestational age at delivery; weight at delivery; Apgar scores; congenital malformations; hospital stays, infant serum concetrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Eight mother-child diads. Mean age of the mother (SD): 32.1 (4,7); 100% caucasian and married. Mean dose of maternal lithium (SD): 675mg (237,5mg). Premature rupture of membranes (%):25. Gestational mean age (in weeks) (SD): 39,9 (1). Birth weight (SD) : 3625gr (451,2gr); Mean Apgar1min (SD): 8,38 (1,1); Mean Apgar5min (SD): 9,75 (0,4). Loss of fetal intrapartum wellness (%): 12,5. Days of hospitalization (mean) (SD):9,5(16,6). Lithium plasmatic concentration (mEq/L), mean (SD): maternal 0,45(0,1), umbilical cord 0,33(0,1), lithium ratio uc/m 0,93 (0,3); infant TSH μU/mL mean (SD): 4,9(4,6).
Lithium placental passsage was 0,93 (0,63-1,07). ≤At umbilical cord lithium levels ≤ 0.60 mEq/L, we didn't have any preterm deliveries, low birth weight newborns, nor neonatal complications.
One of the most important prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is the number of hospitalizations they need during their life. In this work we describe risk factors which determinate psychotic relapse.
Retrospective review of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia who needed hospitalization during the year 2008 using Hospital Ramon Cajal's history software. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software 15.0 version.
- Socio-demographic: We collected a total of 57 patients, 60% were men and 77,2% were single who lived with their families. 52,8% only had Primary education and 14% had been to University. 38,6% were pensioner and 12,3% workers.
- Risk factors: 54,4% had abandoned their medication, 7% had had recent modifications in their medication, and 35,1% received long acting antipsychotic. 42,1% were identified as substance users.
- 40,4% had been diagnosed with schizophrenia more than three years ago; 57,9% had had less than 3 previous hospitalizations, and 54,4% need hospitalization the previous year.
Male under 30 years old have more risk of needing more hospitalizations. The main risk factor for suffering new psychotic episodes is the medication nonadherence, modifying medication only causes new episodes in few patients. Patients receiving long-acting antipsychotic agents suffer less psychotic relapse. Substance abuse among schizophrenia patients is a major complicating factor since almost half of the hospitalizations are related to it.
There is a high frequency of attendance at emergency medical service for suicide attempts.
Determine the type of urgency for suicide attempt in our country.
Material and methods
The present study treats of suicide attempts (n = 248) attended by the Psychiatric Emergency Service of Hospital in our city between 2004–2008. The diagnoses were made by clinical interview following ICD-10 criteria.
248 suicide attempts (60% women), with age between 15 and 88 years.There are equal proportions of singles and married (a 38%). 53% live with couple with/without children, 30%live with parents and a 10%live alone. >55% of patients have a middle education and socioeconomic level. The average time from suicide attempt until the assessment in the emergency department is 2.71 ± 3.64 hours. The day of the week with more assistance for this reason is Monday. Also it's observed an increase in the months between May and October. The cases are uniformly distributed throughout the month, although there is a decrease in the number of cases in the initial and final days of the month. 60% of patients haven’t history of previous attempts and use an only method that is drug overdose. Personality disorders are the most frequent diagnose and 44% patients need an internment in a psychiatric ward.
Profile of the patient who makes a suicide attempt and that is evaluated in the Psychiatric Emergency Service of our Hospital: woman 36 years old, married/with couple and lives with him/her. She comes to emergency department in the first 4 hours after the drug overdose. She hasn’t history of previous attempts.She is diagnosed of emotionally unstable personality disorder.
At present,the need of antipsychotic treatments for the improvement of the condition of people with psychotic disorders is unquestionable.Despite the current availability of highly effective drugs with few secondary effects,the main cause behind hospitalization is still the lack of compliance.
Analysis of the determining variables behind the need for hospitalization and the influence of the types of antipsychotic treatments.
Retrospective and follow-up analysis of psychotic patients hospitalized in the Psychiatric Ward of the Hospital de Conxo (1998-2005).Three groups of patients:with Oral neuroleptics(170), with Depot typical neuroleptics (238),with Long-Acting Risperidone(60);and comparison based on treatment maintenance.
Males,day-to-day living with the family of origin and single status are predominant in all three groups,although in a higher proportion in the Long-Acting Risperidone one(75,71 and 85%respectively).Only 7% of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone completed their university studies,62% were pensioners.The average duration of hospitalization periods is 21 days for the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,23.3 days in the Oral group,29.5 days in the Depot group.The main cause behind re-hospitalization is the lack of compliance(68% in Depot group),whilst after the introduction of Long-Acting Risperidone,no compliance rate is 59%.If we compare the number of hospitalizations/year of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,before and after its introduction,the rate is reduced significantly from 0.89 to 0.73.
Despite the fact that patients treated with Long-Acting Risperidone show a more seriously ill condition and less social capacity,they have less need for hospitalization than patients treated with Depot neuroleptics.Median lengths of stay were shorter than patients in the other two groups,and are less re-hospitalized after the introduction of this treatment.
Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in general population is 2–3%. This high prevalence is not often reflected in number of assitances to Emergency Department. There are few studies that analyze the characteristics of OCD patients assisting to psychiatric emergency services.
To establish the profile of these patients, determining aswell their type of emergency assistance, time distribution and why they relapse. We used the SPSS 17 package.
A retrospective and descriptive study of attendances at the Psychiatry Emergency Department of Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela in a sample of patients fitting the ICD-10 criteria for OCD diagnosis (n = 45). Time period: from 9TH July 2007 to 26TH September 2010.
From 5091 attendances at the Psychiatry Emergency Department, 45 patients had an OCD diagnosis (57.8% women), with a mean age of 33.31 ± 11.58 years. 68.9% came from rural areas. 44.4% had comorbid psychiatric disorders.68.9% came by own initiative. In 28.9% the consultation was anxiety, 15.6% obsessive symptoms and 11% affective symptoms. 13.3% were admitted to a psychiatric ward.There was lower attendance between 0:00–08:00 AM and on Fridays. The months with more attendance were August and September.12% had more than one assitance, 85.7% were women with anxiety symptoms (38%) and with personality disorder as the most frequent comorbid diagnosis.
Patient's profile: “33 years old female from countryside, presenting anxiety symptoms, who comes only once and by own initiative. Doesn’t have comorbid psychiatric disorders. After the psychiatric evaluation she is discharged to outpatient's psychiatric follow-up”.
Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations.
We analysed demographic and clinical features of cases published in English, Italian, French or Spanish between 1991 and 2006 registered in MEDLINE, including three of our own cases. The cases were separated into four groups according to their main diagnoses (hearing impairment; psychiatric disorder; neurological disorder; toxic or metabolic disorder).
115 patients with musical hallucinations were included, of which 63.5% were female. The mean age was 57,25 years. Main diagnoses were: psychiatric disorder (46.1%; schizophrenia 30.4%), neurological disorder (21,7%), hearing impairment (17,4%), toxic or metabolic disorder (12.2%) and 2.6% other diagnoses.
61.7% patients presented simple diagnoses while 36.5% presented two or more diagnoses. 2.1% of patients didn't receive any diagnoses. 35.7% of patients and 60.9% of non psychiatric patients presented hearing impairment.
Both instrumental and vocal were the more frequent musical hallucinations and most of the patients had insight about the abnormality of their perceptions. Another kind of hallucinations was present in 40.9% of patients, auditory hallucinations being the most common. Also, 38,3% of the global sample had abnormalities in brain structural image (MRI, CT).
Musical hallucinations are a heterogeneous phenomenon in clinical practice. published cases describe them as more common in women and in psychiatric and neurological patients. Hearing impairment seem to be an important risk factor in the development of musical hallucinations.
Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are low molecular weight highly protonated aliphatic molecules that physiologically modulate NMDA, AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors and limbic dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previous studies had demonstrated that polyamine metabolism might be disrupted in schizophrenia, what could potentially be linked to glutamatergic dysfunction. In particular, polyamine levels in blood and fibroblast cultures from patients with schizophrenia had previously been found to be higher than in healthy controls. Indeed, a significant positive correlation between blood polyamine levels and severity of illness may exist.
In order to test potential differences in blood polyamine levels between drug-free schizophrenia in-patients (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 26, blood donors), spermidine (spd), spermine (spm), and spermidine/spermine index (spd/spm) were determined using HPLC after dansylation.
No significant differences were found between groups (t = 0,974; df = 36; P = 0,337 for spd, t = l0, 52; df = 36; P = 0,959 for Spm, and, t = 0, 662; df = 36; P = 0,512 for spd/spm).
Though we couldn’t replicate previous findings suggesting disturbances in blood polyamine levels in schizophrenia, this issue may be a promising target. Future research should take into account possible factors such as sex, nutritional state, and stress.
A growing interest in the potential role of polyamines in stress, mood disorders and suicidal behavior has recently emerged. In particular, the expression of polyamine's rate-limiting catabolic enzyme (SAT-1, Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase-1) may be reduced in ventral prefrontal cortex and posterior cyngulate gyrus of patients who committed suicide. However, there is some controversy regarding the involvement of potential cis-acting loci controlling SAT-1 gene expression (rs6526342 or rs17286006) in suicidal behavior. Moreover, a significant association between SAT-1 rs1960264 SNP and anxiety disorders has been found in a male caucasian spanish sample.
In order to test the potential association of SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP (rs1960264) with suicidal behavior, genotype frequencies for that SNP were compared between 193 suicidal attempters (126 female and 67 male) and 650 non-suicidal patients (314 female and 336 male) from an in-patient sample.
We could not find a significant difference in the distribution of the genotypes for rs1960264 SNP between suicide attempters versus non-suicidal individuals (Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 0,203; df = 1; P = 0,652, females; Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 0,000; df = 1; P = 0,990, males). Neither could we demonstrate a relationship between rs1960264 genotype and past history of suicidal attempts (Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 2,966 ; df = 1; P = 0,085, females; Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 1,171; df = 1; P = 0,279, males).
Although we did not find a link between rs1960264 genotype and suicidal behavior, SAT-1 may be an interesting target to investigate the biology of this phenotype. Future studies should take into account other genetic polymorphisms at SAT-1, and definitively evaluate whether or not rs6526342 and rs1960264 have any functional implications.
To carry out cultural adaptation and validation into Spanish of the 7-items self-administered GAD-7 scale; a tool to identify probable patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD).
Material and methods:
The adaptation, conducted by an eight-expert panel, was performed by means of a conceptual equivalence process, including forward and backward translations in duplicate to the original language. The content validity was assessed by inter-ratter-agreement (item-goal congruence index of Rovinelli-Hambleton). The adapted version was administered to patients with GAD according to DSM IV criteria and their respective controls, matched by age and sex, who were recruited at random in Mental Health and Primary Care centres to verify scale feasibility and potential understanding problems.
The inter-ratter reliability confirmed the correct inclusion of items in the corresponding dimension of GAD. The study sample consisted of 8 patients with GAD and 8 controls (62.5% male), mean age 50.38 years (SD=16.76). The average time to completion was 2’30”. No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to fill in the questionnaire. All the items, except item 5 (p=0,105), showed statistically significant differences among groups (p< 0.05).
After the adaptation process, a Spanish version of the GAD-7 scale was obtained, confirming its content validity, pertinence and adequacy of items in the Spanish cultural context. The brief time to completion precluded a fast and easy self-administration in the routine medical practice to promptly detect probable cases of GAD.
Adoption, twin and family studies suggest that suicide behavior is familial and heritable. Both completed and attempted suicide appear to be transmitted in a familial form. Genetics and environment influences had been detected in various studies. But suicidal behavior suggests to be inherited independently from the mental disorders usually associated with it. While traditional statistics emphasizes inference and estimations, data mining emphasizes the fulfillment of a task such as classification, estimation, or knowledge discovery.
The goal of this study was to determine in a large sample of suicide attempts which variables are associated with family history of attempted suicide.
In an emergency room, 539 adult suicide attempters were recruited. The two dichotomous dependent variables were family history of suicide attempt (10%) and of completed suicide (4%). Independent variables were 101 clinical variables explored with two data mining techniques: Random Forest and Forward Selection.
A model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed. A classificatory model for family history of attempted suicide included the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide, provide a sensitivity of 78.4%, a specificity of 98.7% and accuracy of 96.6%.
A classificatory model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed using data mining techniques. But it suggested that the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide may be associated with familial attempted suicide.
The concurrence of psychoactive substance use and schizophrenia is important in its effect on therapeutic responses and patient prognosis. The prevalence of these disorders depends on the methodology used:retrospective studies and those in which drug consumption information was not collected in a structured way present a prevalence of disorders due to substance use between 3-22%.When this information is gathered systematically, the prevalence goes up to 30-50%. Between the variables that predict a high risk of disorders due to substance use we found: young adult male, first hospital admittance at a young age, greater frequency of hospital re-admittance, better previous social adaptation to the disease and higher frequency of violent and impulsive behaviour.We try to determine the association of sociodemographic variables and the prevalence of disorders due to substance use.
331 schizophrenic patients admitted to the Psychiatric Ward of Conxo Hospital.Among these subjects, determination was made of the existence of comorbid disorders due to substance use.A descriptive analysis was carried out based on categorical variables using SPSS.
23 patients presented comorbidity(7%).The overall sample of schizophrenic subjects consisted of 93% males, however, the subjects with comorbidity were 100% male.With respect to marital status, there were a greater proportion of single patients with comorbidity(95%).There was a higher proportion of institutionalized patients in the group with comorbidity and a lower level of education. The comorbid group included more subjects who were unemployed.
schizophrenic patients with comorbidity are single men with poor social capacity.It´s important that we collet the drug consumption information by structured way.
Antipsychotic treatment is known to be associated with secondary sexual dysfunction (SD). Recognition and treatment of this adverse effect has received growing attention. Until now, all antipsychotic agents were thought to potentially cause SD mediated by increased prolactin. Our aim was to observe whether aripiprazole modifies SD in patients with schizophrenia after 3 months of treatment.
Material and Methods:
Multicenter, observational, open-label, prospective, three-month study with single group of aripiprazole treated patients. Sexual activity was assessed using CGI-S and CGI-I for SD; SALSEX scale, validated for Spanish, 3 times after initiating study drug. Patient's clinical status was evaluated by CGI-S and CGI-I for psychotic disorders, and by BPRS Scale.
Result: 42 patients (70% men), 38 completed the study. Incidence of SD at 3 months was null for all patients studied. As period of treatment advanced, the Salsex score decreased, showing a mean overall reduction of –5 points (SD 3.6). Largest reduction was observed in subgroup of patients with SD in baseline visit, who exhibited a mean reduction of –6 points (SD 3.1).
Men with SD in baseline evaluation showed more marked improvement than women at 40 days of treatment (p=0.0447). However, recovery was similar for both groups at 90 days of treatment.
In schizophrenia, SD secondary studies to antipsychotics are important in establishing effectiveness of these agents in chronic treatment. After 3 months of aripiprazole treatment, no SD was observed in patients. Patients who presented SD at study initiation improved over course of 3 months treatment with aripiprazole.
Auditory and musical hallucinations have been reported in patients as an adverse effect of the use of opioids. Hearing loss, old age, and female gender are considered risk factors in the development of musical hallucinations. The aim of this report is to describe a case of a patient with auditory and musical hallucinations and to discuss the role of an opioid –tramadol- in the origin of those.
An 80 years old woman experiencing auditory hallucinations was referred to our hospital from an emergency room. The patient had bilateral mild hearing loss and was receiving tramadol 112.5 mg/daily during the last year for cervical pain. In the last ten months, she had been gradually noticing the voice of her dead husband coming from under her pillow, as well as intermittently hearing popular songs being played inside her head. The patient had good insight on both types of abnormal perceptions, which were reported as increasingly unpleasant through time.
Tramadol was discontinued and pimocide (range 1-4 mg/day) and loracepam (2.5 mg/day) were introduced, achieving the improvement of the hallucinations and the anxiety associated with them.
The outcome of this case supports the hypotheses that Opioids could induce musical hallucinations. Hearing impairment, old age, and gender could be underlying risk factors on the development of musical hallucinations.
Ketamine is an anesthetic, blocker or antagonist of NMDA receptors, commonly used in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is also a 'club drug”, an hallucinogen and a dissociative drug used for recreation. The continued consumption leads to tolerance and dependence, in addition to cognitive and psychiatric disorders. The abuse and dependence on ketamine requires a multidisciplinary approach, combining medical, psychological aspects and social support. Its pharmacotherapy is not yet established.
Analyze the utility of paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of ketamine dependence through a clinical report.
Aims and methods
We report the case of a 38-year-old man diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Multi-drug consumer with serious ketamine addiction up to 5-6 g/day and a ketamine-induced cystopathy at risk of losing his bladder. History of various admissions to the psychiatric unit and hospital detoxification unit without success. Last year starts treatment with paliperidone palmitate in increasing doses from 75 to 150 mg combined with bupropion in high doses with clinical improvement and ketamine withdrawl.
From the start of treatment the patient is abstinent of ketamine. Impulsivity and dysphoria have improved and suicide ideation has gone. Subjective assessment of treatment is very good.
Treatment for ketamine addiction is a multidisciplinary issue. Pharmacotherapy is not well defined but Paliperidone palmitate may be useful in drug dose-reduction and maintaining abstinence.