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In May 2016 a Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreak involved a high school class visiting a seaside resort near Taormina (Mascali, Sicily). Twenty-four students and a teacher were affected and 17 of them showed symptoms on the second day of the journey, while the others got ill within the following 2 days. Symptoms included vomiting, diarrhoea and fever, and 12 students required hospitalisation. Stool samples tested positive for NoV genome by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction assay in all 25 symptomatic subjects. The GII.P2/GII.2 NoV genotype was linked to the outbreak by ORF1/ORF2 sequence analysis. The epidemiological features of the outbreak were consistent with food/waterborne followed by person-to-person and/or vomit transmission. Food consumed at a shared lunch on the first day of the trip was associated to illness and drinking un-bottled tap water was also considered as a risk factor. The analysis of water samples revealed the presence of bacterial indicators of faecal contamination in the water used in the resort as well as in other areas of the municipal water network, linking the NoV gastroenteritis outbreak to tap water pollution from sewage leakage. From a single water sample, an amplicon whose sequence corresponded to the capsid genotype recovered from patients could be obtained.
Nitrogen fertilization of silage maize in Central Italy is typically carried out with two applications at early stages of crop development: 2nd (V2) and 6th (V6) leaf respectively. In such conditions, the crop has not yet fully covered the soil and proximal or remote sensing of the canopy is hindered by the strong soil background signal. There is thus great interest in rapid and inexpensive approaches to N fertilization prescription. Therefore, an indirect method for inferring information on yield potential and soil variability, through a field-based clustering of multi-temporal satellite data, has been developed using archive Landsat images to identify temporally constant patterns. This method is potentially useful for the creation of prescription maps. The usefulness of the method was evaluated during an N fertilisation field trial in Maccarese (Central Italy), in 2016. At the V2 stage, both uniform and variable rate applications were performed and compared. A pseudo-cross variogram and a standardized ordinary co-kriging methodology was used to highlight spatially variable significant differences among the treatments.
We present radial-velocity data measurements for 4 solar-type stars (HD 6434, HD 19994, HD 92788 and HD 121504) harboring new detected planetary companions. The measurements were obtained with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph mounted on the 1.2–m “Leonard Euler” Swiss telescope at ESO–LaSilla Observatory (Chile). The minimum masses inferred for the planets are m2 sin i = 0.48, 2.0, 3.81 and 0.89MJup, respectively.
Since the discovery of 51 Peg by Mayor & Queloz (1995) about 50 extra-solar planets have been discovered by means of the Doppler technique, and much more will follow. In future the goal will be to detect even lighter planets and/or planets with longer orbital periods, which may induce changes of only few m/s on the radial velocity of their parent star. Therefore very high performance instruments will be required. In view of the realization of HARPS (Pepe et al. 2000), the high-accuracy RV spectrograph for the ESO 3.6-m telescope dedicated to extra-solar planet search, we are investigating the accuracy limits and possible error sources. First results are presented in this paper.
We report the discovery of an extrasolar planetary system with two Saturnian planets around the star HD 83443. The new planetary system is unusual by more than one aspect, as it contains two very low–mass gaseous giant planets, both on very tight orbits. Among the planets detected so far, the inner planet has the smallest semi–major axis (0.038 AU) and period (2.985 days) whereas the outer planet is the lightest one with m2 sin i = 0.53 MSat. A preliminary dynamical study confirms the stability of the system.
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in family functioning between families with clinical subjects in paediatric age and families taken from the Italian population. To this aim we used the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES). Participants were children diagnosed with a psychopathology, recruited into the psychiatry department in a Paediatric Hospital of Rome. A total of 106 families participated in the study. The non-pathological sample is composed by 2,543 parents in different age periods of the life-cycle. Results showed significant differences in family functioning between pathological and non-pathological samples. Specifically, families from the pathological sample (particularly the ones who experienced eating disorders) were more frequently located in extreme or mid-range regions of Olson’s circumplex model (p < .001). These findings suggest some considerations that can be useful in therapeutic works with families in a clinical setting. Critical aspects and clinical applications are discussed.
The majority of extra-solar planets have been discovered (or confirmed after follow-up) through radial-velocity (RV) surveys. Using ground-based spectrographs such as High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Search (HARPS) and HARPS-North, it is now possible to detect planets that are only a few times the mass of the Earth. However, the presence of dark spots on the stellar surface produces RV signals that are very similar in amplitude to those caused by orbiting low-mass planets. Disentangling these signals has thus become the biggest challenge in the detection of Earth-mass planets using RV surveys. To do so, we use the star's lightcurve to model the RV variations produced by spots. Here we present this method and show the results of its application to CoRoT-7.
Since the discovery of the transiting Super-Earth CoRoT-7b, several investigations have been made of the number and precise masses of planets present in the system, but they all yield different results, owing to the star's high level of activity. Radial velocity (RV) variations induced by stellar activity therefore need to be modelled and removed to allow a reliable detection of all planets in the system. We re-observed CoRoT-7 in January 2012 with both HARPS and the CoRoT satellite, so that we now have the benefit of simultaneous RV and photometric data. We fitted the off-transit variations in the CoRoT lightcurve using a harmonic decomposition similar to that implemented in Queloz et al. (2009). This fit was then used to model the stellar RV contribution, according to the methods described by Aigrain et al. (2011). This model was incorporated into a Monte Carlo Markov Chain in order to make a precise determination of the orbits of CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c. We also assess the evidence for the presence of one or two additional planetary companions.
Current-voltage characteristics and dV/dI curves of a YBCO/Nb bulk junction at 4.2 K are reported. The presence of the Josephosn effect is clearly shown. The dV/dI spectrum shows sharp structures which can be related to the Niobium and the YBCO energy gaps Δnb and ΔNb and ΔYBCO. A value ΔYBCO = 26.2 ± 1.0 meV can be estimated, confirming the strong coupling character of such a compound.
In many countries, traditional medical planning for disasters developed largely in response to battlefield and multiple casualty incidents, generally involving corporal injuries. The mass evacuation of a metropolitan population in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina evolved into life-and-death triage scenarios involving thousands of patients with nontraumatic illnesses and special medical needs. Although unprecedented in the United States, triage management needs for this disaster were similar to other large-scale public health emergencies, both natural and human-generated, that occurred globally in the past half-century. The need for alternative triage-management processes similar to the methodologies of other global mass public health emergencies is illustrated through the experience of disaster medical assistance teams in the first 3 days following Katrina's landfall. The immediate establishment of disaster-specific, consensus-based, public health emergency–related triage protocols—developed with ethical and legal expertise and a renewed focus on multidimensional, multifactorial matrix decision-making processes—is strongly recommended. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2008;2(Suppl 1):S40–S44)
The SOPHIE Consortium started a large program of exoplanets search and characterization in the Northern hemisphere with the new spectrograph SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. The objectives of this program are to characterize the zoo of exoplanets and to bring strong constraints on their processes of formation and evolution using the radial velocity technique. We present here new SOPHIE measurements of the transiting planet host star XO-3. This allowed us to observe the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and to refine the parameters of the planet. The unusual shape of the radial velocity anomaly during the transit provides a hint for a nearly transverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The sky-projected angle between the planetary orbital axis and the stellar rotation axis should be λ = 70° ± 15° to be compatible with our observations. This suggests that some close-in planets might result from gravitational interaction between planets and/or stars rather than migration. This result requires confirmation by additional observations.
The HARPS search for low-mass extrasolar planets has been ongoing for more than 4 years, targeting originally about 400 bright FGK dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. The published low-mass planetary systems coming from this survey are fully confirmed by subsequent observations, which demonstrate the sub-m/s long-term stability reached by HARPS. The complex RV curves of these systems have led us to focus on a smaller sample of stars, accumulating more data points per star. We perform a global search in our data to assess the existence of the large population of ice giants and super-Earths predicted by numerical simulations of planet formation. We indeed detect about 45 candidates having minimum masses below 30 M⊕ and orbital periods below 50 days. These numbers are preliminary since the existence of these objects has to be confirmed by subsequent observations. However, they indicate that about 30% of solar-type stars may have such close-in, low-mass planets. Some emerging properties of this low-mass population are presented. We finally discuss the prospects for finding transiting objects among these candidates, which may possibly yield the first nearby, transiting super-Earth.
Exoplanet search programs need to study how to disentangle radial-velocity (RV) variations due to Doppler motion and the noise induced by stellar activity. We monitored the active K2V HD 189733 with the high-resolution SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France). We refined the orbital parameters of HD 189733b and put limitations on the eccentricity and on a long-term velocity gradient. We subtracted the orbital motion of the planet and compared the variability of activity spectroscopic indices (HeI, Hα, Ca II H&K lines) to the evolution of the RV residuals and the shape of spectral lines. All are in agreement with an active stellar surface in rotation. We used such correlations to correct for the RV jitter due to stellar activity. This results in achieving a high precision on the orbital parameters, with a semi-amplitude: K=200.56±0.88m⋅s−1 and a derived planet mass of MP=1.13±0.03 MJup.
We describe the ongoing hardware and software developments that shall enable the ESO VLTI to perform narrow-angle differential delay astrometry in K-band with an accuracy of up to 10 μarcsec. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to perform an astrometric search for extrasolar planets around nearby stars.
The combination of the collecting power of an ELT with an ultra-stable high resolution spectrograph opens up the possibility to measure for the first time directly the dynamical effect of the acceleration of the Universe. CODEX will also provide unique opportunities for advance in many other branches of astrophysics. The CODEX design is based on an array of several identical spectrographs. It is highly modular and can be easily adapted to a large range of sky apertures and telescope diameters. CODEX is designed to work as a seeing limited instrument. The requirements for the telescope are moderate and clearly identified.
To assess the accuracy of paramedic estimates of adult body weights in cardiac arrest cases.
Paramedics could accurately estimate the weights of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.
Retrospective data analysis of a 15-month, multicenter study involving nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Paramedic estimates of body weights were compared to weights measured in the hospital. Patients were included in the analysis only if both a paramedic weight and a measured in-hospital weight were recorded.
Six urban emergency medical services systems.
The study population included adults with return of spontaneous circulation who subsequently were admitted to the hospital.
Pearson correlation analysis of paramedic-estimated weights and measured weights.
Among the 133 study patients, the correlation coefficient (R) for paramedic estimates and the actual measured weight was 0.93. Paramedic estimates of weight were within 10% of the measured weights in 74% of the patients, and within 20% of measured weights in 93% of the patients.
Paramedic weight estimates correlated well with measured weights.