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There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Though previous research has shown that sentence repetition (SR) is an informative tool for identifying developmental language disorder (DLD) in bilinguals, little is understood about the skills that underlie children's performance on the task. With a population of 136 school-age Spanish–English bilinguals, the present study explores the contribution of verbal short-term memory, vocabulary, and language exposure on two SR tasks developed in English and Spanish. Results indicate that these skills may differentially underlie SR in typical versus disordered populations. Whereas the strongest predictors of English SR performance for typical bilingual children were expressive vocabulary and language exposure, bilingual children with DLD relied most heavily on verbal short-term memory. ROC curves to determine the classification accuracy of SR were conducted. Classification accuracy was excellent, with area under the curve reaching .92 for the English SR task and .87 for Spanish SR.
Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. Domestic free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed on the ground. Chickens can be easily infected with T. gondii; however, clinical toxoplasmosis is rare in these hosts. Chickens are comparatively inexpensive and thus are good sentinel animals for T. gondii infections on the farms. Here, the authors reviewed prevalence, the persistence of infection, clinical disease, epidemiology and genetic diversity of T. gondii strains isolated from chickens worldwide for the past decade. Data on phenotypic and molecular characteristics of 794 viable T. gondii strains from chickens are discussed, including new data on T. gondii isolates from chickens in Brazil. This paper will be of interest to biologists, epidemiologists, veterinarians and parasitologists.
A new project maps mobility patterns and social networks from prehistory to historical times in the western piedmont of the Maloti-Drakensberg, South Africa, and considers how rock art sites relate to seasonal or transhumance patterns in the region.
In Spain, consumption of psychotropic drugs is high and benzodiazepines represent 74% of the total. His prescription in primary care is very common and their use continues to grow. They are safe and effective drugs, but patients with prolonged use are elaborating the most adverse effects, particularly the dependency.
Descriptive ans cross-sectional.
Primary Health Care.
We seleted 202 patients treated with benzodiazepines, consecutive sample, belonging to the health center Los Barrio who were seen in consultation during 2009.
We conducted through a questionnaire that cointained the treatment and demographic characteristics.
We detect a frequency of use of benzodiazepines 9% (95% CI 4,7-12,1%). The profile of the consumer responds to middle-aged woman, with primary and housewives. Somatic diseases were associated in 72.6% (CI 67,2-77,5%) and had mental pathology at 59.7% (CI 53,9-65,3%). 35% (95% 29,6-40,6%) of prescribed benzodiazepines were clorazape dipotassium. Consumption was constant for over a year. The prescription from primary care represents 81% (95% 76,3-85,4%) and in 65% (CI 59,3-70,3%) is associated with other psychoactive drug.
In our area, highlights the prescription of benzodiazepines from primary care on demand and consumption during prolonged time. Interventions should be conducted on the prescription of benzodiazepines in medical and other interventions for patient support.
Processing speed and executive functioning are among the more impaired cognitive domains in schizophrenia, do not improve despite antipsychotic medication, and are associated with poor long-term functioning and quality of life. Cognitive remediation therapy for psychosis (REHACOP) try to improve cognitive deficits by teaching information processing strategies through guided mental exercises. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive remediation therapy (REHACOP), compared to other treatments, on processing speed and executive functioning difficulties.
Material and methods
Fifty-seven patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 29 with first-episode psychosis were randomly allocated into one of two groups: Cognitive rehabilitation group (REHACOP) or occupational therapy group. The REHACOP group received 3 months structured group rehabilitation sessions (3 per week) focused on tasks requiring attention, language, memory, speed, executive functioning and activities of daily living. All subjects underwent a neuropsychological assessment pre- and post treatment, which included tests for processing speed (Trail-Making Test-A, Digit Symbol, and Stroop-Color) and executive functioning (Stroop Word-Color part and interference)
Repeated measures of MANOVA showed that the interaction term groupXtime was significant for the executive functioning (F = 9.88, p < 0.01) and processing speed (F = 5.92, p < 0.05) measures, suggesting that the REHACOP experimental group improved significantly when compared to the control group's performance on both domains.
Results suggest that REHACOP is effective to improve executive dysfunction and processing speed deficits in first-episode psychosis and schizophrenia compared to occupational therapy.
Sexuality is a crucial area of human life. A proper examination to assess and detect problems in this field, it seems imperative to intervene when transsexual patients. Therefore accurately known, the sexual practices of these patients, allows us to work directly on possible alterations in the functioning of sexual life during the therapeutic process.
Describe patterns of sexual behavior in patients diagnosed with transsexualism
Gender and Identity Disorder Unit (GIDU)
Selected by consecutive sampling, 200 transsexuals treated at GIDU Malaga, aged between 20 and 40 years and who agreed to participate in the study. Comprising 142 transgender male-to-woman (MtW) and 58 women-to-man (WtM).
Was conducted through a heterocompleted questionnaire that included questions about sexuality, personality traits and demographic characteristics. These were filled in the consultation and were anonymous.
11.6% of MtW transsexuals have never had sex. 26.8% of the MtW and 29% of WtM are more than 3 months without masturbating. 54.1% of the MtW avoid having sex due to the rejection of his genitals, lack of sexual desire and previous traumatic experience. Transgender respondents had secondary education, stable jobs and they were single.
It is vital that we explore the sex lives of transsexual patients. This information must be integrated in a systematic and rigorous evaluation process. According to the results presented, the hyposexuality would be the most significant feature that describes sexuality for this population.
To estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in caregivers of dependent grade II and III of a health center. Calculate the perceived social support for caregivers. Estimating the degree of caregiver stress. Assess the socio-demographic factors associated.
Descriptive and transversal.
Primary Health Care.
We selected 55 dependent caregivers grade II and III consecutive sample, according to the law of dependence, belonging to the health center Algeciras-North and were registered in the database of the Center on January 31, 2009. Exclude those who would not participate in the study, did not understand the Spanish language or could not contact with them.
We conducted through a questionnaire that contained heteroadministrated Hamilton scales for depression and anxiety, social support scale of the Duke, caregiver overload of Zarit and sociodemographic variables. The accomplishment was held at the home of the caregiver.
We detected the presence of depressive disorders in 47.3% (95% 14,6-39%) respondents and anxiety disorders in 25.5% (95% 23-6-61,1%). 36.4% (CI 95% 23,8-50,4%) of caregivers had low social support and overhead was 57.1% (CI 95% 43,2-70,9%).
Caregivers of Dependent grade II and III in our area are at risk of depressive disorders and anxiety. At the same time, they feel helpless, so we think it would be interesting to be given greater attention from health centers in order to identify them early.
Course and outcome in schizophrenia are heterogeneous. Numerous studies have shown an association between the presence of negative symptoms and psychosocial and occupational functioning of patients.
To analyse the prevalence of negative symptoms in the course of illness in first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia and to establish its relation with the functional outcome.
43 patients with a first-episode psychosis (FEP) from our area were compared with 43 chronic schizophrenic patients and 43 normal controls from a parallel area. They were matched one on one for age, gender and years of education. All subjects were compared regarding psychopathology and functional outcome terms. Patients were examined with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for clinical symptom. Longitudinal functionality was prospectively assessed with the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) rating scales.
We found significant differences between FEP and chronic patients in negative symptom severity (t = -4.97, p< 0.001) and global assessment of functioning (t = 7.58, p< 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in PANSS positive and general components or Clinical Global Impression. Negative symptom severity was associated with poorer GAF ratings in first episode psychosis and chronic schizophrenia.
Negative symptoms appear to be persistent. In our study negative symptom severity was associated with social and functional impairment, defined as Global Assessment of Functioning Scale score of less than or equal to 60.
Verbal fluency deficits have been pointed out as a possible endophenotype in schizophrenia (Szöke et al., 2008). However, whether these deficits are specific or linked to semantic-verbal inability remains unclear. Additionally, this cognitive domain is already affected in early psychosis and do not improve despite early clinical interventions.
Authors tested the efficiency of a cognitive intervention specifically developed for improving fluency in psychosis.
Material and methods
Ninety patients with first-episode psychosis were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Cognitive rehabilitation group (REHACOP) or occupational therapy. Patients at the REHACOP group received one month structured group rehabilitation sessions (3 per week) to improve fluency. Repeated assessments of semantic fluency and phonological fluency were conducted before and after the treatment.
Compared to occupational therapy, the experimental group produced significant additional improvements in phonological fluency (F = 6.87, p < 0.01), but not in semantic fluency (F = 0.61, n.s). The composite verbal fluency score was also significant (F = 4.65, p < 0.05). The improvement remained 3 months after the treatment end.
The cognitive treatment using REHACOP has proven to be effective in treating phonological fluency deficits in first-episode psychosis, whereas socialization or communication in group therapy by itself do not. The differential pattern showed by semantic fluency is consistent with the proposal of Szöke et al 2008, who suggest that semantic fluency is a putative endophenotype for schizophrenia with links to genetic basis compared to phonological fluency.
About 27% of teenagers have some type of mental health disorder such as anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Depression is a serious disorder, most common in teenagers and often goes unnoticed. However, they can be detected early by teachers and we have effective treatments. Studies in European countries estimated the prevalence of adolescent depression around 12.55%, being more frequent in women. The prevalence increases with age and there are population studies that suggest that the high prevalence of depression is common in adolescents. One of the most important and most frequently associated with depression is suicide, becoming a serious health problem and constitute the third leading cause of death among adolescents between 15 and 24.
To estimate the prevalence of depression in adolescents in Spain. Rate sociodemographic variables associated.
Study desing: Observational, descriptive.
Study scope: Primary Care Health.
Subject of the study: Spanish students of 14 to 18 years old.
Variables to measure:Depression: Beck's depression index. Sociodemographics: Age, sex, course, repeater, number of siblings, smoker, drinker, toxic consumer, marital status of parents.
Sample size: It is calculated by accepting a signification level of 95%. A sample size of 2347 patients is estimated, including losses.
We will do an univariate analysis of qualitative variables by frequency and quantity by the mean, median and standard deviation. We will do a bivariate analysis using chi-square for qualitative variables and t test and ANOVA for qualitative as quantitative. Logistic regression will assess the factors that are associated with depression.
We aimed to identify best predictors of cognitive and functional disability in chronic schizophrenia over time.
We examined 95 hospitalised patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) in a long stage unit and 53 healthy controls (matched for age, gender, and years of education). Neuropsychological assessment included tests for Verbal Memory, Working Memory, Executive Functioning and Processing Speed. Functional Disability was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS-WHO) both at baseline and 6 months after.
As expected, patients" performance was significantly lower than healthy comparison subjects on all neurocognitive variables at baseline. Most, but not all, neurocognitive measures were positively correlated with the Functional Disability domains at follow up, including Self Care Management, Vocational Outcome, Family Contact and Social Competence. Results of mediation analyses suggest that all significant relationships identified between cognitive measures and functional outcome were significantly mediated by the Index Processing Speed (PS) with various effects ((between p < 0.05 for PS (z = -2.06) and p < 0.01 for PS (z = -3.01)).
Our data show that Processing Speed plays a determinant role in the relationship among neurocognitive symptoms and Self Care, Vocational Outcome and Social Competence. the model emphasizes the role of PS as the best longitudinal predictor of the level of autonomy in chronic patients with schizophrenia. PS acts as a pathway through which VM, EF and WM predict the course of patients’ functional ability over time.
To examine the relative contributions of psychiatric symptoms, functional disability, neuropsychological functioning and sociodemographic variables to quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic schizophrenia.
We examined 165 hospitalised patients with long term schizophrenia (DSM-IV). Measures of psychiatric symptoms included depression (Calgary depression Scale), insight (David Insight Scale), symptom severity (BPRS) and PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale). Neuropsychological battery included tests for verbal memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency, working memory, motor speed and processing speed. Functional disability was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS-WHO) and Quality of life was assessed with the Quality of Life Scale.
Age, years of evolution, negative symptoms, insight and neuropsychological variables (except motor speed) all were significantly related to level of quality of life. in a multiple regression analysis, entering the neuropsychological functioning, functional disability and negative symptoms generated a model which accounted for a 74.9% of the variance in QOL. Functional disability, as expected, accounted for 56% of the variance, whereas Processing Speed explained an additional 6.2%. Symptom Severity and Verbal Fluency predicted 3.7% and 3.5% of the variance, respectively. Negative symptoms, Verbal Memory and Vocabulary, were also significant predictors in the model, but had less predictive value. However, Positive Symptoms and Sociodemographic Variables did not significantly contribute to predict quality of life.
Our findings support the predictive value of neuropsychological functioning, functional disability and severity of negative symptoms in long term quality of life in schizophrenia.
to examine short and middle-term effectiveness of a group cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) in pathological gambling (PG) and to analyze predictors of therapy outcome.
Two hundred and ninety PG patients consecutively admitted to our Unit participated in the current study. All participants were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-criteria. Manualized outpatient group CBT [16 weekly sessions] was given. Specific assessment before and after the therapy and at 1, 3 and 6 months follow-up was conducted. Logistic regression analyses and survival analysis were applied.
outpatient group CBT was effective with abstinence rates by the end of therapy of 76.1%, and 81.5% at 6 months follow-up. The dropout rate during treatment decreased significantly after the fifth treatment session. Psychopathological distress (p = 0.040) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were identified as factors predicting relapses and drop-outs respectively.
our findings suggest that group CBT is effective for treating PG individuals. Several psychopathological and personality traits were identified as outcome predictors.
The aim of this study was to measure the reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of a Spanish translation of a measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling. Participants were 263 male and 23 female patients seeking treatment for pathological gambling and a matched non-psychiatric control sample of 259 men and 24 women. A Spanish translation of a 19-item measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling was administered along with other validity measures. The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were found to be reliable with an internal consistency coefficient alpha of .95 in the combined sample. Evidence of satisfactory convergent validity included moderate to high correlations with other measures of problem gambling. Using the standard DSM-IV cut-score of five, the ten criteria were found to yield satisfactory classification accuracy results with a high hit rate (.95), high sensitivity (.92), high specificity (.99), low false positive (.01), and low false negative rate (.08). Lowering the cut score to four resulted in modest improvements in classification accuracy and reduced the false negative rate from .08 to .05. The Spanish translation of a measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Pathological Gambling demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties and a cut score of four improved diagnostic precision.