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From the mid-nineteenth century, it became de rigueur for Classics Departments to acquire casts of Greek and Roman sculpture to form reference and experimental collections. Recent scholarship has revived such casts, investigating their role as instruments of teaching and research, and their wavering popularity. This paper further examines the aims of those responsible for collecting casts, and discusses how these objectives influenced their materiality and treatment, as well as showing how the de facto creation of a new canon of casts through their repetition across the collections of different institutions contributed to the decline in their perceived importance.
A total of 592 people reported gastrointestinal illness following attendance at Street Spice, a food festival held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North East England in February/March 2013. Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken to identify the source and prevent further cases. Several epidemiological analyses were conducted; a cohort study; a follow-up survey of cases and capture re-capture to estimate the true burden of cases. Indistinguishable isolates of Salmonella Agona phage type 40 were identified in cases and on fresh curry leaves used in one of the accompaniments served at the event. Molecular testing indicated entero-aggregative Escherichia coli and Shigella also contributed to the burden of illness. Analytical studies found strong associations between illness and eating food from a particular stall and with food items including coconut chutney which contained fresh curry leaves. Further investigation of the food supply chain and food preparation techniques identified a lack of clear instruction on the use of fresh uncooked curry leaves in finished dishes and uncertainty about their status as a ready-to-eat product. We describe the investigation of one of the largest outbreaks of food poisoning in England, involving several gastrointestinal pathogens including a strain of Salmonella Agona not previously seen in the UK.
Understanding the long-term ecological dynamics of boreal forests is essential for assessment of the possible responses and feedbacks of forest ecosystems to climate change. New data on past forest dynamics and peatland development were obtained from a peat sequence in the southern Valdai Hills (European Russia) based on pollen, plant macrofossil, micro-charcoal, peat humification, and testate amoeba analyses. The results demonstrate a dominance of broadleaved forests in the study area from 7000–4000 cal yr BP. Picea was initially a minor component of this forest but increased in cover rapidly with climatic cooling beginning at 4000 cal yr BP, becoming the dominant species. Broadleaved species persisted until 900 cal yr BP, with evidence for intensified felling and forest management over recent centuries. Over the last four hundred years there is evidence for widespread paludification and the establishment of Picea-Sphagnum forests. These data demonstrate how modern wet woodlands have been shaped by a combination of climatic and anthropogenic factors over several millennia. The results also demonstrate the value of a multiproxy approach in understanding long-term forest ecology.
Simulations of grounding-line migration in ice-sheet models using a fixed grid have been shown to exhibit poor convergence at achievable resolutions. We present a series of ‘shelfy-stream’ flowline model experiments using an idealized set-up. We assess the performance of a range of grounding-line parameterizations (GLPs) over a large input space by varying bedrock gradient, rate factor, basal drag coefficient and net accumulation. The relative performance of GLPs is similar to Gladstone and others (2010a) except at low basal drag, in which case the grounding-line errors are very small for all GLPs. We find that grounding-line errors are far more sensitive to basal drag than to the other inputs or to choice of GLP. We then quantify grounding-line errors as a function of resolution while varying basal drag and channel width (using a parameterization to represent buttressing). Reducing either basal drag or channel width reduces the errors associated with the grounding line. Our results suggest that a structured fixed-grid shelfy-stream ice-sheet model would need to run at a horizontal resolution of ~1–2km to accurately simulate grounding-line positions of marine ice-sheet outlet glaciers such as Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica.
Understanding how ice sheets responded to past climate change is fundamental to forecasting how they will respond in the future. Numerical models calculating the evolution of ice sheets depend upon accumulation data, which are principally available from ice cores. Here, we calculate past rates of ice accumulation using internal layering. The englacial structure of the East Antarctic ice divide at ridge B is extracted from airborne ice-penetrating radar. The isochronous surfaces are dated at their intersection with the Vostok ice-core site, where the depth–age relationship is known. The dated isochrons are used as input to a one-dimensional ice-flow model to investigate the spatial accumulation distribution. The calculations show that ice-accumulation rates generally increase from Vostok lake towards ridge B. The western flank of the ice divide experiences markedly more accumulation than in the east. Further, ice accumulation increases northwards along the ice divide. The results also show the variability of accumulation in time and space around the ridge B ice divide over the last 124 000 years.
This paper discusses results from the second phase of the European Ice Sheet Modelling Initiative (EISMINT). It reports the intercomparison of ten operational ice-sheet models and uses a series of experiments to examine the implications of thermomechanical coupling for model behaviour. A schematic, circular ice sheet is used in the work which investigates both steady states and the response to stepped changes in climate. The major finding is that the radial symmetry implied in the experimental design can, under certain circumstances, break down with the formation of distinct, regularly spaced spokes of cold ice which extended from the interior of the ice sheet outward to the surrounding zone of basal melt. These features also manifest themselves in the thickness and velocity distributions predicted by the models. They appear to be a common feature to all of the models which took part in the intercomparison, and may stem from interactions between ice temperature, flow and surface form. The exact nature of these features varies between models, and their existence appears to be controlled by the overall thermal regime of the ice sheet. A second result is that there is considerable agreement between the models in their predictions of global-scale response to imposed climate change.
Objectives: Careful characterization of how functional decline co-evolves with cognitive decline in older adults has yet to be well described. Most models of neurodegenerative disease postulate that cognitive decline predates and potentially leads to declines in everyday functional abilities; however, there is mounting evidence that subtle decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) may be detectable in older individuals who are still cognitively normal. Methods: The present study examines how the relationship between change in cognition and change in IADLs are best characterized among older adults who participated in the ACTIVE trial. Neuropsychological and IADL data were analyzed for 2802 older adults who were cognitively normal at study baseline and followed for up to 10 years. Results: Findings demonstrate that subtle, self-perceived difficulties in performing IADLs preceded and predicted subsequent declines on cognitive tests of memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with a growing body of literature suggesting that subjective changes in everyday abilities can be associated with more precipitous decline on objective cognitive measures and the development of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. (JINS, 2018, 24, 104–112)
A correlation has been found between strong molecular hydrogen emission and the morphological type of a planetary nebula. Those with an equatorial toroid and bipolar extensions have H2 1−0 S(1) stronger than Brackett γ. H2 maps of several objects, and NGC 2346 in particular, are consistent with a fast stellar wind interacting with an anisotropic medium.
Objectives: To examine hierarchical visuospatial processing in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a single gene disorder associated with visuospatial impairments, attention deficits, and executive dysfunction. Methods: We used a modified Navon paradigm consisting of a large “global” shape composed of smaller “local” shapes that were either congruent (same) or incongruent (different) to the global shape. Participants were instructed to name either the global or local shape within a block. Reaction times, interference ratios, and error rates of children with NF1 (n=30) and typically developing controls (n=24) were compared. Results: Typically developing participants demonstrated the expected global processing bias evidenced by a vulnerability to global interference when naming local stimuli without a cost of congruence when naming global stimuli. NF1 participants, however, experienced significant interference from the unattended level when naming both local and global levels of the stimuli. Conclusions: Findings suggest that children with NF1 do not demonstrate the typical human bias of processing visual information from a global perspective. (JINS, 2017, 23, 446–450)
Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
The infrared S(1) line of molecular hydrogen has been searched for in twenty-two planetary nebulae using the imaging mode of the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The line was detected and mapped in eleven objects. It has been demonstrated that all those with strong excited molecular hydrogen belong to a subclass of the Type I planetary nebulae, morphologically consisting of an equatorial toroid with faint bipolar extensions. Furthermore, nearly all planetaries with these characteristics have strong molecular hydrogen. The molecular line ratios in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron window are consistent with shock excitation. The observations suggest that the morphology of these planetaries has been controlled by a fast stellar wind interacting with a disc of gas concentrated in the equatorial plane.
In this paper it is shown that the ability to directly detect a daughter atom, using resonance ionization spectroscopy, in delayed time coincidence with the decay of a parent species promises to drastically reduce the background in low-level counting experiments. In addition, resonance ionization can also be used as an ion source for a mass spectrometer system that is capable of discriminating between isobars.
Two-thirds of the members of the Commission have replied to the request of the chairman for an expression of their opinion. Most of them are in general well satisfied with the existing system of classification and nomenclature. Lindblad reports on successful work upon the determination of absolute magnitudes of faint stars, in many ways. Adams writes: “I might suggest that attention be called in the report to the fact that the ultra-violet spectra, even of stars like β Orionis, show large numbers of lines. As you probably remember, the spectrum of Sirius resembles, at first sight, the solar spectrum. If all observatories had the facilities for getting spectra in the far ultra-violet, this region would probably furnish the best criteria for spectral type.” Merrill suggests: “The nomenclature which, upon the basis of atomic transition, assigns the adjective ‘nebular’ to lines which may not occur in nebulae, and ‘ auroral ‘ to lines which may not occur in the aurora, is surely not an ideal one.
The present report is the first for which this newly-formed Commission has been responsible. In view of this fact, and in view of the still exploratory nature of many investigations in spectrophotometry, as well as the need for the highest measure of individuality in the attack of the not simple problems involved, it would be premature to propose, simple though it might be to do so, any far reaching plans for co-operative schemes of investigation. These undoubtedly will play a part in the later work of the Commission, but what appears to be needed now is a closer definition of the aims of spectrophotometry, and at least a reference to the many branches of the subject where investigation is needed. The present report attempts to deal with these topics in three successive sections, concerned in turn with the unique property of spectrophotometric measures, the fields of application of spectrophotometry, and recent developments in a still incomplete and difficult technique.
Much material extending our knowledge of stellar magnitudes has accumulated during the last four years. In the appendix to this report will be found a list of recent catalogues, a summary of the discussion made at Mt Wilson by Seares and the formulae that he finds for the reduction of these catalogues to a fundamental system, until such time as a more extended discussion shall have furnished definitive corrections.
The Committee expressed its appreciation of the value of the work done by Prof. Seares, while President of the Commission, in the direction of establishing the relations between various other catalogues and the International System.
The relations given by Prof. Seares, in the Draft Report, between the International System and the catalogues that have appeared during the last four years, form a new and very important contribution to this fundamental problem. But nothing in science can be definitive. The formulae given by Seares will be subject to modification by more extended discussion: they must be regarded as provisional; the Committee decided to place them in an appendix to the main report.
The following summarizes the activities of various members of the Commission in matters pertaining to stellar photometry during the interval 1932-35:
La partie photométrique des trois derniers volumes du Catalogue Astrographique (zone de Catane entre +46° et +55°) est soigneusement dressée sur le système de Miss Leavitt (Harv. Annals, 81). L’erreur moyenne des grandeurs, d’après la réduction de 100 plaques (zones +51° à + 54°, entre 6h et I2h), n’est que de ± om.o8. Nos réductions photométriques ont été effectuées par la formule
D = a-bg+cg2-dg3,
où D dénote le diamètre de l’image photographique et G=8m+g dénote la grandeur de l’étoile.
Investigation of stellar spectra has been active during the last four years. Without attempting to make a complete survey, some important researches may be mentioned.
The theory of the intensities and contours of absorption lines has been discussed by Eddington, Milne, Pannekoek, Woolley, H. H. Plaskett, and others, and has proved to be difficult. For example, no quantitative theory has yet been developed for the residuai intensity which remains in even the strongest lines, although the physical causes underlying the formation of residual intensities are rather obvious. Study of solar lines with light which has left the surface at different angles shows that the processes which produce the wings and the centre are probably different. The most promising line of attack on this intricate problem appears to be in studies of the solar spectrum, where different regions of the disc may be separately investigated, rather than of integrated starlight. The highest dispersion available, even in solar work, will be none too great.
The committee of the Carte du Ciel in 1910 adopted the following convention : That for Ao stars between magnitudes 5·5 and 6·5 the mean photographic magnitude should equal the mean Harvard visual magnitude. As a corollary, the colour index of Ao stars would then be zero.
The zero point of the photographic magnitudes of the International Polar Sequence was fixed as nearly as possible in accordance with this definition; but it was by no means certain that the magnitudes thus adopted for the few stars of the Sequence represented the zero point defined by all the Ao stars specified.