The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) are modulators of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), two transmitters involved in cocaine addiction. However, little is known on the effects of cocaine on the enzymes that produce and degrade endocannabinoids. The present work addresses the effects of cocaine self-administration on the immunohistochemical expression of endocannabinoid signalling (ECS)-related proteins in the hippocampus. The study has been performed on two different strains of rats, Lewis (Lew) and Fischer 344 (F344), which are characterized for displaying a differential sensitivity to cocaine, thus making them suitable in the study of vulnerability to drug addiction. Both strains showed differences in the expression of ECS-related proteins in the hippocampus, i.e. Lew rats exhibited lower CB1 expression but higher CB2 expression than F344 rats. After setting similar cocaine self-administration, both strains showed clear differences in the expression of ECS-related proteins, which were differentially restricted to either the 2-AG or anandamide signalling pathways in a self-administration training/drug-dependent manner. The decreases observed in CB1 expression and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D:fatty acid amino hydrolase ratio after saline self-administration were enhanced only in cocaine self-administered Lew rats. CB2 expression increase and diacylglycerol lipase α:monoacylglycerol lipase ratio decrease detected after saline self-administration were blocked only in cocaine self-administered F344 rats. These findings indicate that cocaine may regulate hippocampal GABA/glutamate synapses by directly modulating endocannabinoid production/degradation enzymes and that these actions are strain-dependent. This differential response suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system might contribute to genotype/strain differences on the sensitivity to self-administration training and cocaine addiction.