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It has been suggested that the experimentally observed orientation dependence of the mobility of grain boundaries in f.c.c. metals may be related to the dependence of the rate of self diffusion in grain boundaries on the disorientation across the boundary. Later, this relative orientation effect on the rate of boundary diffusion and self diffusion was experimentally observed. It was shown by Hoffman and Turnbull that in bicrystals of silver misoricnted around (100) by 9° to 28°, self diffusion along the boundary (parallel to the common (100)) may be described in terms of a coefficient of self diffusion in individual grain boundary edge dislocation pipes, orders of magnitude larger than the coefficient of lattice self diffusion. It is significant that the coefficient of self diffusion in grain boundary dislocation pipes was found to be independent of the misorientation (i.e., of the density of edge dislocations in the boundary) at least up to 28°, suggesting that even a boundary of such a great misorientation may be considered as a network of dislocations, as far as self diffusion is concerned.
In recent experiments the relative mobilities of boundaries in various orientations between a deformed (99.98% pure) aluminum single crystal and recrystallized grains growing in it in fairly well defined, lattice orientation relationships were compared. The matrix crystal was rolled to 80% R.A. on a (110) plane in a  direction, after which the strip still retained its initial orientation and the texture was very sharp. Recrystallized grains quite accurately oriented so as to have highest overall boundary mobility, i.e., corresponding to 40° rotations around the two 111 axes of the matrix grain lying in the rolling plane, were produced in large numbers by random nucleation on one side of the strip (rubbing one side with sandpaper and annealing). The re crystallized grains, that were at first growing in very large numbers and quite randomly but only in the thin surface layer highly deformed by abrasion (nucleation side), on annealing for 600 sec at 350°C grew across the whole thickness (0,010″) of the rolled single crystal. As a result of very selective growth, the recrystallized grains reaching the other side of the strip (growth side) showed a very sharp texture consisting of four components with the orientations described.
India occupies 2nd position in the world with a total fruit production of 42 million tonnes. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit production in India is 1.3 million tonnes. After extraction of juice from fruit, around 25-30% of the processed fruit is left as waste containing skins and seeds, called as papaya pomace. Generally this goes as a waste causing environmental pollution and if utilized properly will contribute to national economy and reduce pollution effect. Available information on chemical composition and utilization of papaya skins in feeding growing pullets (Fouzder et al., 1999) indicate the potential value of papaya pomace for animal feeding. In view of paucity of information on papaya pomace utilization in animal feeding, an attempt was made to study the effect of inclusion of varying levels of papaya pomace in concentrate mixtures on the nutrient utilization in native male buffaloes.
The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820–851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.
The class of radio transients called Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) encompasses enigmatic single pulses, each unique in its own way, hindering a consensus for their origin. The key to demystifying FRBs lies in discovering many of them in order to identity commonalities – and in real time, in order to find potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The recently upgraded UTMOST in Australia, is undergoing a backend transformation to rise as a fast transient detection machine. The first interferometric detections of FRBs with UTMOST, place their origin beyond the near-field region of the telescope thus ruling out local sources of interference as a possible origin. We have localised these bursts to much better than the ones discovered at the Parkes radio telescope and have plans to upgrade UTMOST to be capable of much better localisation still.
The F-type supergiant HD 56126 (F5I) is an IRAS source with detached cold dust shell with characteristics similar to the dust shells around planetary nebulae. From an analysis of high resolution and high signal to noise ratio spectra metal and CNO abundances have been determined. It is found that in HD 56126 [C/H] =−0.01, [N/H]=+0.17, [O/H] = −0.02, [S/H]=+0.01 and [Fe/H]< −1.0. The C/N/O abundance ratios and CNO abundances relative to Fe of HD 56126 and related post AGB stars suggest that they have on their photospheres the material processed by triple alpha, CN and ON cycles.
UBVRI polarization measurements of 25 post AGB stars with circumstellar dust shells (CDSs) were made. Most of them show A, F, G, K supergiant type spectra. IRAS data of these stars show evidence for the presence cool detached circumstellar dust envelopes. Some of these stars also have warm dust shells. Many show significant polarization. The observed polarization in UBVRI is most likely due to scattering of the central star radiation by CDSs. Some of these stars show variation in polarization and position angle. The polarization data suggest that several may have aspherical or bipolar CDSs.
PC 11 (HD 149427, PK 331-5 1) is classified as a young planetary nebula with strong OIII 4363Å and a Zanstra temperature of TZ = 27000K. It is also classified as (D′ — type) yellow symbiotic star with A — F type companion. It is an IRAS source with detached cold dust with far intrared (IRAS) colours similar to planetary nebulae. The IUE short wavelength (SWP) spectra show emission lines due to OIII] (1661/1666Å). NIII] (1746/1754Å) CIII] (1907/1909Å). The OIII] and NIII] emission lines show significant variation. Variation in the strength of CIII] is not very significant. The strength of OIII] has decreased and NIII] has increased. The long wavelength (LWP) spectrum shows stellar continuum (A-F) and absorption lines due Mg II 2800Å feature. It also show emission lines at 2772Å (?) 3133Å −3140Å (very strong) (OIII, [FeV], 3209Å (He II?) ([FEII]). The variation in the strength of emission line due OIII] and NIII] and the presence of stellar continuum (A-F) suggests that the central star of PC 11 is a binary.
The existence of a tight linear correlation between the stellar absolute magnitude Mv and the Mg II k-line emission width log WMg II k (kms−1) is confirmed using IUE high-resolution (0.2A) data for 100 late-type stars. A least-squares fit to the data gives the relation:
The effects of fragmentation and overstorey tree diversity on tree regeneration were assessed in tropical rain forests of the Western Ghats, India. Ninety plots were sampled for saplings (1–5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh); 5×5-m plots) and overstorey trees (>9.55 cm dbh; 20×20-m plots) within two fragments (32 ha and 18 ha) and two continuous forests. We tested the hypotheses that fragmentation and expected seed-dispersal declines (1) reduce sapling densities and species richness of all species and old-growth species, and increase recruitment of early-successional species, (2) reduce the prevalence of dispersed recruits and (3) increase influence of local overstorey on sapling densities and richness. Continuous forests and fragments had similar sapling densities and species richness overall, but density and richness of old-growth species declined by 62% and 48%, respectively, in fragments. Fragments had 39% lower densities and 24% lower richness of immigrant saplings (presumed dispersed into sites as conspecific adults were absent nearby), and immigrant densities of old-growth bird-dispersed species declined by 79%. Sapling species richness (overall and old-growth) increased with overstorey species richness in fragments, but was unrelated to overstorey richness in continuous forests. Our results show that while forest fragments retain significant sapling diversity, losses of immigrant recruits and increased overstorey influence strengthen barriers to natural regeneration of old-growth tropical rain forests.
We have selected several stars with far-IR (IRAS) fluxes indicating the presence of circumstellar dust shells and disks. In this paper we present an analysis of the spectra of these stars. In several of these stars we find evidence for gaseous envelopes in addition to dusty disks. In some of these stars we find complex and variable Ha profiles indicating the variations in the circumstellar envelopes and disks.
We have carried out spectral classification of 65 [WC] stars, using spectra obtained at ESO in 1994-1995 with a spectral resolution of 1500 and high signal to noise ratio. We quantify the visual classification, by using the line ratios of CIII, CIV, OV, OVI in the 530-580 nm range, correlated with the blue CIII - IV lines. We measured the total strength of the above emission lines and derived the ratios of the emission line strengths. Using the stellar emission line ratios we classified about 32 CSPN as [WC] and about 30 as WELS which show only relatively weak CIV 5806 and CIV 4650 and He II 4686 stellar emission lines. The presence of CIV 5806 and the absence of CIII 5696 the WELS appear to belong to the [WC3] type. However the OV lines are very weak or absent. Some stars are reclassified, and 4 stars are found in the [WC5-7] gap. We classified 34 CSPN as [WC]. The [WC2] CSPN NGC 2867 and PB 6 show narrow and weak He II 5412 absorption feature. Based on the relative strengths of the stellar emission features NGC 2867 [WC 2], PB 6 [WC2] and M1-61 [WC4] appear to be related to WELS (Weak Emission Line Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae). The observed spectral characteristics of the central stars of these PN suggest that they are related to [WC] - PG 1159 type of objects.
CCD imaging and BVRI photometry of 14 IRAS sources with far-IR colours similar to planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are presented. Also results of optical and near-IR spectroscopy of 10 of these candidates are given. Based on the spectral energy distribution from 0.4 μm to 100 μm, the sample of program stars are put into two groups. The sources IRAS 08187-1905, IRAS 05238-0626 and IRAS 17086-2403 present similar flux distributions. These three sources have detached cold dust components with dust radii Rd ≈ 1000 R∗. The low infrared variability of theses sources suggests that the intense mass loss has been ceased. All three sources are at high galactic latitude (1>9°) suggesting that these are old low-mass evolved stars. In the IRAS colour-colour diagram of Likkel et al (1991) these sources fall in the region where most of the stars are evolved stars and PNe but without CO detection. This is consistent with at least one source IRAS 17086-2403, in which OH and CO molecular features are not detected. The far-IR excess, non-variability and high latitude of these objects suggest that these are post-AGB supergiants, slowly evolving towards planetary nebula phase.
On the basis of C/O ratios the evolutionary connection between C-rich AGB/post-AGB stars and C-rich central stars of PNe is discussed. The proportion of carbon-rich post-AGB stars is comparable to that of carbon-rich PNe. The post-AGB stars with 21μm emission are found to be over abundant in carbon and s-process elements indicating that they have gone through the third dredge-up and carbon star phase on the AGB. As these stars evolve to higher temperature they will form carbon-rich PNe with carbon-rich central stars. Analysis of C/O ratios of PNe suggests that 68 percent of PNe have C/O > 1 indicating that the progenitors have gone through the third dredge-up and carbon-rich phase on the AGB. The Type I PNe can be divided into two groups. Group I Type I PNe are those with C/O < 1 indicating that their massive progenitors have gone through the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning on the AGB. Group II Type I PNe are those with C/O > 1. Their progenitors have gone through third dredge-up only and may not have experienced hot bottom burning. Carbon stars with silicate dust and or carbon-rich post-AGB stars (such as post-AGB stars with 21μm emission) may be the progenitors of PNe with [WC] central stars. The evolutionary sequence seems to be: carbon-rich AGB → carbon-rich post-AGB → [WC late type] → [WC early type] → [WC-PG 1159] → PG 1159.
An abundance analysis of the photosphere of the F-type Post-AGB candidate IRAS 05341-+0852 is presented. It shows that the star is metal-poor ([Fe/H]=–1.0) and carbon-rich (C/0≈2.2). Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, and possibly lithium and aluminum are found to be over abundant. Most importantly this star has large overabundance of s-process elements which are as follows: [Y/Fe]= 1.80, [Ba/Fe]= 2.58, [La/Fe]= 2.86, [Ce/Fe]= 2.95, [Pr/Fe]= 2.27, [Nd/Fe]= 1.97, and [Sm/Fe]= 0.86. The overabundances of s-process elements and carbon in IRAS 05341+0852 is direct evidence for the association of s-process enhancements with shell-flashes and dredge-up. These are likely responsible for the increase in C/O. The possible overabundance of Li ([Li/Fe]≤2.5) and Al ([Al/Fe]≤ 1.1) in IRAS 05341+0852 could indicate that there was Hot Bottom Burning (HBB), where the base of the convective envelope is hot enough for nucleosynthesis to occur (Lattanzio 1993). HBB has been suggested as the mechanism responsible for the production of Li in the Li-rich AGB stars discovered by Smith and Lambert (1989). In fact these are bright AGB stars which are oxygen-rich rather than carbon-rich. Recent calculations by Sackmann and Boothroyd (1992) showed that Li-rich and O-rich AGB stars are the result of HBB. In the HBB models temperatures of the order of 0.5–1 × 108 K are encountered at the base of the convective envelope (Blöcker and Schönberner 1991). This is hot enough for the reaction 25Mg(p,γ) 26 Al resulting in the production of Al.
SAO 244567 (= Hen 1357) is a very young planetary nebula. It was discovered by Parthasarathy et al. (1993, A and A 267, L19). Based on the spectrum obtained around 1950 Henize (1976, ApJ Suppl 30, 491) classified it as a B or A type H-alpha emission line star. The optical spectrum of SAO 244567 obtained in 1971 shows that it was a post-AGB B1 supergiant at that time. It has turned into a planetary nebula within the last 20 years (Parthasarathy et al. 1995, A and A 300, L25).
Hb 7 (003.9 - 14.9) and Sp 3 (342.5 - 14.3) are high galactic latitude planetary nebulae. Ultraviolet spectra obtained with the IUE reveal UV stellar continuum and P - Cygni stellar wind profiles of NV and CIV indicating post-AGB mass loss from the central stars of these two PN. From an analysis of optical and ultraviolet spectra we have derived the parameters of the central stars and nebulae. The IUE ultaviolet continuum shows that the central stars of Hb 7 and Sp3 are 08 stars. The Si IV 1400A doublet in the spectra of both these stars is very weak or absent most likely due to underabundance of Si and due to also due to earlier spectral type (O 8). The Si IV lines in hot stars are sensitive to surface gravity, their weakness suggests that surface gravity the central stars of Hb7 and Sp3 is relatively higher. The terminal velocity of the stellar wind in Hb7 and Sp 3 are found to be −2460 km/sec and −3630 km/sec respectively.
Analysis of the chemical compositions of post-AGB stars reveals the following abundance patterns: (i) Post-AGB stars which are extremely underabundant in Fe and other refractory elements, but which have nearly normal abundances of C, N, O, S, and Zn. The depleted refractory elements are locked up in circumstellar dust grains. Formation of dust close to the star, and dust-gas separation and dust-driven mass loss driving out mostly the dust may explain the abundances of these stars. (ii) High-latitude hot post-AGB stars which show an underabundance of carbon, indicating that they left the AGB before the third dredge-up occurred. (iii) Post-AGB stars with overabundances of carbon and s-process elements, indicating that they have gone through the third dredge-up and carbon-star phase on the AGB. The overabundance of Li, Al, C and s-process elements in some post-AGB stars indicate that they have gone through the dredge-up and Hot Bottom Burning nucleosynthesis at the base of the convective envelope. The observed characteristics of post-AGB stars indicate an evolutionary sequence in the transition region from the tip of the AGB into the young planetary nebula stage.
We report here new results about a search for Li-rich stars among 52 G-K giant stars which are known to have near IR excess. Eleven giants have been found to have log ∊(Li) ≥ 1.0. Five are new Li-rich stars. We suspect circumstellar shells around one of them, HD 219025. There is no clear correlation between Li-richness and rotation, or with binarity.