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To characterize nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with case clusters at 3 medical facilities.
Retrospective cohort study using molecular typing of patient and water isolates.
Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs).
Isolation and identification of NTM from clinical and water samples using culture, MALDI-TOF, and gene population sequencing to determine species and genetic relatedness. Clinical data were abstracted from electronic health records.
An identical strain of Mycobacterium conceptionense was isolated from 41 patients at VA Medical Centers (VAMCs A, B, and D), and from VAMC A’s ICU ice machine. Isolates were initially identified as other NTM species within the M. fortuitum clade. Sequencing analyses revealed that they were identical M. conceptionense strains. Overall, 7 patients (17%) met the criteria for pulmonary or nonpulmonary infection with NTM, and 13 of 41 (32%) were treated with effective antimicrobials regardless of infection or colonization status. Separately, a M. mucogenicum patient strain from VAMC A matched a strain isolated from a VAMC B ICU ice machine. VAMC C, in a different state, had a 4-patient cluster with Mycobacterium porcinum. Strains were identical to those isolated from sink-water samples at this facility.
NTM from hospital water systems are found in hospitalized patients, often during workup for other infections, making attribution of NTM infection problematic. Variable NTM identification methods and changing taxonomy create challenges for epidemiologic investigation and linkage to environmental sources.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
Eight ruminally-fistulated wethers were used to examine the temporal effects of afternoon (PM; 1600h) v. morning (AM; 0800 h) allocation of fresh spring herbage from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture on fermentation and microbial community dynamics. Herbage chemical composition was minimally affected by time of allocation, but daily mean ammonia concentrations were greater for the PM group. The 24-h pattern of ruminal fermentation (i.e. time of sampling relative to time of allocation), however, varied considerably for all fermentation variables (P⩽0.001). Most notably amongst ruminal fermentation characteristics, ammonia concentrations showed a substantial temporal variation; concentrations of ammonia were 1.7-, 2.0- and 2.2-fold greater in rumens of PM wethers at 4, 6 and 8h after allocation, respectively, compared with AM wethers. The relative abundances of archaeal and ciliate protozoal taxa were similar across allocation groups. In contrast, the relative abundances of members of the rumen bacterial community, like Prevotella 1 (P=0.04), Bacteroidales RF16 group (P=0.005) and Fibrobacter spp. (P=0.008) were greater for the AM group, whereas the relative abundance of Kandleria spp. was greater (P=0.04) for the PM group. Of these taxa, only Prevotella 1 (P=0.04) and Kandleria (P<0.001) showed a significant interaction between time of allocation and time of sampling relative to feed allocation. Relative abundances of Prevotella 1 were greater at 2h (P=0.05), 4h (P=0.003) and 6h (P=0.01) after AM allocation of new herbage, whereas relative abundances of Kandleria were greater at 2h (P=0.003) and 4h (P<0.001) after PM allocation. The early post-allocation rise in ammonia concentrations in PM rumens occurred simultaneously with sharp increases in the relative abundance of Kandleria spp. and with a decline in the relative abundance of Prevotella. All measures of fermentation and most microbial community composition data showed highly dynamic changes in concentrations and genus abundances, respectively, with substantial temporal changes occurring within the first 8h of allocating a new strip of herbage. The dynamic changes in the relative abundances of certain bacterial groups, in synchrony with a substantial diurnal variation in ammonia concentrations, has potential effects on the efficiency by which N is utilised by the grazing ruminant.
As vitamin B12 is only synthesized by bacteria, ruminant products, especially dairy products, are excellent sources of this vitamin. This study aims to identify if diet and cow characteristics could affect vitamin B12 concentration in milk of dairy cows. Information on 1484 first, 1093 second and 1763 third and greater parity Holstein cows in 100 herds was collected during three consecutive milkings. During the first morning milking, all dietary ingredients given to cows were sampled and quantities offered were recorded throughout the day. Nutrient composition of ingredients was obtained by wet chemistry to reconstitute nutrient composition of the ration. Milk samples were taken with in-line milk meters during the evening milking of the 1st day and the morning milking of the 2nd day and were analyzed for vitamin B12 concentration. Milk yields were recorded and milk components were separately analyzed for each milking. Daily vitamin B12 concentration in milk was obtained using morning and evening vitamin B12 concentrations weighted with respective milk yield, then divided by daily yield. To decrease the number of interdependent variables to include in the multivariable model, a principal component analysis was carried out. Daily milk concentration of vitamin B12 averaged 3809±80 pg/ml, 4178±79 pg/ml and 4399±77 pg/ml for first, second and third, and greater lactation cows. Out of 11 principal components, six were significantly related to daily milk concentration of vitamin B12 when entered in the multivariable model. Results suggested that vitamin B12 concentration in milk was positively related to percentage of fiber and negatively related to starch as well as energy of the diet. Negative relationships were noted between vitamin B12 concentration in milk and milk yield as well as milk lactose concentration and positive relationships were observed between vitamin B12 concentration in milk and milk fat as well as protein concentrations. The percentages of chopped mixed silage and commercial energy supplement in the diet as well as cow BW were positively related to vitamin B12 in milk and percentages of baled mixed silage, corn and commercial protein supplement in the ration were negatively related to vitamin B12 concentration in milk. The pseudo-R2 of the model was low (52%) suggesting that diet and cow characteristics have moderate impact on vitamin B12 concentration in milk. Moreover, when entering solely the principal component related to milk production in the model, the pseudo-R2 was 46%. In conclusion, it suggests that studied diet characteristics have a marginal impact on vitamin B12 concentration in milk variation.
Multiflorous spikelets are found in oat Avena sativa L. subsp. nudisativa, which is characterised by elongated rachilla and variable number of florets per spikelet. One of the main factors limiting the exploration of multiflorous spikelets in oats, aiming to produce naked grains, is its variable expressivity. This work aimed to detect the environmental influence on the variable expressivity of multiflorous spikelet formation in oats and to estimate the heritability of this trait by analysing its expression in lower, middle and upper third of the panicle in 94 inbred lines of two crosses each. Two populations of recombinant inbred lines were screened for the spikelet formation in 2 years and sowing dates under field experiments. The results demonstrate that the variable expressivity of the multiflorous spikelet formation was highly influenced by the environmental conditions. The variable expressivity varied according to the genetic background, as well as the panicle third where spikelets were produced. The upper third of the panicle showed greater stability for the multiflorous spikelet formation, which is confirmed by the highest heritability coefficients observed in this third, regardless of the assessed population. Our results provide substantial evidences of the contribution exerted by environmental conditions in multiflorous spikelet formation in oats.
This work presents a study about synthesis of polypyrrole films electrochemically doped with iodine by luminescent discharge plasma in aqueous sodium sulfate solution, and its structural, morphological and electrical characterization. The synthesis is carried out at atmospheric pressure with square pulse from -1.06 to 1.16 V for 120 minutes. Doping times of the films are 10, 30 and 50 minutes. The films have thicknesses of 6, 12.7, 20.32 and 25.4 μm, and linear growth trend according to the time exposure of their synthesis. The main chemical groups exhibited in the films are C-H, N-H and CH2I, which are characteristics of film doped with Iodine. The electrical conductivity calculated of polypyrrole films is in the range 10-5-10-3 S/cm, and its activation energy is between 0.052 and 1.77 eV.
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein–mineral–vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders. Eighteen steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments and finished for 91 days. Data regarding pasture and growth performance were collected during three different periods (0 to 28, 29 to 56 and 57 to 91 days). Subsequently, steers were harvested to evaluate carcass traits, presence of rumenitis, abomasitis and liver abscesses. The legume–grass pasture provided more than 19% dry matter of protein. In addition, pasture of paddocks where steers were assigned to SUPP and PAST treatments showed similar nutritional quality. When compared to PAST, finishing on SUPP increased total weight gain per hectare, stocking rate, daily and total weight gains. The increase of weight gain was high to GRAIN than SUPP and PAST. Steers finished on GRAIN had high hot carcass weight, fat thickness and marbling score when compared to PAST. However, these attributes did not differ between GRAIN and SUPP. Abomasum lesions were more prevalent in steers finished on GRAIN when compared to PAST. Results of this research showed that it is possible to produce carcasses with desirable market weight and fat thickness by finishing steers on legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover. Moreover, supplementing steers with corn when grazing on legume–grass pasture produced similar carcass traits when compared to beef fed corn only.
On-farm nutrition and management interventions to reduce enteric CH4 (eCH4) emission, the most abundant greenhouse gas from cattle, may also affect volatile solids and N excretion. The objective was to jointly quantify eCH4 emissions, digestible volatile solids (dVS) excretion and N excretion from dairy cattle, based on dietary variables and animal characteristics, and to evaluate relationships between these emissions and excreta. Univariate and Bayesian multivariate mixed-effects models fitted to 520 individual North American dairy cow records indicated dry matter (DM) intake and dietary ADF and CP to be the main predictors for production of eCH4 emissions and dVS and N excreta (g/day). Yields (g/kg DM intake) of eCH4 emissions and dVS and N excreta were best predicted by dietary ADF, dietary CP, milk yield and milk fat content. Intensities (g/kg fat- and protein-corrected milk) of eCH4, dVS and N excreta were best predicted by dietary ADF, dietary CP, days in milk and BW. A K-fold cross-validation indicated that eCH4 and urinary N variables had larger root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; % of observed mean) than dVS, fecal N and total N production (on average 24.3% and 26.5% v. 16.7%, 15.5% and 16.2%, respectively), whereas intensity variables had larger RMSPE than production and yields (29.4%, 14.7% and 14.6%, respectively). Univariate and multivariate equations performed relatively similar (18.8% v. 19.3% RMSPE). Mutual correlations indicated a trade-off for eCH4v. dVS yield. The multivariate model indicated a trade-off between eCH4 and dVS v. total N production, yield and intensity induced by dietary CP content.
To test the hypothesis that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic strains are an important source of transmission in the LTCF and in the hospital during acute-care admissions.
A 6-month cohort study with identification of transmission events was conducted based on tracking of patient movement combined with restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
Veterans Affairs hospital and affiliated LTCF.
The study included 29 LTCF residents identified as asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile based on every other week perirectal screening and 37 healthcare facility-associated CDI cases (ie, diagnosis >3 days after admission or within 4 weeks of discharge to the community), including 26 hospital-associated and 11 LTCF-associated cases.
Of the 37 CDI cases, 7 (18·9%) were linked to LTCF residents with LTCF-associated CDI or asymptomatic carriage, including 3 of 26 hospital-associated CDI cases (11·5%) and 4 of 11 LTCF-associated cases (36·4%). Of the 7 transmissions linked to LTCF residents, 5 (71·4%) were linked to asymptomatic carriers versus 2 (28·6%) to CDI cases, and all involved transmission of epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strains. No incident hospital-associated CDI cases were linked to other hospital-associated CDI cases.
Our findings suggest that LTCF residents with asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile or CDI contribute to transmission both in the LTCF and in the affiliated hospital during acute-care admissions. Greater emphasis on infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs is needed, and these efforts should focus on LTCF residents during hospital admissions.
Habitat modification may facilitate the emergence of novel pathogens, and the expansion of agricultural frontiers make domestic animals important sources of pathogen spillover to wild animals. We demonstrate for the first time that Plasmodium juxtanucleare, a widespread parasite from domestic chickens, naturally infects free-living passerines. We sampled 68 wild birds within and at the border of conservation units in central Brazil composed by Cerrado, a highly threatened biome. Seven out of 10 passerines captured in the limits of a protected area with a small farm were infected by P. juxtanucleare as was confirmed by sequencing a fragment of the parasite's cytochrome b. Blood smears from these positive passerines presented trophozoites, meronts and gametocytes compatible with P. juxtanucleare, meaning these birds are competent hosts for this parasite. After these intriguing results, we sampled 30 backyard chickens managed at the area where P. juxtanucleare-infected passerines were captured, revealing one chicken infected by the same parasite lineage. We sequenced the almost complete mitochondrial genome from all positive passerines, revealing that Brazilian and Asian parasites are closely related. P. juxtanucleare can be lethal to non-domestic hosts under captive and rehabilitation conditions, suggesting that this novel spillover may pose a real threat to wild birds.
High concentrations of indium (In) and selenium (Se) have been reported in the Neves-Corvo volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Portugal. The distribution of these ore metals in the deposit is complex as a result of the combined effects of early ore-forming processes and late tectonometamorphic remobilization. The In and Se contents are higher in Cu-rich ore types, and lower in Zn-rich ore types. At the deposit scale, both In and Se correlate positively with Cu, whereas their correlations with Zn are close to zero. This argues for a genetic connection between Cu, In and Se in terms of metal sourcing and precipitation. However, re-distribution and re-concentration of In and Se associated with tectonometamorphic deformation are also processes of major importance for the actual distribution of these metals throughout the whole deposit. Although minor roquesite and other In-bearing phases were recognized, it is clear that most In within the deposit is found incorporated within sphalerite and chalcopyrite. When chalcopyrite and sphalerite coexist, the In content in sphalerite (avg. 1400 ppm) is, on average, 2–3 times higher than in chalcopyrite (avg. 660 ppm). The In content in stannite (avg. 1.3 wt.%) is even higher than in sphalerite, but the overall abundance of stannite is subordinate to either sphalerite or chalcopyrite. Selenium is dispersed widely between many different ore minerals, but galena is the main Se-carrier. On average, the Se content in galena is ~50 times greater than in either chalcopyrite (avg. 610 ppm) or sphalerite (avg. 590 ppm). The copper concentrate produced at Neves-Corvo contains very significant In (+Se) content, well above economic values if the copper smelters recovered it. Moreover, the high In content of sphalerite from some Cu-Zn ores, or associated with shear structures, could possibly justify, in the future, a selective exploitation strategy for the production of an In-rich zinc concentrate.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
Although the efficiency of transfer of N is higher in dairy cows than in growing ruminants, there is still room for improvement as only approximately 30% of the ingested N is recovered in milk protein. The remainder is excreted in faeces (30%) and urine (40%). This review will focus on the metabolic utilisation of the digested N fraction: where in the body is this N partitioned between anabolic (milk protein, tissue growth) and catabolic (urine) fates and what factors influence its efficiency of use?
Cannabis use has been linked to impairments in neuropsychological functioning across a large and continually expanding body of research. Yet insight into underlying causal relations remains limited due to the historically cross-sectional nature of studies in this area. Recently, however, studies have begun to use more informative design strategies to delineate these associations. The aim of this article is to provide a critical evaluation and review of research that uses longitudinal designs to examine the link between cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. In summarizing the primary findings across these studies, this review suggests that cannabis use leads to neuropsychological decline. However, across most studies, these associations were modest, were present only for the group with the heaviest cannabis use, and were often attenuated (or no longer significant) after controlling for potential confounding variables. Future studies with neuropsychological data before and after initiation of cannabis use, along with careful measurement and control of “shared risk factors” between cannabis use and poorer neuropsychological outcomes, are needed to better understand who, and under what conditions, is most vulnerable to cannabis-associated neuropsychological decline. (JINS, 2017, 23, 893–902)
Since the discovery of the 616-523 rotational transition of interstellar water in maser emission, several hundred sources have been discovered. Their profiles are very variable, presenting correlated variability (Gammon, 1976) or anticorrelated variability (Cesaroni, 1990). Several models have been proposed to explain this variability. Strong Galactic masers, such as W49 and W51 (Kylafis et al. 1991), and also an extremely strong outburst detected by Abraham et al. (1981) in Orion, could not be fully explained based on current models. We have monitored from October 1989 to July 1991 a very strong water vapour eruption in the +28 km s−1 feature, originated from W49N. Here we present the results and discuss the possible correlated variability of this feature with the one that appeared at +62 km s−1.
We have investigated the V, B – V “clump” morphology of the globular cluster NGC 6553 (Ortolani et al. 1990, OBB90) through synthetic horizontal branch (SHB) models. Catelan's (1993) computations were extended to more metal-rich compositions, following Sweigart (1987) and Castellani et al. (1991), and transposed to the observational plane on the basis of VandenBerg's (1992) colour transformations and bolometric corrections. Observational scatter has also been added. In general, the SHB models are very clumpy, unlike the observed feature, which seems extended and peculiarly tilted. However, for particular combinations of helium abundance, metallicity, and mean mass on the HB, tilted models result, being however significantly less sloped and wider than observed. The NGC 6553 field is differentially reddened by ΔE(B – V) ≈ 0.06 (OBB90), which has been modelled, but which implies a CMD scatter which is smaller than the one originating from evolution away from the zero-age HB alone. We have also investigated the age of the cluster (ΔV method) and location of the red giant branch “bump,” in comparison with 47 Tuc. Since the helium and α-elements abundances are not known for NGC 6553, three chemical evolution scenarios have been considered, following the method of de Freitas Pacheco (1993). Details can be found elsewhere (Catelan et al. 1994).