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Cognitive impairment is strongly linked with persistent disability in people with mood disorders, but the factors that explain cognitive impairment in this population are unclear.
To estimate the total effect of (a) bipolar disorder and (b) major depression on cognitive function, and the magnitude of the effect that is explained by potentially modifiable intermediate factors.
Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort. Participants were categorised as having bipolar disorder (n = 2709), major depression (n = 50 975) or no mood disorder (n = 102 931 and n = 105 284). The outcomes were computerised tests of reasoning, reaction time and memory. The potential mediators were cardiometabolic disease and psychotropic medication. Analyses were informed by graphical methods and controlled for confounding using regression, propensity score-based methods and G-computation.
Group differences of small magnitude were found on a visuospatial memory test. Z-score differences for the bipolar disorder group were in the range −0.23 to −0.17 (95% CI −0.39 to −0.03) across different estimation methods, and for the major depression group they were approximately −0.07 (95% CI −0.10 to −0.03). One-quarter of the effect was mediated via psychotropic medication in the bipolar disorder group (−0.05; 95% CI −0.09 to −0.01). No evidence was found for mediation via cardiometabolic disease.
In a large community-based sample in middle to early old age, bipolar disorder and depression were associated with lower visuospatial memory performance, in part potentially due to psychotropic medication use. Mood disorders and their treatments will have increasing importance for population cognitive health as the proportion of older adults continues to grow.
Declaration of interest
I.J.D. is a UK Biobank participant. J.P.P. is a member of the UK Biobank Steering Committee.
Low birth weight has been inconsistently associated with risk of
developing affective disorders, including major depressive disorder
(MDD). To date, studies investigating possible associations between birth
weight and bipolar disorder (BD), or personality traits known to
predispose to affective disorders such as neuroticism, have not been
conducted in large cohorts.
To assess whether very low birth weight (<1500 g) and low birth weight
(1500–2490 g) were associated with higher neuroticism scores assessed in
middle age, and lifetime history of either MDD or BD. We controlled for
possible confounding factors.
Retrospective cohort study using baseline data on the 83 545 UK Biobank
participants with detailed mental health and birth weight data. Main
outcomes were prevalent MDD and BD, and neuroticism assessed using the
Eysenck Personality Inventory Neuroticism scale - Revised (EPIN-R)
Referent to normal birth weight, very low/low birth weight were
associated with higher neuroticism scores, increased MDD and BD. The
associations between birth weight category and MDD were partially
mediated by higher neuroticism.
These findings suggest that intrauterine programming may play a role in
lifetime vulnerability to affective disorders.
The relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood.
To assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample.
Cross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors.
There were significant associations between mood disorder features and ‘any cardiovascular disease’ (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12–1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14–1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12–1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53–3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10–2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39–3.85).
Associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder.
The current paper describes Diet In Nutrients Out (DINO), an integrated dietary assessment system incorporating dietary data entry and nutritional analysis within one platform for use in dietary assessment in small-scale intervention studies to national surveys.
DINO contains >6000 food items, mostly aggregated composites of branded foods, across thirty-one main food groups divided into 151 subsidiary groups for detailed reporting requirements, with fifty-three core nutrient fields.
MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge, UK and MRC Keneba, Gambia.
DINO is used across dietary assessment projects at HNR and MRC Keneba.
DINO contains macro- and micronutrients as well as additional variables of current research and policy interest, such as caffeine, whole grains, vitamin K and added sugars. Disaggregated data are available for fruit, vegetables, meat, fish and cheese in composite foods, enabling greater accuracy when reporting food consumption or assessing adherence to dietary recommendations. Portion sizes are categorised in metric and imperial weights, with standardised portion sizes for each age group. Regular reviews are undertaken for portion sizes and food composition to ensure contemporary relevance. A training programme and a checking schedule are adhered to for quality assurance purposes, covering users and data. Eating context questions are integrated to record where and with whom the respondent is eating, allowing examination between these factors and the foods consumed.
An up-to-date quality-assured system for dietary assessment is crucial for nutritional surveillance and research, but needs to have the flexibility to be tailored to address specific research questions.
In order to investigate further the interest of using the Chilean gene pool in potato breeding programmes, the genetic diversity and population structure of a collection of Solanum tuberosum L. genotypes including 350 worldwide varieties or breeders' lines (referred to as the modern group) and 30 Chiloé Island landraces were examined using simple sequence repeat markers. The close genetic proximity of the Chiloé Island landraces to the modern group was confirmed using several structure analysis methods: principal coordinate analysis; hierarchical clustering analysis; analysis of molecular variance; Bayesian model-based clustering analysis. The latter analysis, in particular, revealed no clear genetic structure between the modern group and the Chiloé Island landraces. The Chiloé Island germplasm appears to represent an interesting gene pool that could be exploited in potato breeding programmes using an association mapping approach.
An 8-year-long field experiment (1998–2006) was established in Sweden with the aim of evaluating the effects of applying organic wastes in combination with mineral nitrogen (N) to agricultural soil. Sewage sludge (SS), biogas residues (BR) and municipal compost (CO) were applied annually at rates corresponding to 50 kg N/ha and supplementary mineral N fertilizer also applied at rates corresponding to 50 kg N/ha. The effects were evaluated by analysing crop yield and soil chemical and microbiological properties. The results showed that none of the fertilizers produced significantly higher yield of barley over the 8-year period compared to any other. Biogas residue proved to be particularly beneficial for the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) in soil and increased the proportion of active to dormant micro-organisms. Treatment with SS increased plant-available phosphorus (P-AL) and N mineralization (N-min), whereas CO increased the basal respiration (B-resp). Changes in the microbial community structure were assayed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP); the T-RFLP signatures of the soil bacterial community were largely unaffected by the addition of organic waste. Of the chemical properties assayed, the largest increases were seen in P-AL, where SS produced the highest value. Treatments with the organic wastes showed no negative effects other than a slight decrease in B-resp induced by SS and BR. In conclusion, the microbiological activity in the soil responded more rapidly than the changes in the community structure and the chemical properties to changes in the soil environment.
The aim of this paper is to explain the process of diversification of normative economics by presenting the work of two authors—Tibor Scitovsky (1910–2002) and Amartya Sen (1933–). While these two authors first contributed to traditional welfare analysis from within, they were subsequently involved in the development of two different, and even opposed, programs: the economics of happiness; and the capability approach. They focused on different concepts of well-being: the “joy” of satisfied consumers for Scitovsky; and the “capabilities” of deprived individuals for Sen. In imposing new theoretical frameworks and applications, as well as new concepts of well-being, which are measureable, the capability approach and the economics of happiness represent two major attempts to renew normative economic analysis.
The potential of antibodies raised against insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as a treatment to enhance the anabolic actions of IGF-1 has been demonstrated in both rodent and ruminant models. We investigated whether treatment of genetically normal rats with anti-IGF-1 immunoglobulin (Ig, raised in cattle) would enhance growth and if anti-IGF-1 Ig treatment would ameliorate live-weight loss in genetically normal rats offered a severely protein-restricted diet. Scatchard analysis was used to characterise ammonium sulphate precipitated bovine anti-IGF-1 Ig. Anti-IGF-1 Ig binding to 125I-IGF-1 yielded an almost linear Scatchard plot, with a Hill co-efficient of 0.951 ± 0.012, indicating a single class of IGF-1 binding sites. The affinity of anti-IGF-1 Ig for IGF-1 was 2.14 ± 0.66 × 109 l/mol. The non-immune Ig preparation did not bind IGF-1. Rats were offered either a diet with a normal protein level (20%) or protein restricted (4% protein), and each dietary group was further treated with twice-daily i.p. injections of either diluent phosphate buffered saline, non-immune Ig or anti-IGF-1 Ig. Dietary protein level had a significant effect on live-weight gain, but there was no effect of non-immune Ig or anti-IGF-1 Ig on live-weight gain. Treatment with anti-IGF-1 Ig prevented the significant depression of cumulative dietary intake observed in diluent, and non-immune Ig treated groups offered the 4% protein diet. The cumulative dietary intake of the anti-IGF-1 Ig treated, 4% dietary protein group did not differ significantly from those of the groups offered the 20% protein diet. In addition, within the 4% dietary protein group, rats treated with non-immune Ig exhibited a cumulative feed intake that was intermediate between that of the diluent treated and anti-IGF-1 Ig treated groups (P < 0.05). Size exclusion chromatography was used to characterise in vitro125I-IGF-1 binding in end-point plasma from each treatment group. In comparison to control groups, anti-IGF-1 Ig treatment resulted in substantially increased 125I-IGF-1 binding in the 30 to 40 kDa region and a concomitant reduction in elution of free 125I-IGF-1. Protein restriction markedly depressed IGF-1 binding at ∼150 kDa in the plasma of diluent and non-immune Ig treated groups. Anti-IGF-1 Ig treatment was effective in preventing this decrease in ∼150 kDa binding. Thus, anti-IGF-1 Ig appears to have a beneficial effect on dietary intake in protein-restricted rats, which is associated with induced changes in IGF-1 binding profiles in plasma.
The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) lives in two geographically separated populations, Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda and in three national parks spanning the Virunga mountain region in Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Uganda. The altitude, climate and plant composition of these habitats differ. Our goal was to compare the diets of gorillas living in each of these habitats. The nutrients in staple foods and in the diets of individuals in a group of gorillas in Bwindi (N = 12 individuals) and a group in the Virungas (N = 7 individuals) were compared to determine if differences in dietary composition affected concentrations of nutrients in their diets. At both sites gorilla diets consisted primarily of herbaceous leaves, but the diet of Bwindi gorillas contained more tree leaves, fruit, pith and dry wood, and fewer stems. Despite differences in habitat and dietary composition, the nutrient concentrations in both gorilla diets were remarkably similar. On a dry matter basis, the diets and staple foods of Bwindi and Virunga gorillas contained similar concentrations of crude protein (CP), fibre (NDF) and non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). Bwindi gorillas ate diets containing 18% CP, 43% NDF and 19% TNC on a dry-matter basis, while the diets of the Virunga gorillas contained 17% CP, 41% NDF and 18% TNC. Our results demonstrate that gorillas consume diets that differ by plant species and part, but contain similar concentrations of nutrients. This suggests that classifying animals by broad dietary strategy (e.g. frugivory and folivory) does not provide a reliable indicator of the nutritional quality of their diet, and that our previous assumptions about these categories should be re-evaluated.
The entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis is an important natural enemy of aphids. ISSR, ERIC (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus) and RAPD PCR-based DNA fingerprint analyses were undertaken to study intra-specific variation amongst 30 isolates of P. neoaphidis worldwide, together with six closely related species of Entomophthorales. All methods yielded scorable binary characters, and distance matrices were constructed from both individual and combined data sets. Neighbour-joining was used to construct consensus phylogenetic trees which showed that although P. neoaphidis isolates were highly polymorphic they separated into a monophyletic group compared with the other Entomophthorales tested. Three distinct subclades were found, with UK isolates occupying two of these. No specific correlation with aphid host species was established for any of the isolates apart from those in one cluster which contained isolates obtained from nettle aphid, Microlophium carnosum. ERIC, ISSR and RAPD analysis allowed the rapid genetic characterisation and differentiation of isolates with the generation of potential isolate- and cluster specific- diagnostic DNA markers.
In Sweden, deposition of organic waste will be prohibited in the year 2005. Instead, the waste will be either incinerated or source separated, processed (composted or anaerobically digested) and recycled back to arable land. In order to evaluate the biologically processed waste products as fertilizers, a field experiment was initiated in Sweden in the autumn of 1998. The main focus of the experiment was to compare compost (C) from source-separated domestic waste with biogas residues (BR) from source-separated domestic waste. Each fertilizer was applied in two combinations: in treatments C50 and BR50, 50 kg N/ha/year originates from the waste and 50 kg N/ha/year from mineral nitrogen fertilizer, while in C100 and BR100, the organic wastes were the only plant nutrient sources (100 kg N/ha/year). Mineral fertilizer (NPS100) and unamended were used as controls. Generally pure mineral fertilizers resulted in the highest yield, while control without nitrogen generated the lowest yield. A combination of organic fertilizer and mineral fertilizer resulted in higher yield compared with applying sole organic fertilizer. Total mineral N in the fertilizer was generally the best overall predictor/regressor for grain yield, total nitrogen yield and apparent bioavailable nitrogen. Application of biogas residue resulted in higher yield and grain quality than compost. The higher concentration of nitrogen in oats suggested that oats is a better choice when using compost as a fertilizer. In conclusion, compost and anaerobic biogas residues should not be used as sole fertilizers. Compost should be complemented with mineral N and the biogas residues with P. If compensation for the low content of mineral N in compost is made by a higher application rate, large amounts of heavy metals might be applied along with the compost.
Studies were performed to assess the genetic variation amongst isolates of the aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis (syn. Erynia neoaphidis). 37 isolates were examined, from a range of pest and non-pest aphid species, as well as 21 from eight other entomophthoralean species. Universal primers were used to amplify the ITS rDNA regions and all of the species tested produced discrete ITS groups, with the exception of Conidiobolus spp. Neighbour-joining analysis of the ITS2 regions from P. neoaphidis, P. kondoiensis and Zoophthora radicans demonstrated that these three species formed distinct groups with sequence identities of 58–82% between the groups. An ITS size of ca 1100 bp was diagnostic for P. neoaphidis, while ca 1450 bp was characteristic of P. kondoiensis. ITS-RFLP analysis failed to yield intraspecific polymorphisms in any of the P. neoaphidis isolates screened, although it was useful in distinguishing between different entomophthoralean species. Some intraspecific variation in the ITS region was detected in a number of isolates of Z. radicans and Conidiobolus spp. We propose that two isolates previously identified as P. neoaphidis based on conidia morphology, are actually P. kondoiensis based on molecular studies. Sequencing analysis of the complete ITS region from P. neoaphidis and P. kondoiensis allowed species-specific primers to be developed for P. neoaphidis and P. kondoiensis. These were used to screen aphids infected in laboratory bioassays and from field-collected samples, without prior isolation of the fungus. The primers are useful tools for quantifying the epizootiology of P. neoaphidis in aphid populations, as well as assessing competitive interactions between these two species.
Octanethiol-stabilized Si nanocrystals, ranging from 2 to 8 nm in diameter, were synthesized in cyclohexane heated and pressurized above its critical point at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 500°C. The nanocrystals exhibit crystalline cores and photoluminesce with relatively high efficiencies. These nanocrystals are suitable for single particle spectroscopic measurements that reveal optical information about the individual chromophores that are buried in ensemble measurements. The sterically-stabilized Si nanocrystals emit with relatively narrow emission spectra at room temperature, characteristic of molecules.
were the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the first to define, for British people, ‘the urban experience’? In broad terms, the answer to this would have to be in the negative, since the pattern of major towns, at least in England and Scotland, was already long-established, and the sixteenth century’s increase in population can be seen as a phase of recovery as much as of expansion. On the other hand, it is in this period that London emerges as a European metropolis and as England’s capital city, that urbanisation becomes linked with national identity and centralised government, and that the proportion of those resident in towns, or sharing in the experience of towns in some phase of life, begins to accelerate. In this chapter, urbanisation will first be examined in demographic terms, with reference to migration, fertility, marriage and mortality, especially in relation to subsistence and the shift from epidemic to endemic causes of death. The second section explores contemporary sensibilities and social structure as affected by changes in the pattern of disease and in the urban environment, touching on gender, work and poverty, and contemporary ideas about population, crowding and urban life. By ‘environment’ we mean, in particular, factors affecting townspeople’s sense of the presence of others. The final section analyses the ambivalent character of two staple sources of reassurance, household and neighbourhood, which provided continuity but which can be shown to be open to challenge and renegotiation from within and without as urban pressures intensified.