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The death of a previously healthy 14-year-old boy on the tenth day following accidental fresh-water drowning allowed us to study light and electron microscopic findings of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a previously healthy lung. The patient was treated initially for aspiration pneumonia with corticosteroids and antibiotics, and later received high concentrations of inspired oxygen during mechanical ventilation.
Autopsy permission was obtained at the time of death. Six percent gludaraldehyde in Clark's buffer containing methylene blue was injected into the right upper lobe within 20 minutes of cardiac arrest and an autopsy was performed approximately 3 hours later. Fixed tissues (marked with the blue dye) were removed, sectioned, washed briefly in Clark's buffer and post-fixed in 2 percent OsO4; in Clark's buffer for 2 hours. These were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and embedded in Epon 812. Ultra thin sections were double-stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate and examined using the Phillips Model 300 electron microscope.
Airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) surveys are widely used to measure ice-sheet bed topography. Measuring bed topography as accurately and widely as possible is of critical importance to modelling ice dynamics and hence to constraining better future ice response to climate change. Measurement accuracy of RES surveys is influenced both by the geometry of bed topography and the survey design. Here we develop a novel approach for simulating RES surveys over glaciated terrain, to quantify the sensitivity of derived bed elevation to topographic geometry. Furthermore, we investigate how measurement errors influence the quantification of glacial valley geometry. We find a negative bias across RES measurements, where off-nadir return measurement error is typically −1.8 ± 11.6 m. Topographic highlands are under-measured an order of magnitude more than lowlands. Consequently, valley depth and cross-sectional area are largely under-estimated. While overall estimates of ice thickness are likely too high, we find large glacier valley cross-sectional area to be under-estimated by −2.8 ± 18.1%. Therefore, estimates of ice flux through large outlet glaciers are likely too low when this effect is not taken into account. Additionally, bed mismeasurements potentially impact our appreciation of outlet-glacier stability.
Previous research suggests that adult anxiety disorders begin in adolescence and the transition from primary school to secondary school is the first challenge many young adolescents face, which could test their resilience for the first time.
To examine students’ anxiety scores before and after their transition, and what protective and risk factors are present during this challenge.
To determine how the transition can impact anxiety in children, and if protective factors can help decrease the disruption that the transition can cause.
One hundred and eighty-four pupils completed questionnaires in their last term of primary school and during the first term of secondary school. At time 1: the attachment, school membership, and bullying and victimization measures were compared with pupils’ anxiety scores, along with whether their friends or siblings will be attending the same secondary school as them. These analyses will also be conducted once the pupils start secondary school, at time 2.
Secure attachment was associated with lower anxiety and transition anxiety (F(2.56) = 7.255, P = .002; F(2.52) = 19.245, P = .000; F(2.181) = 10.181, P = .000; F(2.53) = 20.545, P = .000). School membership was associated with lower transition anxiety (F(2.181) = 4.151, P = .017; F(2.181) = 3.632, P = .028). Low victimisation was also associated with low anxiety and transition anxiety (F(2.181) = 14.024, P = .000; F(2.181) = 14.529, P = .000; F(2.181) = 9.381, P = .000).
These preliminary results suggest that attachment, school membership and victimisation all impact on pupils anxiety before they transition to secondary school. Therefore, schools could work together to increase school membership and decrease victimisation, particularly for pupils who they suspect will struggle with the transition.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Family dysfunction can test the resilience of adolescents, specifically those from single parent families and those attending schools in more socio-economically challenged areas.
To determine what factors are associated with resilience for those from single parent families or attend schools in more socio-economically challenged areas.
To examine the role of emotional regulation and self-esteem as putative resilience factors in the context of single parents status and socioeconomic disadvantage.
Secondary school pupils from single and dual parent families aged 13 to 15 answered questionnaires at three time points on: emotional regulation, self-esteem, depression and anxiety. A total of 434 pupils took part at time 1, 574 at time 2, and 467 at time 3. The secondary schools were categorised into more and less disadvantaged schools.
Positive self-esteem [F(1.205) = 54.568, P = 0.000; F(1.157) = 35.582, P = 0.000] and emotional regulation [F(1.205) = 46.925, P = 0.000; F(1.157) = 16.583, P = 0.000] were both associated with resilience against depression in adolescents from single parent families. Positive self-esteem [F(1,75) = 102.629, P = 0.000; F(1.355) = 60.555, P = 0.000] and emotional regulation [F(1.60) = 34.813, P = 0.000; F(1.73) = 36.891, P = 0.000] were both associated with resilience against depression in adolescents attending more socio-economically challenged areas.
This research suggests that adolescent resilience against depression may be promoted by improving self-esteem and emotional regulation. Therefore, future interventions could focus on boosting these resilience factors. Further resilience research could include emotional regulation and self-esteem as protective factors for resilience in adolescent mental health. As these variables have been identified, they can help find more pieces to the complex puzzle of resilience.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Chapter 4 directly links the regulations introduced in Chapter 3 with public meetings. This chapter focuses on why proposals end up in public meetings and what types of issues members of the public and zoning officials raise. We introduce the novel data on meeting minutes from Massachusetts cities and towns that we use in Chapters 4, 5, and 6. Using these meeting minutes, we trace 100 randomly selected proposals in which we collected especially detailed project and meeting information. We show that once a project requires a public hearing, members of the public raise any and all concerns—not just those directly pertaining to the regulations that necessitated a meeting in the first place. The regulations described in Chapter 3 provide the opportunities for neighborhood defenders to air virtually all of their concerns and objections.
Chapter 2 develops our theory, highlighting how land use regulations and participatory inequalities come together to constrain the supply of new housing. We use a detailed case study of a Catholic Church redevelopment project to illustrate how neighbors opposed to development are able to delay development and reduce what gets built by participating in the planning and permitting process.
Chapter 1 uses several illustrative case studies to introduce the central argument of this book: that land use institutions ostensibly designed to empower underrepresented neighborhood groups actually amplify the power of neighborhood defenders to stop and delay the construction of new housing. We then situate this argument in the broader context of rising national housing costs, and the negative social, economic, and environmental consequences of the nationwide housing crunch.
Chapter 3 uses land use regulation and housing permitting data to: (1) clearly describe how land use regulations operate and (2) statistically link their proliferation with a diminished housing supply. We show how regulations create opportunities for opponents to file lawsuits, and how these lawsuits in turn reduce development. In order to address potential selection bias in our empirical analyses, we then use the redevelopment of Catholic Church properties across the greater Boston area as a natural experiment, and show that zoning regulations of all types decreased the density of the housing built on former church sites.