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No standardized surveillance criteria exist for surgical site infection after breast tissue expander (BTE) access. This report provides a framework for defining postaccess BTE infections and identifies contributing factors to infection during the expansion period. Implementing infection prevention guidelines for BTE access may reduce postaccess BTE infections.
Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days. In Periods 1 and 2, the 36 cows were fed a high-forage partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content. In Period 3, cows were fed a commercial PMR containing 69% forage. Cows were offered PMR ad libitum plus concentrates during milking and CH4 emitted by individual cows was sampled during 8662 milkings. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences among cows, feeding periods and time of day. Considerable variation was observed among cows in daily mean and diurnal patterns of CH4 emissions. On average, cows produced less CH4 when fed on the commercial PMR in feeding Period 3 than when the same cows were fed on high-forage diets in feeding Periods 1 and 2. The average diurnal pattern for CH4 emissions did not significantly change between feeding periods and as lactation progressed. Emissions of CH4 were positively associated with dry matter (DM) intake and forage DM intake. It is concluded that if the management of feed allocation remains constant then the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from dairy cows will not necessarily alter over time. A change in diet composition may bring about an increase or decrease in absolute emissions over a 24-h period without significantly changing the diurnal pattern unless management of feed allocation changes. These findings are important for CH4 monitoring techniques that involve taking measurements over short periods within a day rather than complete 24-h observations.
Mood instability is common, and an important feature of several psychiatric
disorders. We discuss the definition and measurement of mood instability,
and review its prevalence, characteristics, neurobiological correlates and
clinical implications. We suggest that mood instability has underappreciated
transdiagnostic potential as an investigational and therapeutic target.
Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard treatment for cervical spondylosis but there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding which type of bone graft is superior: autograft or allograft. The purpose of this study is to evaluate fusion after ACDF using a stand-alone intervertebral cage packed with autologous cervical bone shavings acquired during the procedure. Twenty patients that underwent single-level ACDF from 2011 to 2014 using a stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage were recruited. Patients were evaluated for evidence of bone fusion by plain films and CT scan. Fusion was primarily assessed by grading the level of trabecular bridging bone across the bone-graft interface. Odom’s criteria were used to assess clinical outcome. All interbody disc spaces achieved successful fusion at follow-up. A total of 80% (16/20) of patients had radiographic evidence of trabecular bone present both within and around the cage. The other 20% exhibited bridging bone within the cage but had evidence of minor radiolucent gaps and lack of bridging bone completely surrounding the cage. Eighty percent of patients reported excellent/good clinical outcomes. ACDF using a PEEK stand-alone cage with autograft bone shavings has a high rate of fusion and avoids potential complications of classic autograft harvesting and decreased allograft fusion rates.
Methane (CH4) emissions by dairy cows vary with feed intake and diet composition. Even when fed on the same diet at the same intake, however, variation between cows in CH4 emissions can be substantial. The extent of variation in CH4 emissions among dairy cows on commercial farms is unknown, but developments in methodology now permit quantification of CH4 emissions by individual cows under commercial conditions. The aim of this research was to assess variation among cows in emissions of eructed CH4 during milking on commercial dairy farms. Enteric CH4 emissions from 1964 individual cows across 21 farms were measured for at least 7 days/cow using CH4 analysers at robotic milking stations. Cows were predominantly of Holstein Friesian breed and remained on the same feeding systems during sampling. Effects of explanatory variables on average CH4 emissions per individual cow were assessed by fitting a linear mixed model. Significant effects were found for week of lactation, daily milk yield and farm. The effect of milk yield on CH4 emissions varied among farms. Considerable variation in CH4 emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for fixed and random effects, with the CV ranging from 22% to 67% within farms. This study confirms that enteric CH4 emissions vary among cows on commercial farms, suggesting that there is considerable scope for selecting individual cows and management systems with reduced emissions.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) has provided a uniform photometric catalog to search for previously unknown red active galactic nuclei (AGN) and Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs).We have extended the search to the southern equatorial sky by obtaining spectra for 1182 AGN candidates using the six degree field (6dF) multifibre spectrograph on the UK Schmidt Telescope. These were scheduled as auxiliary targets for the 6dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. The candidates were selected using a single color cut of J – Ks > 2 to Ks ≲ 15.5 and a galactic latitude of lbl > 30°. 432 spectra were of sufficient quality to enable a reliable classification. 116 sources (∼27%) were securely classified as type I AGN, 20 as probable type I AGN, and 57 as probable type II AGN. Most of them span the redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.5 and only 8 (∼6%) were previously identified as AGN or QSOs. Our selection leads to a significantly higher AGN identification rate amongst local galaxies (>20%) than in any previous (mostly blue-selected) galaxy survey. A small fraction of the type I AGN could have their optical colors reddened by optically thin dust with AV < 2 mag relative to optically selected QSOs. A handful show evidence of excess far-infrared (IR) emission. The equivalent width (EW) and color distributions of the type I and II AGN are consistent with AGN unified models. In particular, the EW of the [Oiii] emission line weakly correlates with optical–near-IR color in each class of AGN, suggesting anisotropic obscuration of the AGN continuum. Overall, the optical properties of the 2MASS red AGN are not dramatically different from those of optically-selected QSOs. Our near-IR selection appears to detect the most near-IR luminous QSOs in the local universe to z≃0.6 and provides incentive to extend the search to deeper near-IR surveys.
Seventy-five individuals with Salmonella infection were identified in the Portsmouth area during August and September 2009, predominantly Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 8. Five patients were admitted to hospital. A case-case comparison study showed that a local restaurant was the most likely source of the infection with a risk of illness among its customers 25-fold higher than that of those who did not attend the restaurant. A case-control study conducted to investigate specific risk factors for infection at the restaurant showed that eating salad was associated with a threefold increase in probability of illness. Changing from using ready washed lettuces to lettuces requiring washing and not adhering strictly to the 48 hours exclusion policy for food handlers with diarrhoea were likely to have contributed to the initiation and propagation of this outbreak. Possibilities for cross-contamination and environmental contamination were identified in the restaurant.
Infections involving Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars have serious animal and human health implications; causing gastroenteritis in humans and clinical symptoms, such as diarrhoea and abortion, in livestock. In this study an optical genetic mapping technique was used to screen 20 field isolate strains from four serovars implicated in disease outbreaks. The technique was able to distinguish between the serovars and the available sequenced strains and group them in agreement with similar data from microarrays and PFGE. The optical maps revealed variation in genome maps associated with antimicrobial resistance and prophage content in S. Typhimurium, and separated the S. Newport strains into two clear geographical lineages defined by the presence of prophage sequences. The technique was also able to detect novel insertions that may have had effects on the central metabolism of some strains. Overall optical mapping allowed a greater level of differentiation of genomic content and spatial information than more traditional typing methods.
The pollination ecology, breeding system and population genetic structure of three climbing Bauhinia species B. championii (4 populations, 23 individuals), B. corymbosa (2 populations, 25 individuals) and B. glauca (8 populations, 76 individuals) were studied in Hong Kong, southern China. We hypothesize that the climbing Bauhinia species will attract targeted pollinators to achieve out-cross success and high levels of self-incompatibility will be expected to maintain diversity, with local population expansion relying on vegetative propagation. All three species have inflorescences consisting of numerous small, pale, fragrant flowers, which show diurnal anthesis. Field observations revealed that all three species are predominantly pollinated by bees (particularly Apis mellifera) and butterflies (Graphium and Papilio species), although B. championii is also pollinated by wasps and flies. Bauhinia corymbosa and B. glauca have sucrose-dominant nectar, whereas B. championii has hexose-dominant nectar. In controlled-pollination experiments fruit and seed set were generally highest following artificial out-crossing. The index of self-incompatibility of B. championii is 1.07, indicating self-compatibility; B. corymbosa and B. glauca were obligately self-incompatible. The population genetic structure and variation of the Bauhinia species was investigated using ISSR markers. Generally the three species have moderate within-population (mean HS = 0.206) and high among-population genetic variation (mean GST = 0.284). No correlation exists between the geographical and genetic distance, possibly due to the small local population size. All three species showed high levels of heterozygosity as expected for predominantly out-crossing long-lived K-selected species.
We conducted a case-control study examining risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter infections that were reported in 2004 and 2005 in two health regions in southern Alberta. The study questionnaire included questions about recent travel and antibiotic use, food consumption frequency, use of household and personal hygiene products with antibacterial agents, contact with animals, and potential misuse of antibiotics. Of the 210 patients who participated, 31·0% had ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infections. Foreign travel was the strongest predictor of resistance. Surprisingly, possession of antibiotics for future use was identified as a risk factor for resistance. We also examined the potential for participation bias and resistance misclassification to affect the resulting multivariable models. Participation bias appears to have had a substantial effect on the model results, but the estimated misclassification effect due to the use of different ciprofloxacin susceptibility testing methods was only slight.
A postal survey of 500 general practitioners (GPs) in south-west England was undertaken to evaluate the levels of undergraduate and postgraduate otolaryngology training and/or experience received by GPs in that area. Most GPs had received two weeks of undergraduate training in ENT, which had involved no formal assessment. Three-quarters of GPs considered this inadequate. A quarter of GPs had completed a hospital post in ENT prior to entering general practice, most of which lasted three months. Sixty-one per cent of GPs had received some formal postgraduate training in ENT, in the form of courses, lectures or hospital training sessions. Almost half of the GPs considered this inadequate. Seventy-five per cent of GPs stated they would like further training in ENT. Subjective estimates of referral rates to hospital ENT specialist clinics varied considerably.
This study illustrates the variability and level of dissatisfaction regarding ENT training amongst GPs at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
RNA interference (RNAi) has become an invaluable tool for the functional analysis of genes in a wide variety of organisms including the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Recently, attempts have been made to apply this technology to parasitic helminths of animals and plants with variable success. Gene knockdown has been reported for Schistosoma mansoni by soaking or electroporating different life-stages in dsRNA. Similar approaches have been tested on parasitic nematodes which clearly showed that, under certain conditions, it was possible to interfere with gene expression. However, despite these successes, the current utility of this technology in parasite research is questionable. First, problems have arisen with the specificity of RNAi. Treatment of the parasites with dsRNA resulted, in many cases, in non-specific effects. Second, the current RNAi methods have a limited efficiency and effects are sometimes difficult to reproduce. This was especially the case in strongylid parasites where only a small number of genes were susceptible to RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The future application of RNAi in parasite functional genomics will greatly depend on how we can overcome these difficulties. Optimization of the dsRNA delivery methods and in vitro culture conditions will be the major challenges.
Oxidative stress occurs when antioxidant defence mechanisms are overwhelmed by free radicals and may lead to damage to DNA, which has been implicated in processes such as ageing and cancer. The Comet assay allows detection of oxidative DNA damage in individual cells. As horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) have been shown to demonstrate low antioxidant status and oxidative stress, we hypothesised that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of horses with RAO would demonstrate increases in DNA damage following natural allergen challenge.
Six horses (mean age 15 years, range 8-23 years) diagnosed with RAO (in remission) and 6 healthy breed matched controls (mean age 9 years, range 5-15 years) were studied. Blood samples were collected 7 days prior to challenge and immediately and 3 days after stabling on mouldy hay and straw for 24h. All animals were kept at grass prior to and after the challenge period. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and neutrophil counts determined.
To describe the incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal cord injury and cauda equina injury (SCI) in a geographically defined region of Canada.
The study period was April 1, 1997 to March 31, 2000. Data were gathered from three provincial sources: administrative data from the Alberta Ministry of Health and Wellness, records from the Alberta Trauma Registry, and death certificates from the Office of the Medical Examiner.
From all three data sources, 450 cases of SCI were identified. Of these, 71 (15.8%) died prior to hospitalization. The annual incidence rate was 52.5/million population (95% CI: 47.7, 57.4). For those who survived to hospital admission, the incidence rate was 44.3/million/year (95% CI: 39.8, 48.7). The incidence rates for males were consistently higher than for females for all age groups. Motor vehicle collisions accounted for 56.4% of injuries, followed by falls (19.1%). The highest incidence of motor vehicle-related SCI occurred to those between 15 and 29 years (60/million/year). Fall-related injuries primarily occurred to those older than 60 years (45/million/year). Rural residents were 2.5 times as likely to be injured as urban residents.
Prevention strategies for SCI should target males of all ages, adolescents and young adults of both sexes, rural residents, motor vehicle collisions, and fall prevention for those older than 60 years.