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The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
Rotavirus (RV) infection causes acute infantile diarrhoea in humans and animals and remains a major concern for vaccine development. The close proximity of humans to animals may foster cross-species infection resulting in the emergence of novel/unusual strains by genetic reassortment. In this study, we characterized 500 diarrhoeal samples for group A rotaviruses (RVA) from children (n = 290), piglets (n = 95) and calves (n = 115) in Northeast India during 2012–2013. The data showed that 142/500 (28·4%) faecal samples were positive for RVA with the highest level of infection detected in piglets (57/142, 40·1%) followed by children (51/142, 35·9%) and calves (34/142, 23·9%). Sequence-based G- and P-typing showed G1P (25%) and G1P (35%) were the prevailing genotypes in both humans and animals. Single cases of unusual genotypes, i.e. G9P, G5P in humans and G1P, G1P and G3P in animals were also identified. Cluster analyses of the sequences showed regional strains were genetically closer to their homologous strains. However, human G5P and porcine G1P strains showed homology to heterologous hosts of their prototype strains. The subsequent global spread of unusual RV strains may result in their establishment over time, presenting challenges to future vaccine evaluation programmes. More studies on emerging genotypes are required to elucidate how RVA strains evolve post-vaccination. This study supports the need for continuous surveillance of RVA infections after detecting from diverse hosts in a common setting.
We present a multi-wavelength study of a nearby radio loud elliptical galaxy NGC 708, selected from the Bologna B2 sample of radio galaxies. We obtained optical broad band and narrow images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India). We supplement the multi-wavelength coverage of the observation by using X-ray data from Chandra, infrared data from 2MASS, Spitzer and WISE and optical image from DSS and HST. In order to investigate properties of interstellar medium, we have generated unsharp-masked, color, residual, quotient, dust extinction, Hα emission maps. From the derived maps it is evident that cool gas, dust, warm ionized Hα and hot X-ray gas are spatially associated with each other. We investigate the inner and outer photometric and kinematic properties of the galaxy using surface brightness profiles. From X-ray 2d beta model, unsharp masking, surface brightness profiles techniques, it is evident that pair of X-ray cavities are present in this system and which are ~5.6 Kpc away from the central X-ray source.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
We report on a program to delineate magnetic field structure inside molecular clouds by optical and infrared polarization observations. An ordered magnetic field inside a dense cloud may efficiently align the spinning dust grains to cause a detectable level of optical and near-infrared polarization of otherwise unpolarized background starlight due to dichroic extinction. The near-infrared polarization data were taken by SIRPOL mounted on IRSF in SAAO. Here we present the SIRPOL results in RCW 57, for which the magnetic field is oriented along the cloud filaments, and in Carina Nebula, for which no intrinsic polarization is detected in the turbulent environment. We further describe TRIPOL, a compact and efficient polarimer to acquire polarized images simultaneously at g', r', and i' bands, which is recently developed at Nagoya University for adaption to small-aperture telescopes. We show how optical observations probe the translucent outer parts of a cloud, and when combining with infrared observations probing the dense parts, and with millimeter and submillimeter observations to sutdy the central embedded protostar, if there is one, would yield the magnetic field structure on different length scales in the star-formation process.
In vitro gas production (GP) of substrate incubated with cow rumen liquor is commonly used to evaluate feed nutritional quality; GP is correlated with organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy content. The hypothesis tested was that GP differs among liquors of ruminant species and is dependent on the natural dietary intake of the donors. Measurements were of 24 h GP of seven browse species using rumen liquor from a large (cow) and small (sheep) grazer and from a small intermediate feeder (goat). Mean GP for browse with goat liquor (7±2·4 ml per 200 mg substrate) was significantly (P=0·019) higher than that with cow liquor (5±1·9 ml), and GP with sheep liquor (6±1·1 ml) was intermediate, not significantly different from the cow liquor (P=0·197) and the goat liquor (P=0·061). There was a significant correlation in the ranking of the browses between goat and sheep (P=0·013) liquor using a Mantel test with 9999 permutations, which indicated a similar ranking of browses when using rumen liquor of either of these small ruminants. There were trends between both cow and sheep (P=0·096) and cow and goat (P=0·092) liquors. It was concluded that the dietary habits of ruminant species donors may affect in vitro nutritional studies when using rumen liquor.
The theory of particle aspect analysis is extended to the drift wave in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The dispersion relation and growth rate of the wave are evaluated and discussed when the magnetic field gradient is directed opposite to the density gradient. The plasma under consideration is assumed to be anisotropic and the effects of temperature anisotropy on the dispersion characteristics and growth rate of the wave are also studied. The dispersion relation and the growth rate are evaluated for the space plasma parameters.
The landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess wide diversity, which needs to be properly characterized for their use in genetic improvement. Replicated field studies were conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at two sites in Nepal to determine diversity in 183 landraces of rice adapted to the lowlands and the hills in Nepal. Fourteen improved genotypes were also used for comparison. Thirteen agronomic traits were investigated. Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) and Simpson's index of diversity (D) were estimated to determine the level of genetic richness among the landraces. The landraces differed significantly for all traits. Except for plant height and maturity, at least one of the landraces compared well with the performance of improved cultivars. A principal component analysis separated the lowland- and hill-adapted landraces into two broad groups.
Head and neck cancer care was analysed in 2167 unselected patients for management compliance and outcome. Median age was 55 years, with a male to female ratio of 5.5[ratio ]1. Major sites were oropharynx (32.4 per cent), larynx (19.8 per cent), oral (16.6 per cent) and hypopharynx (12.9 per cent). Stage-wise distribution was I–II=8.9 per cent, III=20.6 per cent and IV=60.3 per cent and unstaged=10.2 per cent. Squamous cell carcinoma was the dominant histology for 90.9 per cent. Clinic-based cancer-directed treatment decisions were made for 1905 patients: curative intent in 53 per cent, palliative in 35 per cent and for the remaining 262 (12 per cent) supportive care. Overall, 1209 (56 per cent) patients complied with the prescribed treatments; 62 per cent, 54 per cent, and 35 per cent of curative, palliative and supportive care intent groups, respectively. Modalities were radiotherapy alone (64.6 per cent), combined surgery with irradiation (17.6 per cent), and chemoradiotherapy (11.2 per cent). Median follow-up periods were 17.5 and three months in curative and palliative groups respectively. Overall, 712 (33 per cent) cases received curative therapy, with three-year disease-specific survival of 49 per cent. Patient compliance was a major obstacle. The comparison of this series with the USA, Canada and Norway showed wide disparities in stage of presentation and survival.
The intubating laryngeal mask airway is a modification of the conventional laryngeal mask and is used as a tool for difficult intubation. It can be inserted without placing the head and neck in the Magill position and has been used successfully in cervical spine injuries. Reported is a case of successful insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask and subsequent intubation through it in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with cervical involvement resulting in a fixed flexion deformity who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.
Many farmers are intensifying production systems by applying greater amounts of inorganic fertilizers, irrigation and pesticides, especially to cash crops. Such intensified systems, even though economically profitable in the short run, may not be sustainable. This paper analyses the economics and sustainability of an intensified rainfed rice-based system in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. Farmers use high levels of inorganic fertilizers for cash crops such as sweet pepper, garlic and tomato. Although these crops generate high levels of income, the high input systems may not be sustainable in the long run due to adverse on-site and off-site effects. Preliminary estimates of total factor productivity that include on-site effects only, display no clear time trend. However, negative externalities created by high nitrate contamination of groundwater and high rates of pesticide usage could make the system unsustainable by adversely affecting human health and the environment.
The paper presents a paraxial theory of the relativistic cross-focusing
coaxial Gaussian laser beams of different frequencies in a homogeneous
We discuss the self-focusing of a weaker laser beam in the plasma due to
optical inhomogeneities introduced by another stronger copropagating laser
beam. In the presence of the second stronger beam
plasma behaves as an oscillatory waveguide for the first, weaker, beam
(P1<Pcr11) as it propagates
in the plasma. When both the beams are strong
the nonlinearities introduced by the relativistic effect are
additive in nature, such that one beam can undergo oscillatory self-focusing
the other simultaneously defocusing, and vice versa. A comparison reveals
cross-focusing due to relativistic nonlinearity is possible for a wider
powers of the laser pulses than is cross-focusing due to ponderomotive
nonlinearity. Relativistic cross-focusing is important in plasma beat-wave
excitation and collective laser particle accelerators.
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