We retrospectively studied patients diagnosed with P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections (BSIs) in two Italian university hospitals. Risk factors for the isolation of multidrug-resistant (MDR) or non-MDR P. aeruginosa in blood cultures were identified by a case-case-control study, and a cohort study evaluated the clinical outcomes of such infections. We identified 106 patients with P. aeruginosa BSI over the 2-year study period; 40 cases with MDR P. aeruginosa and 66 cases with non-MDR P. aeruginosa were compared to 212 controls. Independent risk factors for the isolation of MDR P. aeruginosa were: presence of central venous catheter (CVC), previous antibiotic therapy, and corticosteroid therapy. Independent risk factors for non-MDR P. aeruginosa were: previous BSI, neutrophil count <500/mm3, urinary catheterization, and presence of CVC. The 21-day mortality rate of all patients was 33·9%. The variables independently associated with 21-day mortality were presentation with septic shock, infection due to MDR P. aeruginosa, and inadequate initial antimicrobial therapy.