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To understand how exposure to victimization during adolescence and the presence of comorbid psychological conditions influence substance use treatment entry and substance use disorder diagnosis from 14 to 25 years old among serious juvenile offenders, this study included 1,354 serious juvenile offenders who were prospectively followed over 7 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to assess profiles of early victimization during adolescence (14–17 years). Discrete time survival mixture analysis was used to assess time to treatment entry and substance use disorder diagnosis. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were used as predictors of survival time. Mixture models revealed three profiles of victimization: sustained poly-victimization, moderate/decreasing victimization, and low victimization. Youth in the sustained poly-victimization class were more likely to enter treatment earlier and have a substance use diagnosis earlier than other classes. PTSD was a significant predictor of treatment entry for youth in the sustained poly-victimization class, and MDD was a significant predictor of substance use disorder diagnosis for youth in the moderate/decreasing victimization class. Therefore, substance use prevention programming targeted at youth experiencing poly-victimization in early adolescence—especially those who have PTSD or MDD—is needed.
Eight ruminally-fistulated wethers were used to examine the temporal effects of afternoon (PM; 1600h) v. morning (AM; 0800 h) allocation of fresh spring herbage from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture on fermentation and microbial community dynamics. Herbage chemical composition was minimally affected by time of allocation, but daily mean ammonia concentrations were greater for the PM group. The 24-h pattern of ruminal fermentation (i.e. time of sampling relative to time of allocation), however, varied considerably for all fermentation variables (P⩽0.001). Most notably amongst ruminal fermentation characteristics, ammonia concentrations showed a substantial temporal variation; concentrations of ammonia were 1.7-, 2.0- and 2.2-fold greater in rumens of PM wethers at 4, 6 and 8h after allocation, respectively, compared with AM wethers. The relative abundances of archaeal and ciliate protozoal taxa were similar across allocation groups. In contrast, the relative abundances of members of the rumen bacterial community, like Prevotella 1 (P=0.04), Bacteroidales RF16 group (P=0.005) and Fibrobacter spp. (P=0.008) were greater for the AM group, whereas the relative abundance of Kandleria spp. was greater (P=0.04) for the PM group. Of these taxa, only Prevotella 1 (P=0.04) and Kandleria (P<0.001) showed a significant interaction between time of allocation and time of sampling relative to feed allocation. Relative abundances of Prevotella 1 were greater at 2h (P=0.05), 4h (P=0.003) and 6h (P=0.01) after AM allocation of new herbage, whereas relative abundances of Kandleria were greater at 2h (P=0.003) and 4h (P<0.001) after PM allocation. The early post-allocation rise in ammonia concentrations in PM rumens occurred simultaneously with sharp increases in the relative abundance of Kandleria spp. and with a decline in the relative abundance of Prevotella. All measures of fermentation and most microbial community composition data showed highly dynamic changes in concentrations and genus abundances, respectively, with substantial temporal changes occurring within the first 8h of allocating a new strip of herbage. The dynamic changes in the relative abundances of certain bacterial groups, in synchrony with a substantial diurnal variation in ammonia concentrations, has potential effects on the efficiency by which N is utilised by the grazing ruminant.
For rare blood groups the recruitment of donor relatives, for example siblings, is expected to be effective, since the probability of a similar rare blood group is likely. However, the likelihood differs between blood groups and is not commonly available. This paper provides a unified mathematical formulation to calculate such likelihoods. From a mathematical and probabilistic point of view, it is shown that these likelihoods can be obtained from the computation of a stationary genotype distribution. This, in turn, can be brought down to a system of quadratic stochastic operators. A generic mathematical approach is presented which directly leads to a stationary genotype distribution for arbitrary blood groups. The approach enables an exact computation for the effectiveness of recruiting next of kin for blood donorship. Next to an illustration of computations for ‘standard’ ABO and Rhesus-D blood groups, it is particularly illustrated for the extended Rhesus blood group system. Also other applications requiring next of kin blood group associations can be solved directly by using the unified mathematical formulation.
The Critical Care Medicine department, St. Jans hospital, Brugge, has a prehospital emergency medicine service (EMS) staffed by experienced intensive care specialists. We have been involved in clinical research for the improvement of cerebral outcome after circulatory arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) since 1977. In 1982, 250 patients in CA were resuscitated from an area of about 150,000 people. There were 70 short-term survivals, 30 longtime survivals. Although the success rate of CPR is highly influenced by important EMS related factors, including response time, a substantial proportion of hearts are restarted also after prolonged CA, but the patients die later in brain failure. There is evidence that the brain is not only damaged by the CA itself, but that lesions after restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) progress and are amenable to therapy. We can illustrate the progressivity of brain lesions by two phenomena: 1) Animal experiments in other centers (P. Safar, J. Michenfelder) and our research at Janssen Pharmaceutics, Beerse, Belgium. Cerebral venous blood was sampled from the sagittal sinus after a prolonged CA (10 min); cerebral venous PO2 of 40-60 mmHg before CA, rose to 80-100 mmHg immediately after ROSC and about 1-2 h after ROSC decreased to 20-30 mmHg — indicating progressive failure of oxygen transport. 2) Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enzyme activity was studied after CA in humans. We correlated final neurological outcome with the early appearance (at 2k h) of lytic enzymes in the CSF. In some patients who later recover neurologically only partially, CSF enzymes are still low at 2k h, as if the cells are still viable at this stage.
Maternal prenatal stress during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth restriction and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, which may be mediated by impaired placental function. Imprinted genes control fetal growth, placental development, adult behaviour (including maternal behaviour) and placental lactogen production. This study examined whether maternal prenatal depression was associated with aberrant placental expression of the imprinted genes paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3), paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10), pleckstrin homology-like domain family a member 2 (PHLDA2) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), and resulting impaired placental human placental lactogen (hPL) expression.
A diagnosis of depression during pregnancy was recorded from Manchester cohort participants’ medical notes (n = 75). Queen Charlotte's (n = 40) and My Baby and Me study (MBAM) (n = 81) cohort participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale self-rating psychometric questionnaire. Villous trophoblast tissue samples were analysed for gene expression.
In a pilot study, diagnosed depression during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in placental PEG3 expression (41%, p = 0.02). In two further independent cohorts, the Queen Charlotte's and MBAM cohorts, placental PEG3 expression was also inversely associated with maternal depression scores, an association that was significant in male but not female placentas. Finally, hPL expression was significantly decreased in women with clinically diagnosed depression (44%, p < 0.05) and in those with high depression scores (31% and 21%, respectively).
This study provides the first evidence that maternal prenatal depression is associated with changes in the placental expression of PEG3, co-incident with decreased expression of hPL. This aberrant placental gene expression could provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the co-occurrence of maternal depression, fetal growth restriction, impaired maternal behaviour and poorer offspring outcomes.
The Cosmic Background Explorer, launched November 18, 1989, has nearly completed its first full mapping of the sky with all three of its instruments: a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 0.1 to 10 mm, a set of Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) operating at 3.3, 5.7, and 9.6 mm, and a Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) spanning 1 to 300 µm in ten bands. A preliminary map of the sky derived from DIRBE data is presented. Initial cosmological implications include: a limit on the Comptonization y parameter of 10−3, on the chemical potential μ parameter of 10−2, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy has the spectrum expected from a Doppler shift of a blackbody. There are no significant anisotropies in the microwave sky detected, other than from our own galaxy and a cosθ dipole anisotropy whose amplitude and direction agree with previous data. At shorter wavelengths, the sky spectrum and anisotropies are dominated by emission from ‘local’ sources of emission within our Galaxy and Solar System. Preliminary comparison of IRAS and DIRBE sky brightnesses toward the ecliptic poles shows the IRAS values to be significantly higher than found by DIRBE at 100 μm. We suggest the presence of gain and zero-point errors in the IRAS total brightness data. The spacecraft, instrument designs, and data reduction methods are described.
Bone metabolism fluctuates throughout the reproductive cycle of sows to enable foetal growth and milk production. Although increased bone mineralisation is conceivable in sows during reproduction, a study of mineralisation in function of parity has not been performed. This study evaluated the fluctuations of markers for bone metabolism in primiparous and multiparous sows throughout a reproductive cycle. The experiment included ten multiparous and five primiparous commercial hybrid sows from one herd. The sows were monitored for one reproductive cycle and fed according to commercial dietary standards. Blood samples were taken in the morning before feeding at fixed time intervals before (day -5) and during gestation (insemination (day 0), 21, 42, 63, 84), around parturition (day 108, 112, parturition (115), 118), and during lactation (day 122, 129, 143). Serum osteocalcin (OC) concentration increased in early and mid-gestation (P=0.002) and decreased at the end of gestation (P=0.001), whereas crosslaps (CTX) concentration decreased during early and mid-gestation (P=0.002) and increased towards the end of gestation (P=0.001). Towards the end of lactation serum levels of both markers increased (P=0.007 and 0.013, respectively). For hydroxyproline (HYP) no significant fluctuation in function of the reproductive cycle was detected. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) concentration increased towards parturition for both primiparous and multiparous sows (P=0.001), whereas during lactation no significant fluctuations in function of the reproductive cycle were found. A parity effect was found for OC and CTX (P<0.010), but not for the other markers. These results demonstrate that bone metabolism differed between primiparous and multiparous sows, although in both groups a similar fluctuation throughout the reproductive cycle was observed.
Fluctuations in Zn metabolism throughout gestation and lactation might affect Zn requirements. However, scientific data on Zn requirements for breeding sows are limited. The objective of the present study was to assess the Zn status of primiparous and multiparous sows using different Zn status biomarkers, to identify periods of critical Zn status throughout the reproductive cycle at different parities. Blood samples were taken after overnight fasting before feeding in the morning from five primiparous and ten multiparous sows at fixed time intervals during gestation (days − 5, 0 (insemination), 21, 42, 63 and 84), around parturition (days 108, 112, 115 (parturition) and 118) and during lactation (days 122, 129 and 143 (weaning)). At parturition, blood samples were collected from two randomly selected piglets per sow before colostrum intake. Plasma was analysed for Zn and Cu contents, whereas serum was analysed for alkaline phosphatase, metallothionein and albumin concentrations. Independently of parity, all biomarkers fluctuated differently during gestation and lactation (P< 0·050). This reflects their different roles in Zn metabolism, and suggests that the choice of a Zn status biomarker necessitates careful consideration. Low average plasma Zn concentration at the end of gestation and throughout lactation seem to be replenished towards weaning.
Sows housed in groups have to move through their pen to fulfil their behavioural and physiological needs such as feeding and resting. In addition to causing pain and discomfort, lameness may restrict the ability of sows to fulfil such needs. The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which the mobility of sows is affected by different degrees of lameness. Mobility was measured as the sow’s willingness or capability to cover distances. Feed-restricted hybrid sows with different gait scores were subjected to a feed reward collection test in which they had to walk distances to obtain subsequent rewards. In all, 29 group-housed sows at similar gestation stage (day 96.6±7 s.d.) were visually recorded for gait and classified as non-lame, mildly lame, moderately lame or severely lame. All sows received 2.6 kg of standard commercial gestation feed per day. The test arena consisted of two feeding locations separated from each other by a Y-shaped middle barrier. Feed rewards were presented at the two feeders in turn, using both light and sound cues to signal the availability of a new feed reward. Sows were individually trained during 5 non-consecutive days for 10 min/day with increasing barrier length (range: 0 to 3.5 m) each day. After training, sows were individually tested once per day on 3 non-consecutive days with the maximum barrier length such that they had to cover 9.3 m to walk from one feeder to the other. The outcome variable was the number of rewards collected in a 15-min time span. Non-lame and mildly lame sows obtained more rewards than moderately lame and severely lame sows (P<0.01). However, no significant difference was found between non-lame and mildly lame sows (P=0.69), nor between moderately lame and severely lame sows (P=1.00). This feed reward collection test indicates that both moderately lame and severely lame sows are limited in their combined ability and willingness to walk, but did not reveal an effect of mild lameness on mobility. These findings suggest that moderately and more severely lame sows, but not mildly lame sows, might suffer from reduced access to valuable resources in group housing systems.
Although being the main bottlenecks for commercial poultry development in Togo,
feeding and management practices retain little attention. Indeed, there is no
proficient feed miller unit which can provide high quality feed according to the
needs of the farmers. This is due to a lack of information on nutrition and
relevant management tools or people trained as poultry farm managers. With the
aim to alleviate poverty and hunger in Togo, an inter-university project
[Catholic University of Leuven (KUL) and University of Lome (UL)] as a model for
poultry development was being run from June 2006 to May 2012. Specific
objectives of the project are 1) to provide insights and disseminate guidelines
and information on adapted methods to improve poultry production and 2) to focus
on development of new technologies in poultry production and implementation of
research on better poultry nutrition, feeding and management practices.
In strict carnivorous domestic cats, a metabolic competition arises between the need to use amino acids for gluconeogenesis and for protein synthesis both in health and disease. The present study investigated the amino acid-sparing potential of propionic acid in cats using dietary propionylated starch (HAMSP) supplementation. A total of thirty cats were fed a homemade diet, supplemented with either HAMSP, acetylated starch (HAMSA) or celite (Control) for three adaptation weeks. Propionylated starch was hypothesised to provide propionic acid as an alternative gluconeogenic substrate to amino acids, whereas acetic acid from HAMSA would not provide any gluconeogenic benefit. Post-adaptation, a 5-d total faecal collection was carried out to calculate apparent protein digestibility coefficients. Fresh faecal and blood samples were collected to analyse fermentation endproducts and metabolites. The apparent protein digestibility coefficients did not differ between supplements (P = 0·372) and were not affected by the protein intake level (P = 0·808). Faecal propionic acid concentrations were higher in HAMSP than in HAMSA (P = 0·018) and Control (P = 0·003) groups, whereas concentrations of ammonia (P = 0·007) were higher in HAMSA than in HAMSP cats. Tendencies for or higher propionylcarnitine concentrations were observed in HAMSP compared with HAMSA (P = 0·090) and Control (P = 0·037) groups, and for tiglyl- + 3-methylcrotonylcarnitine concentrations in HAMSP as compared with Control (P = 0·028) cats. Methylmalonylcarnitine concentrations did not differ between groups (P = 0·740), but were negatively correlated with the protein intake level (r –0·459, P = 0·016). These results suggest that HAMSP cats showed more saccharolytic fermentation patterns than those supplemented with HAMSA, as well as signs of sparing of valine in cats with a sufficient protein intake.
Most gait-scoring scales for pigs have a limited number of categories, supposedly to improve repeatability. However, reducing the number of categories could lead to loss of information if the observers’ discriminative capacities are underused. With a recently estimated within-herd prevalence of sow lameness of 8.8% to 16.9% in the European Union and the associated losses, the availability of reliable tools for the timely detection of initial cases warrants attention. This study investigated the intra- and inter-observer repeatability (intra-OR and inter-OR) of three gait-scoring scales for sows: a continuous ‘tagged’ visual analogue scale (tVAS, measured in mm), a 5-point and a 2-point ordinal scale (5P and 2P), all with the same descriptors. Veterinary medicine students (n=108) were trained to use the scales and then asked to score 90 videos (30 per scale) of sows with normal and abnormal gait. Thirty-six videos were shown once and 18 were randomly shown three times, of which one mirrored horizontally. The students’ opinions on the scales were also collected. Intra- and inter-OR were higher with the tVAS than the 2P scale (inter-OR: 0.73 v. 0.60; P<0.05. Intra-OR: 0.80 v. 0.67; P<0.05). Intra-OR was higher with the 5P (0.81) than the 2P scale (0.67; P<0.05). For all three scales, repeatabilities were lower (P<0.05) for non-lame sows (gait score of ⩽45 mm on the tVAS) than for sows showing some signs of lameness (gait score>45 mm). Video order (first 45 v. last 45 clips), mirroring, users’ opinions on the scales, and previous declared experience in handling pigs or scoring lameness in other species had no effect on repeatabilities. Correlations between the students’ and experts’ scores were high (tVAS=0.92; 5P=0.91; 2P=0.88) but the association for the 2P was not linear and the frequency distribution showed lower correlations for a group of students. This study confirms recent evidence that it is possible to design high-resolution gait-scoring scales that do not reduce observer repeatability. Visual gait-scoring scales with fewer than five categories are likely to entail loss of information on lameness in individual sows.
Vaccination against rumen methanogens offers a practical approach to reduce methane emissions in livestock, particularly ruminants grazing on pasture. Although successful vaccination strategies have been reported for reducing the activity of the rumen-dwelling organism Streptococcus bovis in sheep and S. bovis and Lactobacillus spp. in cattle, earlier approaches using vaccines based on whole methanogen cells to reduce methane production in sheep have produced less promising results. An anti-methanogen vaccine will need to have broad specificity against methanogens commonly found in the rumen and induce antibody in saliva resulting in delivery of sufficiently high levels of antibodies to the rumen to reduce methanogen activity. Our approach has focussed on identifying surface and membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across a range of rumen methanogens. The identification of potential vaccine antigens has been assisted by recent advances in the knowledge of rumen methanogen genomes. Methanogen surface proteins have been shown to be immunogenic in ruminants and vaccination of sheep with these proteins induced specific antibody responses in saliva and rumen contents. Current studies are directed towards identifying key candidate antigens and investigating the level and types of salivary antibodies produced in sheep and cattle vaccinated with methanogen proteins, stability of antibodies in the rumen and their impact on rumen microbial populations. In addition, there is a need to identify adjuvants that stimulate high levels of salivary antibody and are suitable for formulating with protein antigens to produce a low-cost and effective vaccine.
According to human research, the location of fat accumulation seems to play an important role in the induction of obesity-related inflammatory complications. To evaluate whether an inflammatory response to obesity depends on adipose tissue location, adipokine gene expression, presence of immune cells and adipocyte cell size of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were compared between lean and obese cats. Additionally, the present study proposes the cat as a model for human obesity and highlights the importance of animal models for human research. A total of ten chronically obese and ten lean control cats were included in the present study. Body weight, body condition score and body composition were determined. T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, macrophage concentrations and adipocyte cell size were measured in adipose tissue at different locations. Serum leptin concentration and the mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, chemoligand-5, IL-8, TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured in blood and adipose tissues (abdominal and inguinal SAT, and omental, bladder and renal VAT). Feline obesity was characterised by increased adipocyte cell size and altered adipokine gene expression, in favour of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Consequently, concentration of T-lymphocytes was increased in the adipose tissue of obese cats. Alteration of adipose tissue was location dependent in both lean and obese cats. Moreover, the observed changes were more prominent in SAT compared with VAT.
The physical environment is presumed to have an effect on aggression and also on the use of seclusion on psychiatric wards. Multicentre studies that include a broad variety of design features found on psychiatric wards and that control for patient, staff and general ward characteristics are scarce.
To explore the effect of design features on the risk of being secluded, the number of seclusion incidents and the time in seclusion, for patients admitted to locked wards for intensive psychiatric care.
Data on the building quality and safety of psychiatric as well as forensic wards (n = 199) were combined with data on the frequency and type of coercive measures per admission (n = 23 868 admissions of n = 14 834 patients) on these wards, over a 12-month period. We used non-linear principal components analysis (CATPCA) to reduce the observed design features into a smaller number of uncorrelated principal components. Two-level multilevel (logistic) regression analyses were used to explore the relationship with seclusion. Admission was the first level in the analyses and ward was the second level.
Overall, 14 design features had a significant effect on the risk of being secluded during admission. The ‘presence of an outdoor space’, 'special safety measures' and a large ‘number of patients in the building’ increased the risk of being secluded. Design features such as more ‘total private space per patient’, a higher ‘level of comfort’ and greater ‘visibility on the ward’, decreased the risk of being secluded.
A number of design features had an effect on the use of seclusion and restraint. The study highlighted the need for a greater focus on the impact of the physical environment on patients, as, along with other interventions, this can reduce the need for seclusion and restraint.
One of the tasks of the European Commission (EC) under the Euratom Treaty is to collect, validate and provide information about the levels of radioactivity in the environment. In order to offer to the public a more balanced view on the annual dose that it may receive from environmental radioactivity, a few years ago we decided to explore the feasibility of preparing a European Atlas of Natural Radiation. By now 21 European countries have already provided indoor radon data, and efforts continue to extend this information to more countries. In addition, we started to investigate the feasibility of a “geogenic radon map”, which would show “what earth delivers” in terms of potential radon hazard. In this paper we present the current state of the art of preparing the Atlas and provide detailed statistics for the results already obtained. The current efforts are still focussed on radon, but also progress on other components, such as cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation, will be presented and discussed.
Young people with self-experienced cognitive thought and perception deficits (basic symptoms) may present with an early initial prodromal state (EIPS) of psychosis in which most of the disability and neurobiological deficits of schizophrenia have not yet occurred.
To investigate the effects of an integrated psychological intervention (IPI), combining individual cognitive–behavioural therapy, group skills training, cognitive remediation and multifamily psychoeducation, on the prevention of psychosis in the EIPS.
A randomised controlled, multicentre, parallel group trial of 12 months of IPI v. supportive counselling (trial registration number: NCT00204087). Primary outcome was progression to psychosis at 12- and 24-month follow-up.
A total of 128 help-seeking out-patients in an EIPS were randomised. Integrated psychological intervention was superior to supportive counselling in preventing progression to psychosis at 12-month follow-up (3.2% v. 16.9%; P = 0.008) and at 24-month follow-up (6.3% v. 20.0%; P = 0.019).
Integrated psychological intervention appears effective in delaying the onset of psychosis over a 24-month time period in people in an EIPS.
A study is presented on nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) growth on different substrates, including silicon with and without different metallic interlayers, on aluminum nitride (AlN), and on a Si/AlN-based cantilever. It is shown that non-diamond substrate treatment prior to NCD growth is important for achieving high nucleation densities. AFM measurements reveal that an additional Si surface pretreatment with hydrogen plasma increases the nucleation density by a factor of four. A similar effect was indirectly demonstrated with acidic pretreatment of AlN. In both cases it is believed that the surface roughening is the key factor for explaining this phenomenon.
Recently, the concept of creating a boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) based temperature regulator for bio-sensing applications was proven. In this work, the next step is taken, i.e. one device working simultaneously as thermistor and heater. In combination with a PID-control., it is possible to create a temperature control, with possible set points going from room temperature till 70°C, with an accuracy exceeding a maximum temperature variation of 0.2 °C. Parallel with steering the temperature by varying the current through the B-NCD film, its resistance is measured with a 4-point measurement from which the temperature can be derived using a calibration curve. This value is the feedback for the PID-control to steer the current used for the regulation.
Tensile strained Si on SiGe Strain Relaxed Buffers (SRB) is an interesting candidate to increase both electron and hole mobility which results in improved device performance. Most of this work was/is based on thick (several μm), step-graded SRBs with or without Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) planarisation. This approach bears several disadvantages such as issues with STI formation in the thick SiGe structure, and considerable self-heating effects due to the lower thermal conductivity of the SiGe material. Further, pMOS improvement requires SRBs with high Ge contents (> 30 %), which complicates device fabrication even more. To overcome these issues, we developed a new and cost efficient type of thin SRB (∼200 nm). The concept is based on the introduction of a thin carbon-containing layer during growth of a constant composition SiGe layer. The process relies on standard Chemical Vapor Deposition epitaxial technology without need for CMP. It is designed to allow both non-selective growth on blanket wafers and selective growth in the active area of structured wafers with Shallow Trench Isolation (STI). The selective epitaxial process for strained Si on thin SRBs proposed here, allows relatively simple and cost-effective fabrication of strained Si layers on existing STI structures without any process modification. Further, it offers a very flexible fabrication scheme to independently improve nMOS and pMOS devices. The SRB quality is comparable to the best reported in literature so far, with 70 % and 53 % mobility enhancements for long channel nMOSFETs on 22 % Ge SRBs grown on blanket and STI patterned wafers, respectively.