To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses worldwide and a leading cause of disability, especially in the setting of treatment resistance. In recent years, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising alternative strategy for treatment-resistant depression and its clinical efficacy has been investigated intensively across the world. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of rTMS are still not fully understood. This review aims to systematically synthesize the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms of treatment response to rTMS in patients with depression. Medline (1996–2014), Embase (1980–2014) and PsycINFO (1806–2014) were searched under set terms. Three authors reviewed each article and came to consensus on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All eligible studies were reviewed, duplicates were removed, and data were extracted individually. Of 1647 articles identified, 66 studies met both inclusion and exclusion criteria. rTMS affects various biological factors that can be measured by current biological techniques. Although a number of studies have explored the neurobiological mechanisms of rTMS, a large variety of rTMS protocols and parameters limits the ability to synthesize these findings into a coherent understanding. However, a convergence of findings suggest that rTMS exerts its therapeutic effects by altering levels of various neurochemicals, electrophysiology as well as blood flow and activity in the brain in a frequency-dependent manner. More research is needed to delineate the neurobiological mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of rTMS. The incorporation of biological assessments into future rTMS clinical trials will help in this regard.
Studies of the rotation curve of our Galaxy at galactocentric radii, R, greater than the solar distance, Ro, from the center require the use of conventional optical techniques since the distances to as well as the radial velocities of Population I objects are needed.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
Data-driven approaches to dietary patterns are under-utilized; latent class analyses (LCA) are particularly rare. The present study used an LCA to identify subgroups of people with similar dietary patterns, explore changes in dietary patterns over a 10-year period and relate these dynamics to sociodemographic factors and health outcomes.
The 1998 baseline and 2008 follow-up of the Cork and Kerry Diabetes and Heart Disease Study. Diets were assessed with a standard FFQ. LCA, under the assumption of conditional independence, was used to identify mutually exclusive subgroups with different dietary patterns, based on food group consumption.
Republic of Ireland.
Men and women aged 50–69 years at baseline (n 923) and at 10-year follow-up (n 320).
Three dietary classes emerged: Western, Healthy and Low-Energy. Significant differences in demographic, lifestyle and health outcomes were associated with class membership. Between baseline and follow-up most people remained ‘stable’ in their dietary class. Most of those who changed class moved to the Healthy class. Higher education was associated with transition to a healthy diet; lower education was associated with stability in an unhealthy pattern. Transition to a healthy diet was associated with higher CVD risk factors at baseline: respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, centrally obese and to have hypertension (non-significant).
LCA is useful for exploring dietary patterns transitions. Understanding the predictors of longitudinal stability/transitions in dietary patterns will help target public health initiatives by identifying subgroups most/least likely to change and most/least likely to sustain a change.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome with considerable heterogeneity in clinical profile. Identification of clinical subtypes can allow for more targeted clinical and research efforts. We sought to develop a brief method for clinical subtyping in clinical and research settings.
A multi-site database, including motor symptom assessments conducted in 487 patients from palliative care, adult and old age consultation-liaison psychiatry services was used to document motor activity disturbances as per the Delirium Motor Checklist (DMC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify the class structure underpinning DMC data and also items for a brief subtyping scale. The concordance of the abbreviated scale was then compared with the original Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS) in 375 patients having delirium as per the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria.
Latent class analysis identified four classes that corresponded closely with the four recognized motor subtypes of delirium. Further, LCA of items (n = 15) that loaded >60% to the model identified four features that reliably identified the classes/subtypes, and these were combined as a brief motor subtyping scale (DMSS-4). There was good concordance for subtype attribution between the original DMSS and the DMSS-4 (κ = 0.63).
The DMSS-4 allows for rapid assessment of clinical subtypes in delirium and has high concordance with the longer and well-validated DMSS. More consistent clinical subtyping in delirium can facilitate better delirium management and more focused research effort.
In June 2011, a cluster of suspected cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), which can follow Campylobacter jejuni infection, was identified in San Luis Río Colorado (SLRC), Sonora, Mexico and Yuma County, Arizona, USA. An outbreak investigation identified 26 patients (18 from Sonora, eight from Arizona) with onset of GBS 4 May–21 July 2011, exceeding the expected number of cases (n = 1–2). Twenty-one (81%) patients reported antecedent diarrhoea, and 61% of 18 patients tested were seropositive for C. jejuni IgM antibodies. In a case-control study matched on age group, sex, ethnicity, and neighbourhood of residence, all Arizona GBS patients travelled to SLRC during the exposure period vs. 45% of matched controls (matched odds ratio 8·1, 95% confidence interval 1·5–∞). Exposure information and an environmental assessment suggested that GBS cases resulted from a large outbreak of C. jejuni infection from inadequately disinfected tap water in SLRC. Binational collaboration was essential in investigating this cross-border GBS outbreak, the first in mainland North America since 1976.
The effective use of model-based formal methods in the development of complex embedded systems requires the integration of discrete-event models of controllers with continuous-time models of their environments. This paper proposes a new approach to the development of such combined models (co-models), in which an initial discrete-event model may include approximations of continuous-time behaviour that can subsequently be replaced by couplings to continuous-time models. An operational semantics of co-simulation allows the discrete and continuous models to run on their respective simulators and managed by a coordinating co-simulation engine. This permits the exploration of the composite co-model's behaviour in a range of operational scenarios. The approach has been realised using the Vienna Development Method (VDM) as the discrete-event formalism, and 20-sim as the continuous-time framework, and has been applied successfully to a case study based on the distributed controller for a personal transporter device.
High contrast imaging observations with the Hubble Space Telescope show that the nearby star Fomalhaut is surrounded by a dusty debris belt and a candidate planet, Fomalhaut b, located just inside the edge of the belt. Fomalhaut b has unexpected characteristics, such as a relatively blue spectrum, leading to the hypothesis that the detected object is a low-mass planet hosting a giant planetary dust ring or cloud seen in reflected light. Here we present new HST/STIS observations made in 2010 and 2012 that authenticate the existence of Fomalhaut b. Our MCMC analysis of four epochs of astrometry spread over eight years indicate that the orbit has a~170 AU and e~0.85. Fomalhaut b's orbit is apsidally aligned with the main belt, and periapse is located approximately ~30 AU south of the star. We also show the existence of a ~50 AU wide azimuthal dust depletion in the dust belt. These new findings provide a revised picture of Fomalhaut as a dynamically complex system, where the orbit of Fomalhaut b and the belt structure signify the presence of additional massive planets orbiting the star.
The present study used a systematic review approach to identify relevant randomised control trials (RCT) with vitamin D and then apply meta-regression to explore the most appropriate model of the vitamin D intake–serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) relationship to underpin setting reference intake values. Methods included an updated structured search on Ovid MEDLINE; rigorous inclusion/exclusion criteria; data extraction; and meta-regression (using different model constructs). In particular, priority was given to data from winter-based RCT performed at latitudes >49·5°N (n 12). A combined weighted linear model meta-regression analyses of natural log (Ln) total vitamin D intake (i.e. diet and supplemental vitamin D) v. achieved serum 25(OH)D in winter (that used by the North American Dietary Reference Intake Committee) produced a curvilinear relationship (mean (95 % lower CI) serum 25(OH)D (nmol/l) = 9·2 (8·5) Ln (total vitamin D)). Use of non-transformed total vitamin D intake data (maximum 1400 IU/d; 35 μg/d) provided for a more linear relationship (mean serum 25(OH)D (nmol/l) = 0·044 × (total vitamin D)+33·035). Although inputting an intake of 600 IU/d (i.e. the RDA) into the 95 % lower CI curvilinear and linear models predicted a serum 25(OH)D of 54·4 and 55·2 nmol/l, respectively, the total vitamin D intake that would achieve 50 (and 40) nmol/l serum 25(OH)D was 359 (111) and 480 (260) IU/d, respectively. Inclusion of 95 % range in the model to account for inter-individual variability increased the predicted intake of vitamin D needed to maintain serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l to 930 IU/d. The model used to describe the vitamin D intake–status relationship needs to be considered carefully when setting new reference intake values in the Europe.
The interfacial reaction between 10 nm Ni(Pt ∼0, 5, 10 at.%) and (100) Si0.75Ge0.25 substrate after rapid thermal annealing between 400 and 800°C has been studied in detail using Micro- Raman spectroscopy. Only monogermanosilicide phase was detected in the temperature range investigated. The evolution of a broad Ni(Pt)SiGe Raman peak into two distinct peaks with increasing annealing temperature is attributed to a Ge out-diffusion from the germanosilicide grains. In addition, Raman spectroscopy further proves that depletion of Ge concentration in the Ni(Pt)SiGe grains reduces at higher temperature by the addition of Pt. The above phenomena were further supported by X-ray diffraction method.
The defect structure of lattice-mismatched one micron In0.12 Ga0.88As epilayers on (001) GaAs was studied with scanning cathodoluminescence (CL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CL examination of the GaAs buffer layer revealed the formation of a segmented network of defects below the interface. Cross-sectional TEM analysis shows that these defects are dislocation half-loops extending from the interface, and the vast majority of these loops lie on the GaAs side of the interface. The dislocations in the GaAs buffer layer were determined to be edge dislocations. Thus, CL images show that edge dislocations in this system are centers for non-radiative recombination. We propose that two 60° dislocations with opposite screw and interface tilt components can glide into the buffer layer to form edge dislocations. Potential energy plots for 60° dislocations near the interface and interacting with interface dislocations supports this model.
A series of PtSi on p-type Si diodes have been characterized in order to establish correlations among processing parameters, metallurgical features and electrical properties. Characterization techniques include analytical (TED, TEM), electrical (current-voltage characteristics), and optical (photoemission and absorption). The fabrication techniques involve e-beam evaporation of platinum layers at UHV levels onto VLSI grade (100) p-type silicon substrates. The silicide layers are formed via sub-eutectic solid state diffusion at 350°C. The main trends with thickness as well as possible interrelationships are described. An unexpected result is the presence of unreacted polycrystalline Pt and Pt2Si at the interface.