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This article develops and tests a new theoretical framework, gendered political socialization, which offers important insights into how children perceive gender in politics and the consequences of these perceptions on sex differences in political interest and ambition. Based on data from 1,604 children who live in four different regions across the United States, we find that children not only perceive politics to be a male-dominated space, but with age, girls increasingly see political leadership as a “man’s world.” Simultaneously, as children grow older, they internalize gendered expectations, which direct their interests toward professions that embody the gendered traits that fit with their own sex. One result of this mismatch between women and politics is that girls express lower levels of interest and ambition in politics than do boys.
The Pi Sigma Alpha Undergraduate Journal of Politics (PSAJ), sponsored by the Pi Sigma Alpha National Honor Society, was founded in 2001 at Purdue University. After 20 years, much has changed in undergraduate research and publishing, but the benefits of producing a peer-reviewed journal remain the same. Undergraduate research has increased in prominence, and the journal has modernized to meet these transformations. This article describes the history, purpose, and operations of the PSAJ. Most important, a survey of former Editorial Board members, Pi Sigma Alpha Faculty Chapter Advisors, and published authors in the journal reveal attitudes toward operating an undergraduate journal, using undergraduate research in the college classroom, and publishing in a peer-reviewed journal, respectively. We conclude with calls to continue to encourage undergraduate research and to assign published undergraduate research in upper-level courses.
When women gained the national right to vote 100 years ago, remarkable possibilities for their voice and presence in politics opened. However, despite gains in women’s representation, numerous gaps continue to exist in which adult women engage less in politics than men. In identifying and explaining adult gender gaps, little attention has been given to whether gaps emerge among children. This is a pressing issue because children’s perceptions are likely to influence their participation as adults. This article explores whether and how girls and boys differently view politics and their role in it. We report survey data from more than 1,600 children ages 6 to 12 to explore basic gender gaps in political interest and ambition. We argue that these results may reveal the roots of a larger problem: 100 years after women gained suffrage, girls still express less interest and enthusiasm than boys for political life and political office.
To compare the treatment of patients with early psychosis, 2 years after the introduction of an integrated model of enhanced management within a public adult mental health service, with an historic cohort from the same service.
Variables examined in the 2001 cohort were compared with 2008 patients. Computer database review and a file audit were conducted for all patients with early psychosis across the first 2 years of the program.
Compared to the historic cohort, patients in the current cohort were 24% less likely to have been admitted (P = 0.004). There were statistically significant reductions in involuntary status and use of a locked unit. Rates of police involvement in admission and use of seclusion were also reduced, though this trend was not significant. Average length of stay was reduced. Median duration of untreated psychosis was 3 months in both 2001 and 2008 cohorts.
The introduction of an integrated model of management within an area mental health service for patients with early psychosis contributed to significant reductions in admissions, involuntary status and use of a locked ward. The data suggests that enhanced treatment of early psychosis patients can be offered within generic services.
While early gendered messages mold children's expectations about the world, we know relatively little about the depictions of women in politics and exposure to gender stereotypes in elementary social studies curricula. In this article, we examine the coverage of political leaders in the children's magazine TIME for Kids, a source commonly found in elementary school classrooms. Coding all political content from this source over six years, we evaluate the presence of women political leaders and rate whether the leaders are described as possessing gender-stereotypic traits. Our results show that although TIME for Kids covers women leaders in greater proportion than their overall representation in politics, the content of the coverage contains gendered messages that portray politics as a stereotypically masculine field. We show that gendered traits are applied differently to men and to women in politics: feminine and communal traits are more likely to be applied to women leaders, while men and women are equally described as having masculine and agentic traits. Portrayals of women political leaders in stereotype-congruent ways is problematic because early messages influence children's views of gender roles.
In fall 1993, early in President Bill Clinton's tenure, he proposed a major overhaul of the nation's health care system. Debate over this proposal received sustained attention from media organizations throughout 1994 until congressional leaders announced that the reforms did not have enough support to pass. Fast-forward 15 years and a similarly high level of attention was placed on President Barack Obama's attempt to reform the health care system. Again, a rancorous political debate broke out, and intense media attention and scrutiny followed.
These two health care policy debates occurred in considerably different media environments. To keep on top of political developments in 1993, most Americans relied on ABC, CBS, or NBC evening news broadcasts, daily newspapers, or both. Some consulted cable television channels, radio, and newsmagazines for political news, although these media audiences were considerably smaller than for network television and newspapers. An important development in radio had been the resurgence of political radio, or talk radio. Rush Limbaugh, a conservative who had frequently criticized Clinton's health care reform proposals, hosted one of the most popular talk radio shows in the nation.