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First, I would like to thank the members of the Scholarship Committee of IALL for giving me the opportunity to attend the IALL annual meeting celebrated in Domenico di Fiesole, Italy, last September. Our library has a limited budget for travel. We participate in the annual conferences of the American Association of Law Libraries, which uses almost our entire travel budget. In recent years, the opportunities for participating in good conferences are greater but our budget continues to be the same. That is why I think that the grants given by IALL to new attendants are a great way to encourage librarians to participate in professional development opportunities and should be promoted continually.
This work combines very detailed measurements from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), ground-based interferometry radar (GB-SAR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to diagnose current conditions and to analyse the recent evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this is currently one of the best monitored small glacier (<0.5 km2) worldwide. The evolution of the glacier surface was surveyed with a TLS evidencing an important decline of 6.1 ± 0.3 m on average, with ice losses mainly concentrated over 3 years (2012, 2015 and 2017). Ice loss is unevenly distributed throughout the study period, with 10–15 m thinning in some areas while unchanged areas in others. GB-SAR revealed that areas with higher ice losses are those that are currently with no or very low ice motion. In contrast, sectors located beneath the areas with less ice loss are those that still exhibit noticeable ice movement (average 2–4.5 cm d─1 in summer, and annual movement of 9.98 ma─1 from ablation stakes data). GPR informed that ice thickness was generally <30 m, though locally 30–50 m. Glacier thinning is still accelerating and will lead to extinction of the glacier over the next 50 years.
We present a set of new volume scaling relationships specific to Svalbard glaciers, derived from a sample of 60 volume–area pairs. Glacier volumes are computed from ground-penetrating radar (GPR)-retrieved ice thickness measurements, which have been compiled from different sources for this study. The most precise scaling models, in terms of lowest cross-validation errors, are obtained using a multivariate approach where, in addition to glacier area, glacier length and elevation range are also used as predictors. Using this multivariate scaling approach, together with the Randolph Glacier Inventory V3.2 for Svalbard and Jan Mayen, we obtain a regional volume estimate of 6700 ± 835 km3, or 17 ± 2 mm of sea-level equivalent (SLE). This result lies in the mid- to low range of recently published estimates, which show values as varied as 13 and 24 mm SLE. We assess the sensitivity of the scaling exponents to glacier characteristics such as size, aspect ratio and average slope, and find that the volume of steep-slope and cirque-type glaciers is not very sensitive to changes in glacier area.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are co-morbid and associated with similar neural disruptions during emotion regulation. In contrast, the lack of optimism examined here may be specific to GAD and could prove an important biomarker for that disorder.
Unmedicated individuals with GAD (n = 18) and age-, intelligence quotient- and gender-matched SAD (n = 18) and healthy (n = 18) comparison individuals were scanned while contemplating likelihoods of high- and low-impact negative (e.g. heart attack; heartburn) or positive (e.g. winning lottery; hug) events occurring to themselves in the future.
As expected, healthy subjects showed significant optimistic bias (OB); they considered themselves significantly less likely to experience future negative but significantly more likely to experience future positive events relative to others (p < 0.001). This was also seen in SAD, albeit at trend level for positive events (p < 0.001 and p < 0.10, respectively). However, GAD patients showed no OB for positive events (t17 = 0.82, n.s.) and showed significantly reduced neural modulation relative to the two other groups of regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and caudate to these events (p < 0.001 for all). The GAD group further differed from the other groups by showing increased neural responses to low-impact events in regions including the rostral mPFC (p < 0.05 for both).
The neural dysfunction identified here may represent a unique feature associated with reduced optimism and increased worry about everyday events in GAD. Consistent with this possibility, patients with SAD did not show such dysfunction. Future studies should consider if this dysfunction represents a biomarker for GAD.
We compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of an active case-finding (ACF) programme for household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases enrolled in first-line treatment to routine passive case-finding (PCF) within an established national TB programme in Peru. Decision analysis was used to model detection of TB in household contacts through: (1) self-report of symptomatic cases for evaluation (PCF), (2) a provider-initiated ACF programme, (3) addition of an Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test for a single sputum sample from household contacts, and (4) all strategies combined. CE was calculated as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of US dollars per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Compared to PCF alone, ACF for household contacts resulted in an ICER of $2155 per DALY averted. The addition of the Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test resulted in an ICER of $3275 per DALY averted within a PCF programme and $3399 per DALY averted when an ACF programme was included. Provider-initiated ACF of household contacts in an urban setting of Lima, Peru can be highly cost-effective, even including costs to seek out contacts and perform an Xpert/MTB RIF test. ACF including Xpert MTB/RIF was not cost-effective if TB cases detected had high rates of default from treatment or poor outcomes.
Social anxiety disorder involves fear of social objects or situations. Social referencing may play an important role in the acquisition of this fear and could be a key determinant in future biomarkers and treatment pathways. However, the neural underpinnings mediating such learning in social anxiety are unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined social reference learning in social anxiety disorder. Specifically, would patients with the disorder show increased amygdala activity during social reference learning, and further, following social reference learning, show particularly increased response to objects associated with other people's negative reactions?
A total of 32 unmedicated patients with social anxiety disorder and 22 age-, intelligence quotient- and gender-matched healthy individuals responded to objects that had become associated with others’ fearful, angry, happy or neutral reactions.
During the social reference learning phase, a significant group × social context interaction revealed that, relative to the comparison group, the social anxiety group showed a significantly greater response in the amygdala, as well as rostral, dorsomedial and lateral frontal and parietal cortices during the social, relative to non-social, referencing trials. In addition, during the object test phase, relative to the comparison group, the social anxiety group showed increased bilateral amygdala activation to objects associated with others’ fearful reactions, and a trend towards decreased amygdala activation to objects associated with others’ happy and neutral reactions.
These results suggest perturbed observational learning in social anxiety disorder. In addition, they further implicate the amygdala and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in the disorder, and underscore their importance in future biomarker developments.
Protected areas are regarded as the main strategy to halt biodiversity loss; however, protected area effectiveness evaluations remain scarce and mostly rely on limited scientific evidence. Protected area managers from two case studies in the Mediterranean basin biodiversity hotspot (networks of Spanish terrestrial protected areas and individual Mediterranean marine protected areas) were surveyed to assess the use of two protected area evaluation systems: the ‘System for the Integrated Assessment of Protected Areas’ (SIAPA) and the ‘System for Quick Evaluation of Management in Mediterranean MPAs’ using the ‘Knowledge Systems for Sustainable Development’ framework. A second survey in Spain ascertained the degree of implementation of protected area evaluation systems and the institutional interest in implementing such systems. The main weaknesses attributable to the systems presented were limited salience (for the SIAPA) and legitimacy in terms of costs (for the System for Quick Evaluation of Management in Mediterranean MPAs). However, the main reasons for the limited uptake of the evaluation systems presented were not attributable to the systems themselves, but to management or institutional limitations: the lack of basic data for and weak institutional interest in evaluation in Spain, and the scarce resources available for evaluation in the case of some Mediterranean marine protected areas.
The concept of ‘Ecosystem Services’ (ES) focuses on the linkages between ecosystems, including agroecosystems, and human well-being, referring to all the benefits, direct and indirect, that people obtain from ecosystems. In this paper, we review the application of the ES framework to pasture-based livestock farming systems, which allows (1) regulating, supporting and cultural ES to be integrated at the same level with provisioning ES, and (2) the multiple trade-offs and synergies that exist among ES to be considered. Research on livestock farming has focused mostly on provisioning ES (meat, milk and fibre production), despite the fact that provisioning ES strongly depends on regulating and supporting ES for their existence. We first present an inventory of the non-provisioning ES (regulating, supporting and cultural) provided by pasture-based livestock systems in Europe. Next, we review the trade-offs between provisioning and non-provisioning ES at multiple scales and present an overview of the methodologies for assessing biophysical trade-offs. Third, we present non-biophysical (economical and socio-cultural) methodologies and applications for ES valuation. We conclude with some recommendations for policy design.
We present a stochastic dynamical model for the transmission of dengue that considers the co-evolution of the spatial dynamics of the vectors (Aedes aegypti) and hosts (human population), allowing the simulation of control strategies adapted to the actual evolution of an epidemic outbreak. We observed that imposing restrictions on the movement of infected humans is not a highly effective strategy. In contrast, isolating infected individuals with high levels of compliance by the human population is efficient even when implemented with delays during an ongoing outbreak. We also studied insecticide-spraying strategies assuming different (hypothetical) efficiencies. We observed that highly efficient fumigation strategies seem to be effective during an outbreak. Nevertheless, taking into account the controversial results on the use of spraying as a single control strategy, we suggest that carrying out combined strategies of fumigation and isolation during an epidemic outbreak should account for a suitable strategy for the attenuation of epidemic outbreaks.
A special technique is described for in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) experiments involving simultaneous ion irradiation, in which the resultant phenomena are observed as in a cross-section TEM specimen. That is, instead of ion-irradiating the film or foil specimen normal to the major surfaces and observing in plan view (i.e., in the same direction), the specimen is irradiated edge-on (i.e., parallel to the major surfaces) and is observed normal to the depth direction with respect to the irradiation. The results of amorphization of Si, irradiated in this orientation by 1 or 1.5 MeV Kr, are presented and briefly compared with the usual plan view observations. The limitations of the technique are discussed and several experiments which might profitably employ this technique are suggested.
Data are presented here that show the effects of temperature on the kinetics of metastable defect formation in undoped a-Si:H over the range 45°-110°C. CPM (Constant Photocurrent Method), photoconductivity, and dark conductivity measurements were made and provide independent checks of the defect generation behavior. A stretched exponential description of defect formation as a function of time was used to fit the CPM defect density data. The stretched exponential time constant, τSE, is thermally activated with an apparent activation energy of 1 eV, a value that agrees well with data for defect anneal and solar cell degradation. The data indicate that thermal terms are not negligible for temperatures as low as 45°C, and therefore should be included in any model of the kinetics of defect formation. The role of adistribution of anneal energies and the regimes of dominance of thermal and optical rate terms are discussed in the context of the model.
Generation, saturation, and annealing characteristics of metastable defects formed by electron beam irradiation at 20 keV and photon irradiation at 1.9 eV have been compared. Saturation density reached by electron irradiation is temperature independent over the range 225 K to 300 K, although a small activation energy of the generation rate may be present. This differs from observed temperature dependent light-induced saturation from 330 K to 470 K, although differences are expected because of the separate temperature ranges and dissimilar carrier excitation rates. The electron beam-induced saturated defect density is about 5 times larger than for light-induced saturation at 350 K and high light intensity (generation rate ≈ 1022cm-3s-1). Defects formed by electron irradiation anneal at 300 K with a stretched exponential time constant three orders of magnitude smaller than for light-induced defects. After electron irradiation, dark conductivity relaxes faster than photoconductivity. Once the dark Fermi level becomes constant during defect density relaxation, photoconductivity is inversely proportional to the defect density.
Electrospinning and dc sputtering techniques were combined for the formation of a variety of nano-to-microscale structures of palladium metal. Polyethylene fibers created by electrospinning were used as templates for the dc sputtering of palladium on top of them. Heating the fibers to 320 °C in air eliminated the central polymer core (fugitive phase) resulting in the formation of open and closed core fibers, depending on the amount of Pd previously deposited. The formation of the structures is best explained as a consequence of sputtering being a line-of-sigh technique. Palladium is preferentially sputtered on top of the fiber part facing the target, resulting in a non-uniform deposition. Furthermore, it is proposed that the deposition of palladium on top of the fibers results in the nucleation of palladium crystals growing outward of the surface and producing interesting nanoscale features observed resembling thorns and scales.
In order to enable low cost roll-to-roll or sheet-processing of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices, completely new deposition methods for both polymer and smallmolecule layers are being developed in place of the classic semiconductor manufacturing methods. In evaluating the utility of such methods, it is advantageous to have a robust and fast method to measure the thickness uniformity of the deposited organic layers. Non-uniformities at all spatial length scales from sub-mm to several cm can occur and so need to be understood as a function of the relevant parameters for each deposition method. Here we demonstrate a simple and fast method to quantify non-uniformities in thin films over arbitrarily large length scales. Our method utilizes the color of light reflected from the coated substrate and its variation with polymer layer thickness. This concept of color change is well known, and is due to constructive interference of light of particular wavelengths related to polymer layer thickness and optical constants. In our modification, a digital camera is used to capture images of the coated substrates, and hue is extracted from the image data files. We show that hue can be linearly correlated with polymer thickness. We demonstrate this for polymer based OLEDs using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and a light-emitting polymer (LEP) deposited on transparent substrate. The correlations were successfully used for 40-140nm PEDOT:PSS layers and 20-110nm LEP layers over length scales greater than 1 inch. The method sensitivity is estimated to be better than 5 nm. We show examples of non-uniformity analysis and how it relates to OLED performance.
The effects of deep-sea bottom longlining on fish communities and the benthic ecosystem, as well as the interactions between fishing and seabirds, were studied based on data collected from a joint collaboration between the Spanish Institute of Oceanography and a longliner, carried out on the Hatton Bank area (north-east Atlantic) in 2008. A total of 38 longline sets were distributed mainly along the rugged bottom of the rocky outcrop at depths ranging from 750 to 1500 m. Deep-water sharks and lotids were predominant in the catches contributing respectively 80.4% and 13.1% in terms of weight. Deep-water sharks were predominant in the discards. By-catch of cold-water corals and small glass sponges occurred along the western flank of the Hatton Bank, while large hexactinellids were found along the eastern flank. Longlines fished the adult fraction of vulnerable deep-water sharks and lotids. High catches per unit effort values for these species were obtained in coral areas. A combination of seabird-scaring streamer lines and other measures of preventing seabird by-catch were used. Only one fulmar was captured and it survived. Data on distribution of marine litter and derelict deep-sea gillnets are also presented.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are increasingly recognized to cause clinically significant infections, with S. epidermidis often cited as the third most common cause of nosocomial sepsis. Among CNS, there is a high prevalence of methicillin resistance associated with staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) elements. Although identical SCCmec types can exist in S. aureus and CNS, some novel classes of SCCmec may be unique to CNS. Differences in the accuracy of identification of CNS species and use of non-standardized methods for the detection of methicillin resistance have led to confusing data in the literature. In addition to the review of SCCmec in CNS, in this paper we report a 2-year surveillance of methicillin-resistant CNS in a tertiary-care hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico.
The earthworm species belonging to the Lumbricidae family (Annelida, Oligochaeta) posses a complex oesophageal organ known as “calciferous gland” which secretes a concentrated suspension of calcium carbonate. Previous studies have demonstrated the non-crystalline structure of this calcareous fluid representing an interesting example of biomineralisation.
The correlates of insight in early-onset psychosis have received little previous attention.
We studied clinical correlates of insight in a sample of 110 adolescent recent-onset psychosis patients (mean age 15.53 years; psychotic symptoms present for <6 months). Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) at baseline, 6 months and 12 months follow-up.
Insight improved over the early phases of the illness, in parallel with psychopathological improvement. Poor insight at baseline and 6 months correlated with poor functioning at 6 and 12 months respectively. Schizophrenia patients had poorer insight than patients with bipolar disorder at 6 and 12 months but not at baseline. Logistic and linear regressions were used to predict 12-month diagnoses and functioning based on insight measurements. Baseline awareness of illness was a significant predictor for diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.97]. Treatment compliance at 6 months did not correlate with baseline SUMD subscores, but correlated with insight into having a disorder (Spearman's ρ=0.21, p=0.039), its consequences (Spearman's ρ=0.28, p=0.006) and the need for treatment (Spearman's ρ=0.26, p=0.012) at 6 months. The ‘attribution of symptoms’ dimension of insight is poorly correlated with other insight dimensions and with other clinical variables.
Poor insight correlates with symptom severity and global functioning but also has some trait value for schizophrenia, which is apparent once acute psychotic symptomatology is not prominent. A multi-dimensional approach to the assessment of insight is necessary, as different dimensions are influenced by different factors.